Leetcode 191:位1的个数(超详细的解法!!!)

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编写一个函数,输入是一个无符号整数,返回其二进制表达式中数字位数为 ‘1’ 的个数(也被称为汉明重量)。

示例 1:

输入:00000000000000000000000000001011
输出:3
解释:输入的二进制串 00000000000000000000000000001011 中,共有三位为 '1'。

示例 2:

输入:00000000000000000000000010000000
输出:1
解释:输入的二进制串 00000000000000000000000010000000 中,共有一位为 '1'。

示例 3:

输入:11111111111111111111111111111101
输出:31
解释:输入的二进制串 11111111111111111111111111111101 中,共有 31 位为 '1'。

提示:

  • 请注意,在某些语言(如 Java)中,没有无符号整数类型。在这种情况下,输入和输出都将被指定为有符号整数类型,并且不应影响您的实现,因为无论整数是有符号的还是无符号的,其内部的二进制表示形式都是相同的。
  • 在 Java 中,编译器使用二进制补码记法来表示有符号整数。因此,在上面的 示例 3 中,输入表示有符号整数 -3

进阶:
如果多次调用这个函数,你将如何优化你的算法?

解题思路

类似于之前Leetcode 190:颠倒二进制位(超详细的解法!!!)问题,稍加修改即可。

class Solution(object):
    def hammingWeight(self, n):
        """
        :type n: int
        :rtype: int
        """
        res = 0
        for _ in range(32):
            res += n & 1
            n >>= 1
            
        return res

使用python语言的话,一个取巧的做法。

class Solution(object):
    def hammingWeight(self, n):
        """
        :type n: int
        :rtype: int
        """
        return bin(n).count("1")

这个问题的高阶玩法就是汉明重量(Hamming Weight)

//types and constants used in the functions below

typedef unsigned __int64 uint64;  //assume this gives 64-bits
const uint64 m1 = 0x5555555555555555; //binary: 0101...
const uint64 m2 = 0x3333333333333333; //binary: 00110011..
const uint64 m4 = 0x0f0f0f0f0f0f0f0f; //binary:  4 zeros,  4 ones ...
const uint64 m8 = 0x00ff00ff00ff00ff; //binary:  8 zeros,  8 ones ...
const uint64 m16 = 0x0000ffff0000ffff; //binary: 16 zeros, 16 ones ...
const uint64 m32 = 0x00000000ffffffff; //binary: 32 zeros, 32 ones ...
const uint64 hff = 0xffffffffffffffff; //binary: all ones
const uint64 h01 = 0x0101010101010101; //the sum of 256 to the power of 0,1,2,3...

//This is a naive implementation, shown for comparison,
//and to help in understanding the better functions.
//It uses 24 arithmetic operations (shift, add, and).
int popcount_1(uint64 x) {
    x = (x & m1 ) + ((x >>  1) & m1 ); //put count of each  2 bits into those  2 bits 
    x = (x & m2 ) + ((x >>  2) & m2 ); //put count of each  4 bits into those  4 bits 
    x = (x & m4 ) + ((x >>  4) & m4 ); //put count of each  8 bits into those  8 bits 
    x = (x & m8 ) + ((x >>  8) & m8 ); //put count of each 16 bits into those 16 bits 
    x = (x & m16) + ((x >> 16) & m16); //put count of each 32 bits into those 32 bits 
    x = (x & m32) + ((x >> 32) & m32); //put count of each 64 bits into those 64 bits 
    return x;
}

//This uses fewer arithmetic operations than any other known  
//implementation on machines with slow multiplication.
//It uses 17 arithmetic operations.
int popcount_2(uint64 x) {
    x -= (x >> 1) & m1;             //put count of each 2 bits into those 2 bits
    x = (x & m2) + ((x >> 2) & m2); //put count of each 4 bits into those 4 bits 
    x = (x + (x >> 4)) & m4;        //put count of each 8 bits into those 8 bits 
    x += x >>  8;  //put count of each 16 bits into their lowest 8 bits
    x += x >> 16;  //put count of each 32 bits into their lowest 8 bits
    x += x >> 32;  //put count of each 64 bits into their lowest 8 bits
    return x &0xff;
}

//This uses fewer arithmetic operations than any other known  
//implementation on machines with fast multiplication.
//It uses 12 arithmetic operations, one of which is a multiply.
int popcount_3(uint64 x) {
    x -= (x >> 1) & m1;             //put count of each 2 bits into those 2 bits
    x = (x & m2) + ((x >> 2) & m2); //put count of each 4 bits into those 4 bits 
    x = (x + (x >> 4)) & m4;        //put count of each 8 bits into those 8 bits 
    return (x * h01)>>56;  //returns left 8 bits of x + (x<<8) + (x<<16) + (x<<24) + ... 
}

使用cpp的话有两个高阶的玩法。

int hammingWeight(uint32_t n) 
{
    bitset<32> bin(n);
    return bin.count();
}

更高阶的技巧

return __builtin_popcount(n);

不过这种做法仅对GCC编译器有效。

reference:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamming_weight

我将该问题的其他语言版本添加到了我的GitHub Leetcode

如有问题,希望大家指出!!!

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