Java源码分析之String

仰慕了已久的String类

成员变量

//内部就是char数组保存,注意是final哦
private final char value[];
private int hash; // Default to 0

构造函数

public String() {
    this.value = "".value;
}

public String(String original) {
    this.value = original.value;
    this.hash = original.hash;
}

//不需要计算hashcode?
public String(char value[]) {
    this.value = Arrays.copyOf(value, value.length);
}
public String(char value[], int offset, int count) {
    if (offset < 0) {
        throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(offset);
    }
    if (count <= 0) {
        if (count < 0) {
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(count);
        }
        if (offset <= value.length) {
            this.value = "".value;
            return;
        }
    }
    // Note: offset or count might be near -1>>>1.
    if (offset > value.length - count) {
        throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(offset + count);
    }
    this.value = Arrays.copyOfRange(value, offset, offset+count);
}
//hibyte是什么意思,不太懂,byte转char,必须得& 0xff,否则会出问题
public String(byte ascii[], int hibyte, int offset, int count) {
    checkBounds(ascii, offset, count);
    char value[] = new char[count];

    if (hibyte == 0) {
        for (int i = count; i-- > 0;) {
            value[i] = (char)(ascii[i + offset] & 0xff);
        }
    } else {
        hibyte <<= 8;
        for (int i = count; i-- > 0;) {
            value[i] = (char)(hibyte | (ascii[i + offset] & 0xff));
        }
    }
    this.value = value;
}
public String(byte bytes[], int offset, int length, String charsetName)
        throws UnsupportedEncodingException {
    if (charsetName == null)
        throw new NullPointerException("charsetName");
    checkBounds(bytes, offset, length);
    this.value = StringCoding.decode(charsetName, bytes, offset, length);
}

public String(byte bytes[], int offset, int length) {
    checkBounds(bytes, offset, length);
    this.value = StringCoding.decode(bytes, offset, length);
}
//注意是synchronized
public String(StringBuffer buffer) {
    synchronized(buffer) {
        this.value = Arrays.copyOf(buffer.getValue(), buffer.length());
    }
}

public String(StringBuilder builder) {
    this.value = Arrays.copyOf(builder.getValue(), builder.length());
}

基本方法

length && isEmpty

public int length() {
    return value.length;
}

public boolean isEmpty() {
    return value.length == 0;
}

charAt

public char charAt(int index) {
    if ((index < 0) || (index >= value.length)) {
        throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(index);
    }
    return value[index];
}

getChars

void getChars(char dst[], int dstBegin) {
    System.arraycopy(value, 0, dst, dstBegin, value.length);
}

//将srcBegin-srcEnd拷贝至dst
public void getChars(int srcBegin, int srcEnd, char dst[], int dstBegin) {
    if (srcBegin < 0) {
        throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(srcBegin);
    }
    if (srcEnd > value.length) {
        throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(srcEnd);
    }
    if (srcBegin > srcEnd) {
        throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(srcEnd - srcBegin);
    }
    System.arraycopy(value, srcBegin, dst, dstBegin, srcEnd - srcBegin);
}

equals

//如果先比hashcode是不更好一点儿?如果相等,再一位一位比较
public boolean equals(Object anObject) {
    if (this == anObject) {
        return true;
    }
    if (anObject instanceof String) {
        String anotherString = (String)anObject;
        int n = value.length;
        if (n == anotherString.value.length) {
            char v1[] = value;
            char v2[] = anotherString.value;
            int i = 0;
            while (n-- != 0) {
                if (v1[i] != v2[i])
                    return false;
                i++;
            }
            return true;
        }
    }
    return false;
}
public boolean equalsIgnoreCase(String anotherString) {
    return (this == anotherString) ? true
            : (anotherString != null)
            && (anotherString.value.length == value.length)
            && regionMatches(true, 0, anotherString, 0, value.length);
}
public boolean contentEquals(CharSequence cs) {
    // Argument is a StringBuffer, StringBuilder
    if (cs instanceof AbstractStringBuilder) {
        if (cs instanceof StringBuffer) {
            synchronized(cs) {
               return nonSyncContentEquals((AbstractStringBuilder)cs);
            }
        } else {
            return nonSyncContentEquals((AbstractStringBuilder)cs);
        }
    }
    // Argument is a String
    if (cs instanceof String) {
        return equals(cs);
    }
    // Argument is a generic CharSequence
    char v1[] = value;
    int n = v1.length;
    if (n != cs.length()) {
        return false;
    }
    for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
        if (v1[i] != cs.charAt(i)) {
            return false;
        }
    }
    return true;
}

