MFC消息映射梳理

一.CWnd消息处理

一切从窗口(HWND)的创建说起,在MFC中,CWnd::CreateEx执行窗口创建过程。

从调用BOOL CWnd::Attach(HWND hWndNew)那一刻起,即将一个窗口HWND)托付给一个具体的CWnd对象(子类化)。

BOOL CWnd::CreateEx(DWORD dwExStyle, LPCTSTR lpszClassName, LPCTSTR lpszWindowName, DWORD dwStyle, int x, int y, int nWidth, int nHeight, HWND hWndParent, HMENU nIDorHMenu, LPVOID lpParam)

{

    // allow modification of several common create parameters

    CREATESTRUCT cs;

    cs.dwExStyle = dwExStyle;

    cs.lpszClass = lpszClassName;

    cs.lpszName = lpszWindowName;

    cs.style = dwStyle;

    cs.x = x;

    cs.y = y;

    cs.cx = nWidth;

    cs.cy = nHeight;

    cs.hwndParent = hWndParent;

    cs.hMenu = nIDorHMenu;

    cs.hInstance = AfxGetInstanceHandle();

    cs.lpCreateParams = lpParam;

 

    if (!PreCreateWindow(cs))

    {

       PostNcDestroy();

       return FALSE;

    }

 

    AfxHookWindowCreate(this);

    HWND hWnd = ::CreateWindowEx(cs.dwExStyle, cs.lpszClass, cs.lpszName, cs.style, cs.x, cs.y, cs.cx, cs.cy, cs.hwndParent, cs.hMenu, cs.hInstance, cs.lpCreateParams);

 

#ifdef _DEBUG

    if (hWnd == NULL)

    {

       TRACE1("Warning: Window creation failed: GetLastError returns 0x%8.8X/n", GetLastError());

    }

#endif

 

    if (!AfxUnhookWindowCreate())

       PostNcDestroy();        // cleanup if CreateWindowEx fails too soon

 

    if (hWnd == NULL)

       return FALSE;

    ASSERT(hWnd == m_hWnd); // should have been set in send msg hook

    return TRUE;

}

PreCreateWindow之后,::CreateWindowEx之前,AfxHookWindowCreate函数中::SetWindowsHookEx(WH_CBT,_AfxCbtFilterHook, NULL, ::GetCurrentThreadId());安装钩子。钩子函数_AfxCbtFilterHook中调用::SetWindowLong(hWnd, GWL_WNDPROC, (DWORD)afxWndProc);将创建hWnd时所使用的WNDCLASS窗口模板的过程函数由DefWindowProc更改为AfxWndProc

// The WndProc for all CWnd's and derived classes

LRESULT CALLBACK AfxWndProc(HWND hWnd, UINT nMsg, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)

{

// ……

    // all other messages route through message map

    CWnd* pWnd = CWnd::FromHandlePermanent(hWnd);

// ……

    return AfxCallWndProc(pWnd, hWnd, nMsg, wParam, lParam);

}

窗口函数AfxWndProcAFX_MODULE_THREAD_STATE::m_pmapHWND中查询hWnd对应的CWnd对象,AfxCallWndProc将消息委托给具体窗口对象的WindowProc函数处理。

LRESULT AFXAPI AfxCallWndProc(CWnd* pWnd, HWND hWnd, UINT nMsg, WPARAM wParam = 0, LPARAM lParam = 0)

{

// ……

       // delegate to object's WindowProc

       lResult = pWnd->WindowProc(nMsg, wParam, lParam);

// ……

}

WindowProc函数调用OnWndMsg函数。

LRESULT CWnd::WindowProc(UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)

{

    // OnWndMsg does most of the work, except for DefWindowProc call

    LRESULT lResult = 0;

    if (!OnWndMsg(message, wParam, lParam, &lResult))

       lResult = DefWindowProc(message, wParam, lParam);

    return lResult;

}

OnWndMsg中,对消息进行分流处理:

