零基础入门NLP_Task6 基于深度学习的文本分类3_Bert

Task6 基于深度学习的文本分类3


Author: 2tong
与传统机器学习不同,深度学习既提供特征提取功能,也可以完成分类的功能。

Bert

BERT是一个基于Transformer的多层Encoder,通过执行一系列预训练,进而得到深层的上下文表示。

相关知识
Transformer原理

Transformer模型的编码部分是一组编码器的堆叠(论文中依次堆叠六个编码器),模型的解码部分是由相同数量的解码器的堆叠。
####### 相关论文

  1. Attention is All You Need
  2. layer-normalization
    ####### 编码部分理解
    几个编码器的结构完全相同,但是并不共享参数,每一个编码器都可以拆解成两部分。
    在对输入序列做词的向量化之后,它们首先流过一个self-attention层,该层帮助编码器在它编码单词的时候能够看到输入序列中的其他单词。self-attention的输出流向一个前向网络(Feed Forward Neural Network),每个输入位置对应的前向网络是独立互不干扰的。最后将输出传入下一个编码器。
基于预训练语言模型的词表示

基于预训练语言模型的词表示由于可以建模上下文信息,进而解决传统静态词向量不能建模“一词多义”语言现象的问题。
最早提出的ELMo基于两个单向LSTM,将从左到右和从右到左两个方向的隐藏层向量表示拼接学习上下文词嵌入。
而GPT用Transformer代替LSTM作为编码器,首先进行了语言模型预训练,然后在下游任务微调模型参数。
但GPT由于仅使用了单向语言模型,因此难以建模上下文信息。为了解决以上问题,研究者们提出了BERT。

基于Bert的文本分类
1.Bert Pretrain

预训练消耗的资源较大,硬件条件不允许的情况下推荐直接下载开源的模型
Tips:当所给数据都是ID的时候,需要重新建立词表,例如本次数据源

2.Bert Finetune

Finetune是将最后一层的第一个token即[CLS]的隐藏向量作为句子的表示,然后输入到softmax层进行分类。
####### 代码学习

# build trainer

import time
from sklearn.metrics import classification_report

clip = 5.0
epochs = 1
early_stops = 3
log_interval = 50

test_batch_size = 16
train_batch_size = 16

save_model = './bert.bin'
save_test = './bert.csv'

class Trainer():
    def __init__(self, model, vocab):
        self.model = model
        self.report = True
        
        self.train_data = get_examples(train_data, model.word_encoder, vocab)
        self.batch_num = int(np.ceil(len(self.train_data) / float(train_batch_size)))
        self.dev_data = get_examples(dev_data, model.word_encoder, vocab)
        self.test_data = get_examples(test_data, model.word_encoder, vocab)

        # criterion
        self.criterion = nn.CrossEntropyLoss()

        # label name
        self.target_names = vocab.target_names

        # optimizer
        self.optimizer = Optimizer(model.all_parameters, steps=self.batch_num * epochs)

        # count
        self.step = 0
        self.early_stop = -1
        self.best_train_f1, self.best_dev_f1 = 0, 0
        self.last_epoch = epochs

    def train(self):
        logging.info('Start training...')
        for epoch in range(1, epochs + 1):
            train_f1 = self._train(epoch)

            dev_f1 = self._eval(epoch)

            if self.best_dev_f1 <= dev_f1:
                logging.info(
                    "Exceed history dev = %.2f, current dev = %.2f" % (self.best_dev_f1, dev_f1))
                torch.save(self.model.state_dict(), save_model)

                self.best_train_f1 = train_f1
                self.best_dev_f1 = dev_f1
                self.early_stop = 0
            else:
                self.early_stop += 1
                if self.early_stop == early_stops:
                    logging.info(
                        "Eearly stop in epoch %d, best train: %.2f, dev: %.2f" % (
                            epoch - early_stops, self.best_train_f1, self.best_dev_f1))
                    self.last_epoch = epoch
                    break
    def test(self):
        self.model.load_state_dict(torch.load(save_model))
        self._eval(self.last_epoch + 1, test=True)

    def _train(self, epoch):
        self.optimizer.zero_grad()
        self.model.train()

        start_time = time.time()
        epoch_start_time = time.time()
        overall_losses = 0
        losses = 0
        batch_idx = 1
        y_pred = []
        y_true = []
        for batch_data in data_iter(self.train_data, train_batch_size, shuffle=True):
            torch.cuda.empty_cache()
            batch_inputs, batch_labels = self.batch2tensor(batch_data)
            batch_outputs = self.model(batch_inputs)
            loss = self.criterion(batch_outputs, batch_labels)
            loss.backward()

