JDK1.8 创建线程池有哪几种方式?

JDK1.8 创建线程池有哪几种方式?

  • newFixedThreadPool

定长线程池,每当提交一个任务就创建一个线程,直到达到线程池的最大数量,这时线程数量不再变化,当线程发生错误结束时,线程池会补充一个新的线程

测试代码:

public class TestThreadPool {

	//定长线程池,每当提交一个任务就创建一个线程,直到达到线程池的最大数量,这时线程数量不再变化,当线程发生错误结束时,线程池会补充一个新的线程
	static ExecutorService fixedExecutor = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(3);
	
	
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		testFixedExecutor();
	}
	
	//测试定长线程池,线程池的容量为3,提交6个任务,根据打印结果可以看出先执行前3个任务,3个任务结束后再执行后面的任务
	private static void testFixedExecutor() {
		for (int i = 0; i < 6; i++) {
			final int index = i;
			fixedExecutor.execute(new Runnable() {
				public void run() {
					try {
						Thread.sleep(3000);
					} catch (InterruptedException e) {
						e.printStackTrace();
					}
					System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + " index:" + index);
				}
			});
		}
		
		try {
			Thread.sleep(4000);
		} catch (InterruptedException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		System.out.println("4秒后...");
		
		fixedExecutor.shutdown();
	}
	
}

打印结果:

pool-1-thread-1 index:0
pool-1-thread-2 index:1
pool-1-thread-3 index:2
4秒后...
pool-1-thread-3 index:5
pool-1-thread-1 index:3
pool-1-thread-2 index:4

 

 

  • newCachedThreadPool

可缓存的线程池,如果线程池的容量超过了任务数,自动回收空闲线程,任务增加时可以自动添加新线程,线程池的容量不限制

测试代码:  

public class TestThreadPool {

	//可缓存的线程池,如果线程池的容量超过了任务数,自动回收空闲线程,任务增加时可以自动添加新线程,线程池的容量不限制
	static ExecutorService cachedExecutor = Executors.newCachedThreadPool();
	
	
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		testCachedExecutor();
	}
	
	//测试可缓存线程池
	private static void testCachedExecutor() {
		for (int i = 0; i < 6; i++) {
			final int index = i;
			cachedExecutor.execute(new Runnable() {
				public void run() {
					try {
						Thread.sleep(3000);
					} catch (InterruptedException e) {
						e.printStackTrace();
					}
					System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + " index:" + index);
				}
			});
		}
		
		try {
			Thread.sleep(4000);
		} catch (InterruptedException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		System.out.println("4秒后...");
		
		cachedExecutor.shutdown();
	}
	
}

打印结果:

pool-1-thread-1 index:0
pool-1-thread-6 index:5
pool-1-thread-5 index:4
pool-1-thread-4 index:3
pool-1-thread-3 index:2
pool-1-thread-2 index:1
4秒后...

 

 

  • newScheduledThreadPool

定长线程池,可执行周期性的任务

测试代码:

public class TestThreadPool {

	//定长线程池,可执行周期性的任务
	static ScheduledExecutorService scheduledExecutor = Executors.newScheduledThreadPool(3);
	
	
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		testScheduledExecutor();
	}
	
	//测试定长、可周期执行的线程池
	private static void testScheduledExecutor() {
		for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
			final int index = i;
			//scheduleWithFixedDelay 固定的延迟时间执行任务; scheduleAtFixedRate 固定的频率执行任务
			scheduledExecutor.scheduleWithFixedDelay(new Runnable() {
				public void run() {
					System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + " index:" + index);
				}
			}, 0, 3, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
		}
		
		try {
			Thread.sleep(4000);
		} catch (InterruptedException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		System.out.println("4秒后...");
		
		scheduledExecutor.shutdown();
	}
	
}

打印结果:

pool-1-thread-1 index:0
pool-1-thread-2 index:1
pool-1-thread-3 index:2
pool-1-thread-1 index:0
pool-1-thread-3 index:1
pool-1-thread-1 index:2
4秒后...