1WM_COMMANDàOnCommand

// AFXMSG_.H

#define ON_COMMAND(id, memberFxn) /

    { WM_COMMAND, CN_COMMAND, (WORD)id, (WORD)id, AfxSig_vv, (AFX_PMSG)&memberFxn },

2WM_NOTIFYàOnNotify

// AFXMSG_.H

#define ON_NOTIFY(wNotifyCode, id, memberFxn) /

    { WM_NOTIFY, (WORD)(int)wNotifyCode, (WORD)id, (WORD)id, AfxSig_vNMHDRpl, /

       (AFX_PMSG)(void (AFX_MSG_CALL CCmdTarget::*)(NMHDR*, LRESULT*))&memberFxn },

3WM_ACTIVATE消息特殊处理(special case for activation

4WM_SETCURSOR消息特殊处理(special case for set cursor HTERROR

5对于常规窗口消息,OnWndMsg调用GetMessageMap()函数获得DECLARE_MESSAGE_MAP声明的消息映射表AFX_MSGMAP,根据nMessagenCode调用AfxFindMessageEntry函数从消息映射表中查找AFX_MSGMAP_ENTRY,根据函数签名nSigMessageMapFunctions中查询正确的函数指针,完成消息函数(AFX_PMSG pfn)的正确调用

BOOL CWnd::OnWndMsg(UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam, LRESULT* pResult)

{

    LRESULT lResult = 0;

 

    // special case for commands

    if (message == WM_COMMAND)

    {

       if (OnCommand(wParam, lParam)) // virtual

       {

           lResult = 1;

           goto LReturnTrue;

       }

       return FALSE;

    }

 

    // special case for notifies

    if (message == WM_NOTIFY)

    {

       NMHDR* pNMHDR = (NMHDR*)lParam;

       if (pNMHDR->hwndFrom != NULL && OnNotify(wParam, lParam, &lResult)) // virtual

           goto LReturnTrue;

       return FALSE;

    }

 

    // special case for activation

    // special case for set cursor HTERROR

const AFX_MSGMAP* pMessageMap; pMessageMap = GetMessageMap();

// ……

LReturnTrue:

    if (pResult != NULL)

       *pResult = lResult;

    return TRUE;

// ……

}

如果OnWndMsg函数对消息进行了处理,则返回TRUE,否则WindowProc中调用DefWindowProc对消息进行默认处理。

二.WM_COMMAND消息和WM_NOTIFY消息

消息是根据窗口进行分发的,而不考虑该窗口的从属关系。也就是说在子窗口中产生的消息只在子窗口函数中处理,处理完后不会再把消息传递给父窗口。父子窗口若要对某一事件做协同处理,需要做相应的通知消息反射

class CWnd : public CCmdTarget

{

// ……

protected:

    virtual BOOL OnCommand(WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam);

    virtual BOOL OnNotify(WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam, LRESULT* pResult);

// ……

}

OnCommand函数为对子窗口控件的WM_COMMAND命令通知消息的响应;OnNotify函数为对通用控件的WM_NOTIFY通知消息的响应。

1.子窗口控件的WM_COMMAND消息

1)子窗口控件的WM_COMMAND消息

Windows自定义的子窗口控件(Predefined Chilld Window Controls)包括BUTTONCOMBOBOXEDITLISTBOXRichEditSCROLLBARSTATIC

以上Windows预定义的子窗口控件的窗口过程中做了反射处理,即在某一事件(点击菜单,点击加速键,点击子窗口按钮,点击工具栏按钮)处理后发送一个WM_COMMAND通知消息给父窗口。这样某个事件发生了,子窗口做默认处理后,父窗口可以做后续处理使父子窗口工作协调。例如按下按钮,按钮呈凹陷状,这是由BtnProcWM_LBUTTONDOWNWM_PAINT)的重绘处理;松开按钮,按钮恢复原态,这是由BtnProcWM_LBUTTONUPWM_PAINT)的重绘处理。往往在松开按钮的时候,发送WM_COMMAND消息(消息码为BN_CLICKED)给父窗口,由父窗口做点击事件响应,这样便于状态和逻辑的分离。

The BN_CLICKED notification code is sent when the user clicks a button.

