Snowflake id生成器

最下面代码是mybatisplus根据 李景枫 的开源稍改写的id生成器,核心算法就: Snowflake算法

这里写图片描述

Snowflake算法核心

把时间戳,工作机器id,序列号组合在一起。

Snowflake算法核心

除了最高位bit标记为不可用以外,其余三组bit占位均可浮动,看具体的业务需求而定。默认情况下41bit的时间戳可以支持该算法使用到2082年,10bit的工作机器id可以支持1023台机器,序列号支持1毫秒产生4095个自增序列id。下文会具体分析。

Snowflake – 时间戳

这里时间戳的细度是毫秒级,具体代码如下,建议使用64位linux系统机器,因为有vdso,gettimeofday()在用户态就可以完成操作,减少了进入内核态的损耗。

Snowflake – 工作机器id

严格意义上来说这个bit段的使用可以是进程级,机器级的话你可以使用MAC地址来唯一标示工作机器,工作进程级可以使用IP+Path来区分工作进程。如果工作机器比较少,可以使用配置文件来设置这个id是一个不错的选择,如果机器过多配置文件的维护是一个灾难性的事情。

Snowflake – 序列号

序列号就是一系列的自增id(多线程建议使用atomic),为了处理在同一毫秒内需要给多条消息分配id,若同一毫秒把序列号用完了,则“等待至下一毫秒”。

datacenterId是获取的机器网卡然后计算

id = ((0x000000FF & (long) mac[mac.length - 1]) | (0x0000FF00 & (((long) mac[mac.length - 2]) << 8))) >> 6;
                    id = id % (maxDatacenterId + 1);

getMaxWorkerId

StringBuilder mpid = new StringBuilder();
        mpid.append(datacenterId);
        String name = ManagementFactory.getRuntimeMXBean().getName();
        if (StringUtils.isNotEmpty(name)) {
            /*
             * GET jvmPid
             */
            mpid.append(name.split("@")[0]);
        }
        /*
         * MAC + PID 的 hashcode 获取16个低位
         */
        return (mpid.toString().hashCode() & 0xffff) % (maxWorkerId + 1);

具体算法代码

/**

 * Copy
 * right (c) 2011-2020, hubin (jobob@qq.com).
 * <p>
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not
 * use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of
 * the License at
 * <p>
 * http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 * <p>
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
 * WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
 * License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under
 * the License.
 */
package com.baomidou.mybatisplus.toolkit;

import java.lang.management.ManagementFactory;
import java.net.InetAddress;
import java.net.NetworkInterface;
import java.util.concurrent.ThreadLocalRandom;

import org.apache.ibatis.logging.Log;
import org.apache.ibatis.logging.LogFactory;


/**
 * <p>
 * 分布式高效有序ID生产黑科技(sequence) <br>
 * 优化开源项目:http://git.oschina.net/yu120/sequence
 * </p>
 *
 * @author hubin
 * @date 2016-08-18
 */
public class Sequence {

    private static final Log logger = LogFactory.getLog(Sequence.class);

    /* 时间起始标记点,作为基准,一般取系统的最近时间(一旦确定不能变动) */
    private final long twepoch = 1288834974657L;
    private final long workerIdBits = 5L;/* 机器标识位数 */
    private final long datacenterIdBits = 5L;
    private final long maxWorkerId = -1L ^ (-1L << workerIdBits);
    private final long maxDatacenterId = -1L ^ (-1L << datacenterIdBits);
    private final long sequenceBits = 12L;/* 毫秒内自增位 */
    private final long workerIdShift = sequenceBits;
    private final long datacenterIdShift = sequenceBits + workerIdBits;
    /* 时间戳左移动位 */
    private final long timestampLeftShift = sequenceBits + workerIdBits + datacenterIdBits;
    private final long sequenceMask = -1L ^ (-1L << sequenceBits);

    private long workerId;

    /* 数据标识id部分 */
    private long datacenterId;
    private long sequence = 0L;/* 0,并发控制 */
    private long lastTimestamp = -1L;/* 上次生产id时间戳 */

    public Sequence() {
        this.datacenterId = getDatacenterId(maxDatacenterId);
        this.workerId = getMaxWorkerId(datacenterId, maxWorkerId);
    }

    /**
     * @param workerId     工作机器ID
     * @param datacenterId 序列号
     */
    public Sequence(long workerId, long datacenterId) {
        if (workerId > maxWorkerId || workerId < 0) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException(String.format("worker Id can't be greater than %d or less than 0", maxWorkerId));
        }
        if (datacenterId > maxDatacenterId || datacenterId < 0) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                    String.format("datacenter Id can't be greater than %d or less than 0", maxDatacenterId));
        }
        this.workerId = workerId;
        this.datacenterId = datacenterId;
    }