compareTo

//按字典序比较
public int compareTo(String anotherString) {
    int len1 = value.length;
    int len2 = anotherString.value.length;
    int lim = Math.min(len1, len2);
    char v1[] = value;
    char v2[] = anotherString.value;

    int k = 0;
    while (k < lim) {
        char c1 = v1[k];
        char c2 = v2[k];
        if (c1 != c2) {
            return c1 - c2;
        }
        k++;
    }
    return len1 - len2;
}

startsWith

//找value从toffest开始,与prefix是否相等
public boolean startsWith(String prefix, int toffset) {
    char ta[] = value;
    int to = toffset;
    char pa[] = prefix.value;
    int po = 0;
    int pc = prefix.value.length;
    // Note: toffset might be near -1>>>1.
    if ((toffset < 0) || (toffset > value.length - pc)) {
        return false;
    }
    while (--pc >= 0) {
        if (ta[to++] != pa[po++]) {
            return false;
        }
    }
    return true;
}

public boolean startsWith(String prefix) {
    return startsWith(prefix, 0);
}

public boolean endsWith(String suffix) {
    return startsWith(suffix, value.length - suffix.value.length);
}

hashCode

//string的hashcode的算法,依旧用的31,这里初始是0,hashmap里初始是1
public int hashCode() {
    int h = hash;
    if (h == 0 && value.length > 0) {
        char val[] = value;

        for (int i = 0; i < value.length; i++) {
            h = 31 * h + val[i];
        }
        hash = h;
    }
    return h;
}

indexOf

public int indexOf(int ch, int fromIndex) {
    final int max = value.length;
    if (fromIndex < 0) {
        fromIndex = 0;
    } else if (fromIndex >= max) {
        // Note: fromIndex might be near -1>>>1.
        return -1;
    }

    if (ch < Character.MIN_SUPPLEMENTARY_CODE_POINT) {
        // handle most cases here (ch is a BMP code point or a
        // negative value (invalid code point))
        final char[] value = this.value;
        for (int i = fromIndex; i < max; i++) {
            if (value[i] == ch) {
                return i;
            }
        }
        return -1;
    } else {
        return indexOfSupplementary(ch, fromIndex);
    }
}
//为何参数这么多
static int indexOf(char[] source, int sourceOffset, int sourceCount,
        char[] target, int targetOffset, int targetCount,
        int fromIndex) {
    if (fromIndex >= sourceCount) {
        return (targetCount == 0 ? sourceCount : -1);
    }
    if (fromIndex < 0) {
        fromIndex = 0;
    }
    if (targetCount == 0) {
        return fromIndex;
    }

    char first = target[targetOffset];
    int max = sourceOffset + (sourceCount - targetCount);

    //暴力找,居然不是kmp什么的
    for (int i = sourceOffset + fromIndex; i <= max; i++) {
        /* Look for first character. */
        if (source[i] != first) {
            while (++i <= max && source[i] != first);
        }

        /* Found first character, now look at the rest of v2 */
        if (i <= max) {
            int j = i + 1;
            int end = j + targetCount - 1;
            for (int k = targetOffset + 1; j < end && source[j]
                    == target[k]; j++, k++);

            if (j == end) {
                /* Found whole string. */
                return i - sourceOffset;
            }
        }
    }
    return -1;
}

subString

// 当子串刚好是本串时,就返回this,这也是String的一大思想,不可变,对于一个确定的字符串,可以用同一个对象表示
public String substring(int beginIndex) {
    if (beginIndex < 0) {
        throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(beginIndex);
    }
    int subLen = value.length - beginIndex;
    if (subLen < 0) {
        throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(subLen);
    }
    return (beginIndex == 0) ? this : new String(value, beginIndex, subLen);
}
public String substring(int beginIndex, int endIndex) {
    if (beginIndex < 0) {
        throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(beginIndex);
    }
    if (endIndex > value.length) {
        throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(endIndex);
    }
    int subLen = endIndex - beginIndex;
    if (subLen < 0) {
        throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(subLen);
    }
    return ((beginIndex == 0) && (endIndex == value.length)) ? this
            : new String(value, beginIndex, subLen);
}