The parent window of the button receives the BN_CLICKED notification code through the WM_COMMAND message.                          ——MSDN

预定义BUTTON窗口类的过程函数BtnProc的处理流程大概如下:

LRESULT CALLBACK BtnProc(HWND hWnd, UINT nMessage, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)

{

    switch (nMessage)

    {

    case WM_LBUTTONDOWN:

       {

           // repaint(凹陷)

           RECT rc;

           GetClientRect(hWnd, &rc);

           InvalidateRect(hWnd, rc, TRUE);

           // ……

       }

       break;

 

    case WM_LBUTTONUP:

        {

           // repaint(复原)

           RECT rc;

           GetClientRect(hWnd, &rc);

           InvalidateRect(hWnd, rc, TRUE);

 

           // notify parent click event(IDC_BTN在调用::CreateWindowEx时指定)

           // LONG IDC_BTN = GetWindowLong(hWnd, GWL_ID);

           PostMessage(GetParent(hWnd), WM_COMMAND, MAKEWPARAM(IDC_BTN, BN_CLICKED), (LPARAM)hWnd);

           // ……

       }

       break;

 

    // ……

 

    default:

       DefWindowProc(hWnd, nMessage, wParam, lParam);

    }

}

2WM_COMMAND消息的处理逻辑(子先父后)

父窗口的OnCommand函数响应子窗口控件(Chilld Window Controls)发送来的命令消息,相当于传统窗口过程中对WM_COMMAND消息按IDLOWORD(wParam))进行分类处理。其中HIWORD(wParam)为命令通知码,lParam参数为子窗口控件的句柄。

// CWnd command handling

BOOL CWnd::OnCommand(WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)

    // return TRUE if command invocation was attempted

{

    UINT nID = LOWORD(wParam);

    HWND hWndCtrl = (HWND)lParam;

    int nCode = HIWORD(wParam);

 

    // default routing for command messages (through closure table)

 

    if (hWndCtrl == NULL)

    {

       // zero IDs for normal commands are not allowed

       if (nID == 0)

           return FALSE;

 

       // make sure command has not become disabled before routing

       CTestCmdUI state;

       state.m_nID = nID;

       OnCmdMsg(nID, CN_UPDATE_COMMAND_UI, &state, NULL);

       if (!state.m_bEnabled)

       {

           TRACE1("Warning: not executing disabled command %d/n", nID);

           return TRUE;

       }

 

       // menu or accelerator

       nCode = CN_COMMAND;

    }

    else // 着重看以下分支!

    {

       // control notification

       ASSERT(nID == 0 || ::IsWindow(hWndCtrl));

 

       if (_afxThreadState->m_hLockoutNotifyWindow == m_hWnd)

           return TRUE;        // locked out - ignore control notification

 

       // reflect notification to child window control

       if (ReflectLastMsg(hWndCtrl))

           return TRUE;    // eaten by child

 

       // zero IDs for normal commands are not allowed

       if (nID == 0)

           return FALSE;

    }

 

#ifdef _DEBUG

    if (nCode < 0 && nCode != (int)0x8000)

       TRACE1("Implementation Warning: control notification = $%X./n",

           nCode);

#endif

 

    return OnCmdMsg(nID, nCode, NULL, NULL);

}

OnCommand优先将消息交给子窗口控件自身处理ReflectLastMsgreflect notification to child window control)。如果子控件做了处理,那么ReflectLastMsg返回TRUEOnCommand返回TRUEOnWndMsg返回TRUE,参数*pResult = lResult = 1。若子控件未做处理,则交由父窗口的OnCmdMsg函数处理,OnCmdMsg从父窗口消息映射表中查找相应通知消息的处理入口。