    /**
     * <p>
     * 获取 maxWorkerId
     * </p>
     */
    protected static long getMaxWorkerId(long datacenterId, long maxWorkerId) {
        StringBuilder mpid = new StringBuilder();
        mpid.append(datacenterId);
        String name = ManagementFactory.getRuntimeMXBean().getName();
        if (StringUtils.isNotEmpty(name)) {
            /*
             * GET jvmPid
             */
            mpid.append(name.split("@")[0]);
        }
        /*
         * MAC + PID 的 hashcode 获取16个低位
         */
        return (mpid.toString().hashCode() & 0xffff) % (maxWorkerId + 1);
    }

    /**
     * <p>
     * 数据标识id部分
     * </p>
     */
    protected static long getDatacenterId(long maxDatacenterId) {
        long id = 0L;
        try {
            InetAddress ip = InetAddress.getLocalHost();
            NetworkInterface network = NetworkInterface.getByInetAddress(ip);
            if (network == null) {
                id = 1L;
            } else {
                byte[] mac = network.getHardwareAddress();
                if (null != mac) {
                    id = ((0x000000FF & (long) mac[mac.length - 1]) | (0x0000FF00 & (((long) mac[mac.length - 2]) << 8))) >> 6;
                    id = id % (maxDatacenterId + 1);
                }
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            logger.warn(" getDatacenterId: " + e.getMessage());
        }
        return id;
    }

    /**
     * 获取下一个ID
     *
     * @return
     */
    public synchronized long nextId() {
        long timestamp = timeGen();
        if (timestamp < lastTimestamp) {//闰秒
            long offset = lastTimestamp - timestamp;
            if (offset <= 5) {
                try {
                    wait(offset << 1);
                    timestamp = timeGen();
                    if (timestamp < lastTimestamp) {
                        throw new RuntimeException(String.format("Clock moved backwards.  Refusing to generate id for %d milliseconds", offset));
                    }
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    throw new RuntimeException(e);
                }
            } else {
                throw new RuntimeException(String.format("Clock moved backwards.  Refusing to generate id for %d milliseconds", offset));
            }
        }

        if (lastTimestamp == timestamp) {
            // 相同毫秒内,序列号自增
            sequence = (sequence + 1) & sequenceMask;
            if (sequence == 0) {
                // 同一毫秒的序列数已经达到最大
                timestamp = tilNextMillis(lastTimestamp);
            }
        } else {
            // 不同毫秒内,序列号置为 1 - 3 随机数
            sequence = ThreadLocalRandom.current().nextLong(1, 3);
        }

        lastTimestamp = timestamp;

        return ((timestamp - twepoch) << timestampLeftShift)    // 时间戳部分
                | (datacenterId << datacenterIdShift)           // 数据中心部分
                | (workerId << workerIdShift)                   // 机器标识部分
                | sequence;                                     // 序列号部分
    }

    protected long tilNextMillis(long lastTimestamp) {
        long timestamp = timeGen();
        while (timestamp <= lastTimestamp) {
            timestamp = timeGen();
        }
        return timestamp;
    }

    protected long timeGen() {
        return SystemClock.now();
    }

}
/**
 * Copyright (c) 2011-2020, hubin (jobob@qq.com).
 * <p>
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not
 * use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of
 * the License at
 * <p>
 * http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 * <p>
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
 * WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
 * License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under
 * the License.
 */
package com.baomidou.mybatisplus.toolkit;

import java.sql.Timestamp;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;
import java.util.concurrent.ScheduledExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.ThreadFactory;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicLong;

/**
 * <p>
 * 高并发场景下System.currentTimeMillis()的性能问题的优化
 * </p>
 * <p>
 * System.currentTimeMillis()的调用比new一个普通对象要耗时的多(具体耗时高出多少我还没测试过,有人说是100倍左右)<br>
 * System.currentTimeMillis()之所以慢是因为去跟系统打了一次交道<br>
 * 后台定时更新时钟,JVM退出时,线程自动回收<br>
 * 10亿:43410,206,210.72815533980582%<br>
 * 1亿:4699,29,162.0344827586207%<br>
 * 1000万:480,12,40.0%<br>
 * 100万:50,10,5.0%<br>
 * </p>
 *
 * @author lry
 */
public class SystemClock {

    private final long period;
    private final AtomicLong now;

    private SystemClock(long period) {
        this.period = period;
        this.now = new AtomicLong(System.currentTimeMillis());
        scheduleClockUpdating();
    }

    private static SystemClock instance() {
        return InstanceHolder.INSTANCE;
    }

    public static long now() {
        return instance().currentTimeMillis();
    }

    public static String nowDate() {
        return new Timestamp(instance().currentTimeMillis()).toString();
    }

    private void scheduleClockUpdating() {
        ScheduledExecutorService scheduler = Executors.newSingleThreadScheduledExecutor(new ThreadFactory() {

            @Override
            public Thread newThread(Runnable runnable) {
                Thread thread = new Thread(runnable, "System Clock");
                thread.setDaemon(true);
                return thread;
            }
        });
        scheduler.scheduleAtFixedRate(new Runnable() {

            @Override
            public void run() {
                now.set(System.currentTimeMillis());
            }
        }, period, period, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
    }

    private long currentTimeMillis() {
        return now.get();
    }

    private static class InstanceHolder {

        public static final SystemClock INSTANCE = new SystemClock(1);
    }

}
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