在Ubuntu下后台持续运行Python程序

由于项目的需要,现在需要通过一种方式,让Python程序能够在会话退出后继续在后台运行,并将屏幕的输出重定向到文件中去。

本文的示例代码已经上传到http://download.csdn.net/detail/mrbcy/9789067

参考资料

http://blog.csdn.net/loonger_leon/article/details/5764552

http://www.cnblogs.com/hester/p/5575658.html

测试程序

先写一个测试程序,用于输出日志和打印到控制台。

#-*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import logging
import time
from logging.handlers import RotatingFileHandler


def func():
    init_log()
    while True:
        print "output to the console"
        logging.debug("output the debug log")
        logging.info("output the info log")
        time.sleep(3);


def init_log():
    logging.getLogger().setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
    console = logging.StreamHandler()
    console.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
    formatter = logging.Formatter('%(asctime)s %(filename)s[line:%(lineno)d] %(levelname)s %(message)s')
    console.setFormatter(formatter)
    logging.getLogger().addHandler(console)

    # add log ratate
    Rthandler = RotatingFileHandler("backend_run.log", maxBytes=10 * 1024 * 1024, backupCount=100,
                                    encoding="gbk")
    Rthandler.setLevel(logging.INFO)
    # formatter = logging.Formatter('%(asctime)s %(filename)s[line:%(lineno)d] %(levelname)s %(message)s')
    Rthandler.setFormatter(formatter)
    logging.getLogger().addHandler(Rthandler)



if __name__ == '__main__':
    func()

后台启动Python脚本

可以使用下面的命令来启动上面的脚本,让Python在后台运行。

nohup python -u main.py > test.out 2>&1 &

来解释一下这几个命令的参数。这一段来自http://blog.csdn.net/tswisdom/article/details/8548710

其中 0、1、2分别代表如下含义:
 0 – stdin (standard input)
 1 – stdout (standard output)
 2 – stderr (standard error)
nohup python -u main.py > test.out 2>&1 &
nohup+最后面的& 是让命令在后台执行
>out.log 是将信息输出到out.log日志中
2>&1 是将标准错误信息转变成标准输出,这样就可以将错误信息输出到out.log 日志里面来。

运行命令后,会返回一个pid。像下面这样:

[1] 9208

后续可以学习Hadoop它们,把pid存起来,到时候stop的时候就把它杀掉。

跟踪输出文件变化

为了验证脚本可以在后台继续运行,我们退出当前会话。然后重新连接一个Session,然后输入下面的命令来跟踪文件的输出:

tail -f test.out

输出内容如下:

output to the console
2017-03-21 20:15:02,632 main.py[line:11] DEBUG output the debug log
2017-03-21 20:15:02,632 main.py[line:12] INFO output the info log
output to the console
2017-03-21 20:15:05,635 main.py[line:11] DEBUG output the debug log
2017-03-21 20:15:05,636 main.py[line:12] INFO output the info log
output to the console
2017-03-21 20:15:08,637 main.py[line:11] DEBUG output the debug log
2017-03-21 20:15:08,638 main.py[line:12] INFO output the info log
output to the console
2017-03-21 20:15:11,640 main.py[line:11] DEBUG output the debug log
2017-03-21 20:15:11,642 main.py[line:12] INFO output the info log
output to the console
2017-03-21 20:15:14,647 main.py[line:11] DEBUG output the debug log
2017-03-21 20:15:14,647 main.py[line:12] INFO output the info log
output to the console
2017-03-21 20:15:17,653 main.py[line:11] DEBUG output the debug log
2017-03-21 20:15:17,654 main.py[line:12] INFO output the info log
output to the console
2017-03-21 20:15:20,655 main.py[line:11] DEBUG output the debug log
2017-03-21 20:15:20,656 main.py[line:12] INFO output the info log
output to the console
2017-03-21 20:15:23,661 main.py[line:11] DEBUG output the debug log
2017-03-21 20:15:23,661 main.py[line:12] INFO output the info log
output to the console
2017-03-21 20:15:26,665 main.py[line:11] DEBUG output the debug log
2017-03-21 20:15:26,666 main.py[line:12] INFO output the info log
output to the console
2017-03-21 20:15:29,670 main.py[line:11] DEBUG output the debug log
2017-03-21 20:15:29,671 main.py[line:12] INFO output the info log

说明我们的脚本确实在后台持续运行。

结束程序

可以直接通过之前的那个pid杀掉脚本,或者可以通过下面的命令查找pid。

ps -ef | grep python

输出的内容如下:

root      1659     1  0 17:40 ?        00:00:00 /usr/bin/python /usr/lib/python2.6/site-packages/ambari_agent/AmbariAgent.py start
root      1921  1659  0 17:40 ?        00:00:48 /usr/bin/python /usr/lib/python2.6/site-packages/ambari_agent/main.py start
user      8866  8187  0 20:03 ?        00:00:06 /usr/bin/python3 /usr/bin/update-manager --no-update --no-focus-on-map
root      9208  8132  0 20:12 pts/16   00:00:00 python -u main.py
root      9358  8132  0 20:17 pts/16   00:00:00 grep --color=auto python

可以看到我们的pid是9208,调用kill杀掉就可以了。

kill -9 9208

编写启动及停止脚本

启动脚本

#!/bin/sh

pid=`ps -ef|grep "python -u main.py"| grep -v "grep"|awk '{print $2}'`

if [ "$pid" != "" ]
then
        echo "main.py already run, stop it first"
        kill -9 ${pid}
fi

echo "starting now..."

nohup python -u main.py > test.out 2>&1 &

pid=`ps -ef|grep "python -u main.py"| grep -v "grep"|awk '{print $2}'`

echo ${pid} > pid.out
echo "main.py started at pid: "${pid}

停止脚本

#!/bin/sh

pid=`ps -ef|grep "python -u main.py"| grep -v "grep"|awk '{print $2}'`

if [ "$pid" != "" ]
then
        kill -9 ${pid}
        echo "stop main.py complete"
else
        echo "main.py is not run, there's no need to stop it"
fi

稍后我会把实例代码上传到资料共享里面。

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