ReflectLastMsg函数先查找到子窗口hWndChild对应的CWnd窗口对象,然后调用子窗口对象的SendChildNotifyLastMsg函数。

BOOL PASCAL CWnd::ReflectLastMsg(HWND hWndChild, LRESULT* pResult)

{

    // get the map, and if no map, then this message does not need reflection

    CHandleMap* pMap = afxMapHWND();

    if (pMap == NULL)

       return FALSE;

 

    // check if in permanent map, if it is reflect it (could be OLE control)

    CWnd* pWnd = (CWnd*)pMap->LookupPermanent(hWndChild);

    ASSERT(pWnd == NULL || pWnd->m_hWnd == hWndChild);

    if (pWnd == NULL)

    {

//!_AFX_NO_OCC_SUPPORT

    }

 

    // only OLE controls and permanent windows will get reflected msgs

    ASSERT(pWnd != NULL);

    return pWnd->SendChildNotifyLastMsg(pResult);

}

    SendChildNotifyLastMsg函数调用OnChildNotify函数。

BOOL CWnd::SendChildNotifyLastMsg(LRESULT* pResult)

{

    _AFX_THREAD_STATE* pThreadState = _afxThreadState.GetData();

    return OnChildNotify(pThreadState->m_lastSentMsg.message, pThreadState->m_lastSentMsg.wParam, ThreadState->m_lastSentMsg.lParam, pResult);

}

OnChildNotify函数调用ReflectChildNotify函数。

BOOL CWnd::OnChildNotify(UINT uMsg, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam, LRESULT* pResult)

{

    // first forward raw OCM_ messages to OLE control sources

   // ……

    return ReflectChildNotify(uMsg, wParam, lParam, pResult);

}

ReflectChildNotify函数调用OnCmdMsg

BOOL CWnd::ReflectChildNotify(UINT uMsg, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam, LRESULT* pResult)

{

    // Note: reflected messages are send directly to CWnd::OnWndMsg and CWnd::OnCmdMsg for speed and because these messages are not routed by normal OnCmdMsg routing (they are only dispatched)

 

    switch (uMsg)

    {

    // normal messages (just wParam, lParam through OnWndMsg)

    // ……

       // reflect the message through the message map as WM_REFLECT_BASE+uMsg

       return CWnd::OnWndMsg(WM_REFLECT_BASE+uMsg, wParam, lParam, pResult);

 

    // special case for WM_COMMAND

    case WM_COMMAND:

       {

           // reflect the message through the message map as OCM_COMMAND

           int nCode = HIWORD(wParam);

           if (CWnd::OnCmdMsg(0, MAKELONG(nCode, WM_REFLECT_BASE+WM_COMMAND), NULL, NULL))

           {

              if (pResult != NULL)

                  *pResult = 1;

              return TRUE;

           }

       }

       break;

 

    // special case for WM_NOTIFY

    case WM_NOTIFY:

       {

           // reflect the message through the message map as OCM_NOTIFY

           NMHDR* pNMHDR = (NMHDR*)lParam;

           int nCode = pNMHDR->code;

           AFX_NOTIFY notify;

           notify.pResult = pResult;

           notify.pNMHDR = pNMHDR;

           return CWnd::OnCmdMsg(0, MAKELONG(nCode, WM_REFLECT_BASE+WM_NOTIFY), &notify, NULL);

       }

 

    // other special cases (WM_CTLCOLOR family)

    default:

       // ……

       break;

    }

 

    return FALSE;   // let the parent handle it

}

如果子窗口OnCmdMsg做了处理(即子窗口的AFX_MSGMAP_ENTRY中有对该WM_COMMAND消息的处理),则ReflectChildNotify函数、OnChildNotify函数、SendChildNotifyLastMsg函数、ReflectLastMsg函数返回TRUE*pResult = 1