concat

//讲str添加到value的后面,这里也给出了一种字符串相加的方法
public String concat(String str) {
    int otherLen = str.length();
    if (otherLen == 0) {
        return this;
    }
    int len = value.length;
    char buf[] = Arrays.copyOf(value, len + otherLen);
    str.getChars(buf, len);
    return new String(buf, true);
}

replace

//将字符串中所有的oldChar替换为newChar
public String replace(char oldChar, char newChar) {
    //如果两个字符相等,直接返回本串
    if (oldChar != newChar) {
        int len = value.length;
        int i = -1;
        char[] val = value; /* avoid getfield opcode */

        while (++i < len) {
            if (val[i] == oldChar) {
                break;
            }
        }
        //如果本串中没有oldChar,直接返回本串
        if (i < len) {
            char buf[] = new char[len];
            for (int j = 0; j < i; j++) {
                buf[j] = val[j];
            }
            while (i < len) {
                char c = val[i];
                buf[i] = (c == oldChar) ? newChar : c;
                i++;
            }
            return new String(buf, true);
        }
    }
    return this;
}

toLowerCase

//locale,居然可以选语言!真厉害了!当然,默认是英语的
public String toLowerCase(Locale locale) {
    if (locale == null) {
        throw new NullPointerException();
    }

    int firstUpper;
    final int len = value.length;

    /* Now check if there are any characters that need to be changed. */
    scan: {
        for (firstUpper = 0 ; firstUpper < len; ) {
            char c = value[firstUpper];
            if ((c >= Character.MIN_HIGH_SURROGATE)
                    && (c <= Character.MAX_HIGH_SURROGATE)) {
                int supplChar = codePointAt(firstUpper);
                if (supplChar != Character.toLowerCase(supplChar)) {
                    break scan;
                }
                firstUpper += Character.charCount(supplChar);
            } else {
                if (c != Character.toLowerCase(c)) {
                    break scan;
                }
                firstUpper++;
            }
        }
        return this;
    }

    char[] result = new char[len];
    int resultOffset = 0;  /* result may grow, so i+resultOffset
                            * is the write location in result */

    /* Just copy the first few lowerCase characters. */
    System.arraycopy(value, 0, result, 0, firstUpper);

    String lang = locale.getLanguage();
    boolean localeDependent =
            (lang == "tr" || lang == "az" || lang == "lt");
    char[] lowerCharArray;
    int lowerChar;
    int srcChar;
    int srcCount;
    for (int i = firstUpper; i < len; i += srcCount) {
        srcChar = (int)value[i];
        if ((char)srcChar >= Character.MIN_HIGH_SURROGATE
                && (char)srcChar <= Character.MAX_HIGH_SURROGATE) {
            srcChar = codePointAt(i);
            srcCount = Character.charCount(srcChar);
        } else {
            srcCount = 1;
        }
        if (localeDependent ||
            srcChar == '\u03A3' || // GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SIGMA
            srcChar == '\u0130') { // LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH DOT ABOVE
            lowerChar = ConditionalSpecialCasing.toLowerCaseEx(this, i, locale);
        } else {
            lowerChar = Character.toLowerCase(srcChar);
        }
        if ((lowerChar == Character.ERROR)
                || (lowerChar >= Character.MIN_SUPPLEMENTARY_CODE_POINT)) {
            if (lowerChar == Character.ERROR) {
                lowerCharArray =
                        ConditionalSpecialCasing.toLowerCaseCharArray(this, i, locale);
            } else if (srcCount == 2) {
                resultOffset += Character.toChars(lowerChar, result, i + resultOffset) - srcCount;
                continue;
            } else {
                lowerCharArray = Character.toChars(lowerChar);
            }

            /* Grow result if needed */
            int mapLen = lowerCharArray.length;
            if (mapLen > srcCount) {
                char[] result2 = new char[result.length + mapLen - srcCount];
                System.arraycopy(result, 0, result2, 0, i + resultOffset);
                result = result2;
            }
            for (int x = 0; x < mapLen; ++x) {
                result[i + resultOffset + x] = lowerCharArray[x];
            }
            resultOffset += (mapLen - srcCount);
        } else {
            result[i + resultOffset] = (char)lowerChar;
        }
    }
    return new String(result, 0, len + resultOffset);
}