 

 

  • newSingleThreadExecutor

单线程的线程池,线程异常结束,会创建一个新的线程,能确保任务按提交顺序执行

测试代码:

public class TestThreadPool {
	
	//单线程的线程池,线程异常结束,会创建一个新的线程,能确保任务按提交顺序执行
	static ExecutorService singleExecutor = Executors.newSingleThreadExecutor();
	
	
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		testSingleExecutor();
	}
	
	//测试单线程的线程池
	private static void testSingleExecutor() {
		for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
			final int index = i;
			singleExecutor.execute(new Runnable() {
				public void run() {
					try {
						Thread.sleep(3000);
					} catch (InterruptedException e) {
						e.printStackTrace();
					}
					System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + " index:" + index);
				}
			});
		}
		
		try {
			Thread.sleep(4000);
		} catch (InterruptedException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		System.out.println("4秒后...");
		
		singleExecutor.shutdown();
	}
	
}

打印结果:

pool-1-thread-1 index:0
4秒后...
pool-1-thread-1 index:1
pool-1-thread-1 index:2

 

 

  • newSingleThreadScheduledExecutor

单线程可执行周期性任务的线程池

测试代码:

public class TestThreadPool {
	
	//单线程可执行周期性任务的线程池
	static ScheduledExecutorService singleScheduledExecutor = Executors.newSingleThreadScheduledExecutor();
	
	
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		testSingleScheduledExecutor();
	}
	
	//测试单线程可周期执行的线程池
	private static void testSingleScheduledExecutor() {
		for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
			final int index = i;
			//scheduleWithFixedDelay 固定的延迟时间执行任务; scheduleAtFixedRate 固定的频率执行任务
			singleScheduledExecutor.scheduleAtFixedRate(new Runnable() {
				public void run() {
					System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + " index:" + index);
				}
			}, 0, 3, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
		}
		
		try {
			Thread.sleep(4000);
		} catch (InterruptedException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		System.out.println("4秒后...");
		
		singleScheduledExecutor.shutdown();
	}
	
}

打印结果:

pool-1-thread-1 index:0
pool-1-thread-1 index:1
pool-1-thread-1 index:2
pool-1-thread-1 index:0
pool-1-thread-1 index:1
pool-1-thread-1 index:2
4秒后...

 

 

  • newWorkStealingPool

任务窃取线程池,不保证执行顺序,适合任务耗时差异较大。

线程池中有多个线程队列,有的线程队列中有大量的比较耗时的任务堆积,而有的线程队列却是空的,就存在有的线程处于饥饿状态,当一个线程处于饥饿状态时,它就会去其它的线程队列中窃取任务。解决饥饿导致的效率问题。

默认创建的并行 level 是 CPU 的核数。主线程结束,即使线程池有任务也会立即停止。

测试代码:

public class TestThreadPool {

	//任务窃取线程池
	static ExecutorService workStealingExecutor = Executors.newWorkStealingPool();
	
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		testWorkStealingExecutor();
	}
	
	//测试任务窃取线程池
	private static void testWorkStealingExecutor() {
		for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {//本机 CPU 8核,这里创建10个任务进行测试
			final int index = i;
			workStealingExecutor.execute(new Runnable() {
				public void run() {
					try {
						Thread.sleep(3000);
					} catch (InterruptedException e) {
						e.printStackTrace();
					}
					System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + " index:" + index);
				}
			});
		}
		
		try {
			Thread.sleep(4000);//这里主线程不休眠,不会有打印输出
		} catch (InterruptedException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		System.out.println("4秒后...");
		
//		workStealingExecutor.shutdown();
	}
	
}

打印结果如下,index:8,index:9并未打印出:

ForkJoinPool-1-worker-1 index:0
ForkJoinPool-1-worker-7 index:6
ForkJoinPool-1-worker-5 index:4
ForkJoinPool-1-worker-3 index:2
ForkJoinPool-1-worker-4 index:3
ForkJoinPool-1-worker-2 index:1
ForkJoinPool-1-worker-0 index:7
ForkJoinPool-1-worker-6 index:5
4秒后...

 


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