线程的状态

我们打开Thread类的源码,搜索State字段,会看到State的枚举值

 public enum State {
        /**
         * Thread state for a thread which has not yet started.
         */
        NEW,

        /**
         * Thread state for a runnable thread.  A thread in the runnable
         * state is executing in the Java virtual machine but it may
         * be waiting for other resources from the operating system
         * such as processor.
         */
        RUNNABLE,

        /**
         * Thread state for a thread blocked waiting for a monitor lock.
         * A thread in the blocked state is waiting for a monitor lock
         * to enter a synchronized block/method or
         * reenter a synchronized block/method after calling
         * {@link Object#wait() Object.wait}.
         */
        BLOCKED,

        /**
         * Thread state for a waiting thread.
         * A thread is in the waiting state due to calling one of the
         * following methods:
         * <ul>
         *   <li>{@link Object#wait() Object.wait} with no timeout</li>
         *   <li>{@link #join() Thread.join} with no timeout</li>
         *   <li>{@link LockSupport#park() LockSupport.park}</li>
         * </ul>
         *
         * <p>A thread in the waiting state is waiting for another thread to
         * perform a particular action.
         *
         * For example, a thread that has called <tt>Object.wait()</tt>
         * on an object is waiting for another thread to call
         * <tt>Object.notify()</tt> or <tt>Object.notifyAll()</tt> on
         * that object. A thread that has called <tt>Thread.join()</tt>
         * is waiting for a specified thread to terminate.
         */
        WAITING,

        /**
         * Thread state for a waiting thread with a specified waiting time.
         * A thread is in the timed waiting state due to calling one of
         * the following methods with a specified positive waiting time:
         * <ul>
         *   <li>{@link #sleep Thread.sleep}</li>
         *   <li>{@link Object#wait(long) Object.wait} with timeout</li>
         *   <li>{@link #join(long) Thread.join} with timeout</li>
         *   <li>{@link LockSupport#parkNanos LockSupport.parkNanos}</li>
         *   <li>{@link LockSupport#parkUntil LockSupport.parkUntil}</li>
         * </ul>
         */
        TIMED_WAITING,

        /**
         * Thread state for a terminated thread.
         * The thread has completed execution.
         */
        TERMINATED;
    }

从源码了解到线程有6个状态

NEW(新建)

创建后尚未启动的线程的状态(创建之后还未调用start方法)

RUNNABLE(运行)

调用start的方法之后,线程进入RUNNABLE状态
RUNNABLE即允许状态, RUNNABLE包含Running和Ready
处于Running状态的线程位于可运行线程之中,等待被线程调度选中, 获取CPU的使用权
处于Ready状态的线程位于线程池中,等待被线程调度选中,获取CPU的使用权。而处于Ready状态的线程在获得CPU时间后,就变为Running状态的线程

WAITING(无限等待)

处于WAITING状态的线程不会被分配CPU执行时间,需要被其他线程唤醒

以下几种方法会让线程处于无限期的等待状态
没有设置Timeout参数的Object.wait()方法
没有设置Timeout参数的Thread.join()方法
LockSupport.park()方法

TIMED_WAITING(限期等待)

在一定时间后由系统自动唤醒

以下方法会让线程进入限期等待
Thread.sleep()方法
设置了Timeout参数的Object.wait()方法
设置了Timeout参数的Thread.join()方法
LockSupport.partNanos()方法
LockSupport.parkUntil()方法

BLOCKED(阻塞)

等待获取排它锁
线程被阻塞了,阻塞状态与等待状态的区别是,阻塞状态在等待着获取到一个排它锁,这个事件将向另外一个线程放弃这个锁的时候发生,而等待状态一般时间或者有唤醒动作的时候发生,在程序进入同步区域的时候,线程将进入BLOCKED状态。比如说某个线程进入synchronized关键字修饰的方法或者代码块的时候,即获取锁去执行的时候,其他想进入此方法或者代码块的线程只能等待

TERMINATED(结束)

已终止线程的状态, 线程已经结束执行

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