如果子窗口OnCmdMsg未做处理(即子窗口的AFX_MSGMAP_ENTRY中没有对该WM_COMMAND消息的处理),则ReflectChildNotify函数、OnChildNotify函数、SendChildNotifyLastMsg函数、ReflectLastMsg函数返回FALSE*pResult = 0。此时,父窗口的OnCommandReflectLastMsg(hWndCtrl)返回FALSE,消息流向父窗口的OnCmdMsg,在父窗口的AFX_MSGMAP_ENTRY中查找对该WM_COMMAND消息的处理。

(3)WM_COMMAND消息的最终归宿CWnd::OnCmdMsgàCCmdTarget::OnCmdMsgà_AfxDispatchCmdMsgàAfxFindMessageEntry

CWnd::OnCmdMsg是个继承自CCmdTarget的虚函数,由于CWnd并未对该函数进行覆写(CWnd的派生类CDialogCFrameWndCViewCDocument等对其覆盖),故其最终流向CCmdTarget::OnCmdMsg,其主要完成消息路由,核心代码如下。

BOOL CCmdTarget::OnCmdMsg(UINT nID, int nCode, void* pExtra, AFX_CMDHANDLERINFO* pHandlerInfo)

{

// ……

for (pMessageMap = GetMessageMap(); pMessageMap != NULL;

      pMessageMap = pMessageMap->pBaseMap)

{

       lpEntry = AfxFindMessageEntry(pMessageMap->lpEntries, nMsg, nCode, nID);

       if (lpEntry != NULL)

       {

           // found it

           // ……

           return _AfxDispatchCmdMsg(this, nID, nCode,

              lpEntry->pfn, pExtra, lpEntry->nSig, pHandlerInfo);

       }

    }

    return FALSE;   // not handled

}

CCmdTarget::OnCmdMsg从当前窗口(this)至具备命令消息处理的终极归属CCmdTarget根据消息号(nID)和消息码(nCode遍历查找相应通知消息的处理入口:

for (;;) lpEntry = AfxFindMessageEntry(,,,);

若找到了消息映射,则调用_AfxDispatchCmdMsg(this,,,,,,),其中根据函数签名(lpEntry->nSig),调用(this->*lpEntry->pfn)(*)完成最终的消息处理。注意,这里通过this既可以是对当前对象覆盖的调用,也可能是对直接从基类继承的调用。

(4)常用子窗口控件的WM_COMMAND消息映射宏格式举例

CWnd对菜单的WM_COMMAND通知消息的处理,直接使用ON_COMMAND (id, memberFxn)宏进行映射。对子窗口控件的WM_COMMAND通知消息按照控件ID和消息通知码,进行了分类定义。使用ON_CONTROL(wNotifyCode, id, memberFxn)映射一个函数到一个定制控件通知消息。其中,定制控件通知消息是从一个控件发送到其父窗口的消息。ON_COMMAND(id, OnFoo) is the same as ON_CONTROL(0, id, OnFoo)

例如对按钮通知消息BN(Button Notification)父窗口的消息映射中以宏ON_BN_CLICKED(id, memberFxn)来定义该窗口对按钮子控件的点击事件BN_CLICKED响应为memberFxn

#define ON_BN_CLICKED(id, memberFxn) /

    ON_CONTROL(BN_CLICKED, id, memberFxn)

类似的,对ComboBox的通知消息CBN(ComboBox Notification)父窗口的消息映射中以宏ON_CBN_SELCHANGE(id, memberFxn)来定义该窗口对ComboBox子控件的选项改变事件CBN_SELCHANGE响应为memberFxn

#define ON_CBN_SELCHANGE(id, memberFxn) /

ON_CONTROL(CBN_SELCHANGE, id, memberFxn)

Static对应的通知消息STN(Static Notification),对应消息映射宏为ON_STN_*

#define ON_STN_CLICKED(id, memberFxn) /

ON_CONTROL(STN_CLICKED, id, memberFxn)

Edit对应的通知消息EN(Edit Notification),对应消息映射宏为ON_EN_*

#define ON_EN_SETFOCUS(id, memberFxn) /

    ON_CONTROL(EN_SETFOCUS, id, memberFxn)

