@Column注解及属性详解

@Column注解

用来标识实体类中属性与数据表中字段的对应关系

(1)源码:

/*
 * Copyright (c) 2008, 2009, 2011 Oracle, Inc. All rights reserved.
 *
 * This program and the accompanying materials are made available under the
 * terms of the Eclipse Public License v1.0 and Eclipse Distribution License v. 1.0
 * which accompanies this distribution.  The Eclipse Public License is available
 * at http://www.eclipse.org/legal/epl-v10.html and the Eclipse Distribution License
 * is available at http://www.eclipse.org/org/documents/edl-v10.php.
 */
package javax.persistence;

import java.lang.annotation.Retention;
import java.lang.annotation.Target;

import static java.lang.annotation.ElementType.FIELD;
import static java.lang.annotation.ElementType.METHOD;
import static java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME;

/**
 * Is used to specify the mapped column for a persistent property or field.
 * If no <code>Column</code> annotation is specified, the default values apply.
 *
 * <blockquote><pre>
 *    Example 1:
 *
 *    @Column(name="DESC", nullable=false, length=512)
 *    public String getDescription() { return description; }
 *
 *    Example 2:
 *
 *    @Column(name="DESC",
 *            columnDefinition="CLOB NOT NULL",
 *            table="EMP_DETAIL")
 *    @Lob
 *    public String getDescription() { return description; }
 *
 *    Example 3:
 *
 *    @Column(name="ORDER_COST", updatable=false, precision=12, scale=2)
 *    public BigDecimal getCost() { return cost; }
 *
 * </pre></blockquote>
 *
 *
 * @since Java Persistence 1.0
 */
@Target({METHOD, FIELD})
@Retention(RUNTIME)
public @interface Column {

    /**
     * (Optional) The name of the column. Defaults to
     * the property or field name.
     */
    String name() default "";

    /**
     * (Optional) Whether the column is a unique key.  This is a
     * shortcut for the <code>UniqueConstraint</code> annotation at the table
     * level and is useful for when the unique key constraint
     * corresponds to only a single column. This constraint applies
     * in addition to any constraint entailed by primary key mapping and
     * to constraints specified at the table level.
     */
    boolean unique() default false;

    /**
     * (Optional) Whether the database column is nullable.
     */
    boolean nullable() default true;

    /**
     * (Optional) Whether the column is included in SQL INSERT
     * statements generated by the persistence provider.
     */
    boolean insertable() default true;

    /**
     * (Optional) Whether the column is included in SQL UPDATE
     * statements generated by the persistence provider.
     */
    boolean updatable() default true;

    /**
     * (Optional) The SQL fragment that is used when
     * generating the DDL for the column.
     * <p> Defaults to the generated SQL to create a
     * column of the inferred type.
     */
    String columnDefinition() default "";

    /**
     * (Optional) The name of the table that contains the column.
     * If absent the column is assumed to be in the primary table.
     */
    String table() default "";

    /**
     * (Optional) The column length. (Applies only if a
     * string-valued column is used.)
     */
    int length() default 255;

    /**
     * (Optional) The precision for a decimal (exact numeric)
     * column. (Applies only if a decimal column is used.)
     * Value must be set by developer if used when generating
     * the DDL for the column.
     */
    int precision() default 0;

    /**
     * (Optional) The scale for a decimal (exact numeric) column.
     * (Applies only if a decimal column is used.)
     */
    int scale() default 0;
}

(2)@Column属性详解:

name
定义了被标注字段在数据库表中所对应字段的名称;

unique
表示该字段是否为唯一标识,默认为false。如果表中有一个字段需要唯一标识,则既可以使用该标记,也可以使用@Table标记中的@UniqueConstraint。

nullable
表示该字段是否可以为null值,默认为true。

insertable
表示在使用“INSERT”脚本插入数据时,是否需要插入该字段的值。

updatable
表示在使用“UPDATE”脚本插入数据时,是否需要更新该字段的值。insertable和updatable属性一般多用于只读的属性,例如主键和外键等。这些字段的值通常是自动生成的。

columnDefinition(大多数情况,几乎不用)
表示创建表时,该字段创建的SQL语句,一般用于通过Entity生成表定义时使用。(也就是说,如果DB中表已经建好,该属性没有必要使用。)

table
表示当映射多个表时,指定表的表中的字段。默认值为主表的表名。

length
表示字段的长度,当字段的类型为varchar时,该属性才有效,默认为255个字符。

precision和scale
precision属性和scale属性表示精度,当字段类型为double时,precision表示数值的总长度,scale表示小数点所占的位数。

(3)

@Column可以标注在属性前或getter方法前

Ⅰ.@Column标注在属性前(建议使用这一种方式

import javax.persistence.Column;
import javax.persistence.Entity;
import javax.persistence.GeneratedValue;
import javax.persistence.GenerationType;
import javax.persistence.Id;
import javax.persistence.Table;

/**
 * 一卡通消费记录表
 * @author Qian
 *
 */
@Entity
@Table(name = "pb_op_card_consume")
public class CardConsume {

	@Id
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    @Column(name = "id", length = 20, nullable = false)
    private int id;

    /**
     * 交易编号
     */
    @Column(name = "tradeNo" ,length = 50 , nullable = false)
    private String tradeNo;

    public int getId() {
        return id;
    }

    public void setId(int id) {
        this.id = id;
    }

    public String getTradeNo() {
        return tradeNo;
    }

    public void setTradeNo(String tradeNo) {
        this.tradeNo = tradeNo;
    }
    
}

Ⅱ.@Column标注getter方法前

import javax.persistence.Column;
import javax.persistence.Entity;
import javax.persistence.Table;

/**
 * 一卡通消费记录表
 * @author Qian
 *
 */
@Entity
@Table(name = "pb_op_card_consume")
public class CardConsume {

    /**
     * 交易编号
     */
    private String tradeNo;

	@Column(name = "tradeNo" ,length = 50 , nullable = false)
    public String getTradeNo() {
        return tradeNo;
    }

    public void setTradeNo(String tradeNo) {
        this.tradeNo = tradeNo;
    }
    
}

提示:JPA规范中并没有明确指定那种标注方法,只要两种标注方式任选其一都可以。

(4)示例(其中3、4不常用)

Example 1:    指定字段“tradeNo”交易编号的长度为50,且值不能为null

@Column(name = "tradeNo", length = 50, nullable = false)
private String tradeNo;

Example 2:    指定字段“totalAmount”交易金额的精度(长度)为10,小数点位数为2位,且值不能为null

@Column(name = "totalAmount", precision = 10, scale = 2, nullable = false)
private BigDecimal totalAmount;

Example 3:    字段“text”,指定建表时SQL语句 如“varchar(50) NOT NULL”

@Column(name = "text", columnDefinition = "varchar(50) not null")
private String text;

等同于SQL

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[my_test] (
    [id] int NOT NULL IDENTITY(1,1) ,
    [text] varchar(50) NOT NULL 
)

columnDefinition,若不指定该属性,通常使用默认的类型建表,若此时需要自定义建表的类型时,可在该属性中设置。

Example 4:    字段值为只读的,不允许插入和修改。通常用于主键和外键

@Column(name = "id", insertable = false, updatable = false)
private Integer id;

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