//默认英语
public String toLowerCase() {
    returntoLowerCase(Locale.getDefault());
}
//toUpperCase基本同理,就不贴了

trim

//判断条件是 <=' ',所以前面的tab,换行之类的,都可以去掉
public String trim() {
    int len = value.length;
    int st = 0;
    char[] val = value;    /* avoid getfield opcode */

    while ((st < len) && (val[st] <= ' ')) {
        st++;
    }
    while ((st < len) && (val[len - 1] <= ' ')) {
        len--;
    }
    return ((st > 0) || (len < value.length)) ? substring(st, len) : this;
}

toString

//String.toString,感觉蛮搞笑的
public String toString() {
    return this;
}

toCharArray

public char[] toCharArray() {
    // Cannotuse Arrays.copyOf because of class initialization order issues
    char result[] = new char[value.length];
    System.arraycopy(value, 0, result, 0, value.length);
    return result;
}

valueOf

//对于char,直接构造就好
public static String valueOf(char data[]) {
    return new String(data);
}
//咦,这俩不一样的吗
public static String copyValueOf(char data[]) {
    return new String(data);
}
public static String valueOf(char data[], int offset, int count) {
    return new String(data, offset, count);
}
//咦,这俩不一样的吗
public static String copyValueOf(char data[], int offset, int count) {
    return new String(data, offset, count);
}
//boolean
public static String valueOf(boolean b) {
    return b ? "true" : "false";
}
//int,调用的Integer.toString
public static String valueOf(int i) {
    return Integer.toString(i);
}
//对于long,float,double都是调用toString

matches

//匹配正则
public boolean matches(String regex) {
    return Pattern.matches(regex, this);
}

split

//有点儿复杂
public String[] split(String regex, int limit) {
    /* fastpath if the regex is a
     (1)one-char String and this character is not one of the
        RegEx's meta characters ".$|()[{^?*+\\", or
     (2)two-char String and the first char is the backslash and
        the second is not the ascii digit or ascii letter.
     */
    char ch = 0;
    if (((regex.value.length == 1 &&
         ".$|()[{^?*+\\".indexOf(ch = regex.charAt(0)) == -1) ||
         (regex.length() == 2 &&
          regex.charAt(0) == '\\' &&
          (((ch = regex.charAt(1))-'0')|('9'-ch)) < 0 &&
          ((ch-'a')|('z'-ch)) < 0 &&
          ((ch-'A')|('Z'-ch)) < 0)) &&
        (ch < Character.MIN_HIGH_SURROGATE ||
         ch > Character.MAX_LOW_SURROGATE))
    {
        int off = 0;
        int next = 0;
        boolean limited = limit > 0;
        ArrayList<String> list = new ArrayList<>();
        while ((next = indexOf(ch, off)) != -1) {
            if (!limited || list.size() < limit - 1) {
                list.add(substring(off, next));
                off = next + 1;
            } else {    // last one
                //assert (list.size() == limit - 1);
                list.add(substring(off, value.length));
                off = value.length;
                break;
            }
        }
        // If no match was found, return this
        if (off == 0)
            return new String[]{this};

        // Add remaining segment
        if (!limited || list.size() < limit)
            list.add(substring(off, value.length));

        // Construct result
        int resultSize = list.size();
        if (limit == 0) {
            while (resultSize > 0 && list.get(resultSize - 1).length() == 0) {
                resultSize--;
            }
        }
        String[] result = new String[resultSize];
        return list.subList(0, resultSize).toArray(result);
    }
    return Pattern.compile(regex).split(this, limit);
}

getBytes

public void getBytes(int srcBegin, int srcEnd, byte dst[], int dstBegin) {
    if (srcBegin < 0) {
        throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(srcBegin);
    }
    if (srcEnd > value.length) {
        throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(srcEnd);
    }
    if (srcBegin > srcEnd) {
        throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(srcEnd - srcBegin);
    }
    Objects.requireNonNull(dst);

    //为何要重新赋值?
    int j = dstBegin;
    int n = srcEnd;
    int i = srcBegin;
    char[] val = value;   /* avoid getfield opcode */

    while (i < n) {
        dst[j++] = (byte)val[i++];
    }
}

public byte[] getBytes(String charsetName)
        throws UnsupportedEncodingException {
    if (charsetName == null) throw new NullPointerException();
    return StringCoding.encode(charsetName, value, 0, value.length);
}

public byte[] getBytes(Charset charset) {
    if (charset == null) throw new NullPointerException();
    return StringCoding.encode(charset, value, 0, value.length);
}

public byte[] getBytes() {
    return StringCoding.encode(value, 0, value.length);
}
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