ListBox对应的通知消息LBN (ListBox Notification) ,对应消息映射宏为ON_LBN_*

#define ON_LBN_SELCANCEL(id, memberFxn) /

    ON_CONTROL(LBN_SELCANCEL, id, memberFxn)

2.通用控件的WM_NOTIFY消息

1)通用控件的WM_NOTIFY消息处理流程

常用的通用控件(Common Controls)包括ToolBarTooltipStatus BarTree ViewList ViewAnimationHeaderHot-KeyProgress BarUp-downTab等,它们是增强型子窗口控件,由comctrl32.dll实现。

OnNotify函数完成通用控件的通知消息处理,相当于传统窗口过程中对WM_NOTIFY消息按IDidentifier)、消息码(notification code)进行处理。一般LOWORD(wParam)为控件IDHIWORD(wParam)为通知码notification code),lParam参数为NMHDR*Notify Message HeaDeR)。

BOOL CWnd::OnNotify(WPARAM, LPARAM lParam, LRESULT* pResult)

{

    ASSERT(pResult != NULL);

    NMHDR* pNMHDR = (NMHDR*)lParam;

    HWND hWndCtrl = pNMHDR->hwndFrom;

 

    // get the child ID from the window itself

    UINT nID = _AfxGetDlgCtrlID(hWndCtrl);

    int nCode = pNMHDR->code;

 

    ASSERT(hWndCtrl != NULL);

    ASSERT(::IsWindow(hWndCtrl));

 

    if (_afxThreadState->m_hLockoutNotifyWindow == m_hWnd)

       return TRUE;        // locked out - ignore control notification

 

    // reflect notification to child window control

    if (ReflectLastMsg(hWndCtrl, pResult))

       return TRUE;        // eaten by child

 

    AFX_NOTIFY notify;

    notify.pResult = pResult;

    notify.pNMHDR = pNMHDR;

    return OnCmdMsg(nID, MAKELONG(nCode, WM_NOTIFY), &notify, NULL);

}

OnNotify优先将消息交给通用控件自身处理ReflectLastMsgreflect notification to child window control)。如果子控件做了处理,那么ReflectLastMsg返回TRUEOnCommand返回TRUEOnWndMsg返回TRUE,参数*pResult = lResult = 1。若子控件未做处理,则交由父窗口的OnCmdMsg函数处理,OnCmdMsg从父窗口消息映射表中查找相应通知消息的处理入口。

ReflectLastMsg后面的调用流程同OnCommand

(2)常用通用控件的WM_NOTIFY消息映射宏格式举例

通用控件的WM_NOTIFY消息,直接使用ON_NOTIFY(wNotifyCode, id, memberFxn)ID号为id的通知码为wNotifyCode的通知消息进行映射。

例如对于树控件IDC_TREECTRL树的选项改变事件(TVN_SELCHANGED)的消息映射如下:

ON_NOTIFY(TVN_SELCHANGED, IDC_TREECTRL, OnSelChangedTreeCtrl)

(3)通用控件的WM_NOTIFY消息反射

ON_NOTIFY不反射消息。如果自己处理不了,就传给上级窗口;如果再处理不了,再往上传。实在处理不了,由框架默认处理。

ON_NOTIFY_REFLECT反射消息,把消息传给上级窗口处理,如果上级都处理不了,再反射回来自己处理。这就是MFC强大的消息反射机制。

ON_NOTIFY_REFLECT是处理消息的手段,控件传递给父窗体的普通的消息都是由父窗体函数来处理。但由ON_NOTIFY_REFLECT映射的消息先由该控件处理,如果该控件没有处理函数再发往父窗体处理。

ON_NOTIFY_REFLECT_EX映射的处理函数(OnNotify),如果返回值(LRESULT* pResult)为1,则父窗体不进行处理;如果返回值为0,则控件处理完后,父窗体也进行处理。

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