            loss_value = loss.detach().cpu().item()
            losses += loss_value
            overall_losses += loss_value

            y_pred.extend(torch.max(batch_outputs, dim=1)[1].cpu().numpy().tolist())
            y_true.extend(batch_labels.cpu().numpy().tolist())

            nn.utils.clip_grad_norm_(self.optimizer.all_params, max_norm=clip)
            for optimizer, scheduler in zip(self.optimizer.optims, self.optimizer.schedulers):
                optimizer.step()
                scheduler.step()
            self.optimizer.zero_grad()

            self.step += 1

            if batch_idx % log_interval == 0:
                elapsed = time.time() - start_time

                lrs = self.optimizer.get_lr()
                logging.info(
                    '| epoch {:3d} | step {:3d} | batch {:3d}/{:3d} | lr{} | loss {:.4f} | s/batch {:.2f}'.format(
                        epoch, self.step, batch_idx, self.batch_num, lrs,
                        losses / log_interval,
                        elapsed / log_interval))

                losses = 0
                start_time = time.time()

            batch_idx += 1

        overall_losses /= self.batch_num
        during_time = time.time() - epoch_start_time

        # reformat
        overall_losses = reformat(overall_losses, 4)
        score, f1 = get_score(y_true, y_pred)

        logging.info(
            '| epoch {:3d} | score {} | f1 {} | loss {:.4f} | time {:.2f}'.format(epoch, score, f1,
                                                                                  overall_losses,
                                                                                  during_time))
        if set(y_true) == set(y_pred) and self.report:
            report = classification_report(y_true, y_pred, digits=4, target_names=self.target_names)
            logging.info('\n' + report)

        return f1

    def _eval(self, epoch, test=False):
        self.model.eval()
        start_time = time.time()
        data = self.test_data if test else self.dev_data
        y_pred = []
        y_true = []
        with torch.no_grad():
            for batch_data in data_iter(data, test_batch_size, shuffle=False):
                torch.cuda.empty_cache()
                batch_inputs, batch_labels = self.batch2tensor(batch_data)
                batch_outputs = self.model(batch_inputs)
                y_pred.extend(torch.max(batch_outputs, dim=1)[1].cpu().numpy().tolist())
                y_true.extend(batch_labels.cpu().numpy().tolist())

            score, f1 = get_score(y_true, y_pred)

            during_time = time.time() - start_time
            
            if test:
                df = pd.DataFrame({'label': y_pred})
                df.to_csv(save_test, index=False, sep=',')
            else:
                logging.info(
                    '| epoch {:3d} | dev | score {} | f1 {} | time {:.2f}'.format(epoch, score, f1,
                                                                              during_time))
                if set(y_true) == set(y_pred) and self.report:
                    report = classification_report(y_true, y_pred, digits=4, target_names=self.target_names)
                    logging.info('\n' + report)

        return f1

    def batch2tensor(self, batch_data):
        '''
            [[label, doc_len, [[sent_len, [sent_id0, ...], [sent_id1, ...]], ...]]
        '''
        batch_size = len(batch_data)
        doc_labels = []
        doc_lens = []
        doc_max_sent_len = []
        for doc_data in batch_data:
            doc_labels.append(doc_data[0])
            doc_lens.append(doc_data[1])
            sent_lens = [sent_data[0] for sent_data in doc_data[2]]
            max_sent_len = max(sent_lens)
            doc_max_sent_len.append(max_sent_len)

        max_doc_len = max(doc_lens)
        max_sent_len = max(doc_max_sent_len)

        batch_inputs1 = torch.zeros((batch_size, max_doc_len, max_sent_len), dtype=torch.int64)
        batch_inputs2 = torch.zeros((batch_size, max_doc_len, max_sent_len), dtype=torch.int64)
        batch_masks = torch.zeros((batch_size, max_doc_len, max_sent_len), dtype=torch.float32)
        batch_labels = torch.LongTensor(doc_labels)

        for b in range(batch_size):
            for sent_idx in range(doc_lens[b]):
                sent_data = batch_data[b][2][sent_idx]
                for word_idx in range(sent_data[0]):
                    batch_inputs1[b, sent_idx, word_idx] = sent_data[1][word_idx]
                    batch_inputs2[b, sent_idx, word_idx] = sent_data[2][word_idx]
                    batch_masks[b, sent_idx, word_idx] = 1

        if use_cuda:
            batch_inputs1 = batch_inputs1.to(device)
            batch_inputs2 = batch_inputs2.to(device)
            batch_masks = batch_masks.to(device)
            batch_labels = batch_labels.to(device)

        return (batch_inputs1, batch_inputs2, batch_masks), batch_labels
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