linux .ko的编译与测试

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以【tiny210 按键实验为例】

准备:
内核:Linux-3.0.8 (开发板的运行内核)
平台:Fedora14

例子:
建立空文件夹(ko文件),在里面添加需要制成的文件:
内核源码:my_button.c
Makefile文件:Makefile
测试文件:buttons_test.c

编辑内核源码:my_button.c 【采用按键驱动(异步通知机制)】 ———部分代码
my_button.c:

#define DEVICE_NAME     "buttons_test"
static struct fasync_struct *button_async;

/* 
 * 按键中断出发确定按键值 
*在中断处理程序中调用kill_fasync函数
  */  
static irqreturn_t button_interrupt(int irq, void *dev_id)
{
    struct button_desc *bdata = (struct button_desc *)dev_id;

    mod_timer(&bdata->timer, jiffies + msecs_to_jiffies(40));
    //发送信号SIGIO信号给fasync_struct 结构体所描述的PID,触发应用程序的SIGIO信号处理函数  
    kill_fasync(&button_async, SIGIO, POLL_IN);  

    return IRQ_HANDLED;
}
/*
*驱动fasync接口实现
*/
static int mini210_buttons_fasync (int fd, struct file *filp, int on)  
{  
    printk("driver: fifth_drv_fasync\n");  
    //初始化/释放 fasync_struct 结构体 (fasync_struct->fa_file->f_owner->pid)  
    return fasync_helper(fd, filp, on, &button_async);
}
static struct file_operations dev_fops = {
    .owner      = THIS_MODULE,
    .open       = mini210_buttons_open,
    .release    = mini210_buttons_close, 
    .read       = mini210_buttons_read,
    .poll       = mini210_buttons_poll,
    .fasync     = mini210_buttons_fasync,
};

异步通知机制:
在Linux下,异步通知类似于信号机制,内核和应用程序之间采用通知方法来告知是否发生对应的事件,并进一步采取相应的动作,当产生按键动作时,发生中断,由驱动程序使用kill_fasync函数告知应用程序,而应用程序需要向内核提供PID,然后就可以工作了。

Makefile文件:Makefile
内容如下:

obj-m := my_button.o                   #要生成的模块名     
my_button-objs:= module        #生成这个模块名所需要的目标文件

#KDIR := /lib/modules/`uname -r`/build      #Fedora14 默认的内核目录
KDIR := /opt/FriendlyARM/tiny210/android/linux-3.0.8    #自定义内核目录(tiny210运行内核)
PWD := $(shell pwd)
MAKE:=make  
default:
    $(MAKE) -C $(KDIR) SUBDIRS=$(PWD) modules  
clean:
    $(MAKE) -C $(KDIR) SUBDIRS=$(PWD) clean

说明:
obj-m = *.o
obj-y = *.o
上面两者的区别在于,前者才会生成ko文件,后者只是代码编译进内核,并不生成ko文件。
生成KO文件,分两种情况:单个.c文件和多个.c文件
单个.c文件:
kernel配置文件中定义
CONFIG_RUNYEE_CAMVIB=m
注意上面的m,表示作为一个模块进行编译,最后在MAKEFILE中需要用到的编译开关。
然后再相应的源码目录中的MAKEFILE中添加如下语句:
obj-$(CONFIG_RUNYEE_CAMVIB) := camvib.o

上面的一行的作用就是编译camvib.c的源文件,同时会生成相应的camvib.ko文件,和编译生成的camvib.o在同一目录
最后就是insmod动作了:
insmod /system/lib/modules/camvib.ko
2.多个.c文件生成ko文件
kernel配置文件中定义
CONFIG_TOUCHSCREEN_FOCALTECH=m
注意上面的m,表示作为一个模块进行编译,最后在MAKEFILE中需要用到的编译开关。
然后再相应的源码目录中的MAKEFILE中添加如下语句:
obj-$(CONFIG_TOUCHSCREEN_FOCALTECH) += focaltech_ts.o
focaltech_ts-objs := focaltech.o
focaltech_ts-objs += focaltech_ctl.o
focaltech_ts-objs += focaltech_ex_fun.o
上面的意思就是编译生成ko文件需要三个.c文件【focaltech.c focaltech_ctl.c focaltech_ex_fun.c】,最后
生成名为focaltech_ts的ko文件,注意ko文件名一定不能为focaltech。那么在obj-m和lpc-objs中都含有focaltech.o,
对make来讲会产生循环和混淆,因此也不能这样书写
最后就是insmod动作了:
insmod /system/lib/modules/focaltech_ts.ko
注意事项:
1、内核目录
2、Makefile中obj-m:=my_button.o 这个和源文件my_button.c要对应
3、my_button-objs:=module 这个my_button也是和my_button.c对应的
如果源文件为your.c
这两句话就应该改为obj-m:=your.o
your-objs:=module
4、查看输出的时候 用dmesg输出信息太多,可以用grep过滤一下
dmesg | grep “buttons_test”

测试文件:buttons_test.c
核心代码:
//在应用程序中捕捉SIGIO信号(由驱动程序发送)
signal(SIGIO, my_signal_fun);
//将当前进程PID设置为fd文件所对应驱动程序将要发送SIGIO,SIGUSR信号进程PID
fcntl(buttons_fd, F_SETOWN, getpid());
//获取fd的打开方式
Oflags = fcntl(buttons_fd, F_GETFL);
//将fd的打开方式设置为FASYNC — 即 支持异步通知
//该行代码执行会触发 驱动程序中 file_operations->fasync 函数 ——fasync函数调用fasync_helper初始化一个fasync_struct结构体,该结构体描述了将要发送信号的进程PID (fasync_struct->fa_file->f_owner->pid)
fcntl(buttons_fd, F_SETFL, Oflags | FASYNC);
代码如下:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <sys/select.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <signal.h>
int buttons_fd;
int break_flg;
char buttons[8] = {'0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0'};
//信号处理函数  
void my_signal_fun(int signum)  
{  
    char current_buttons[8];
    int count_of_changed_key;
    int i;
    if (read(buttons_fd, current_buttons, sizeof current_buttons) != sizeof current_buttons) {
        perror("read buttons:");
        exit(1);
    }

    for (i = 0, count_of_changed_key = 0; i < sizeof buttons / sizeof buttons[0]; i++) {
        if (buttons[i] != current_buttons[i]) {
            buttons[i] = current_buttons[i];
            printf("%skey %d is %s", count_of_changed_key? ", ": "", i+1, buttons[i] == '0' ? "0" : "1");
            count_of_changed_key++;
        }
    }
    if (count_of_changed_key) {
        printf("\n");
    }

    if((buttons[0] == '1')&&(buttons[7]=='1'))
    {
        printf("key test off\n");
break_flg = 1;
    }
}  
int main(void)
{
    int Oflags;  
    break_flg = 0;
    //在应用程序中捕捉SIGIO信号(由驱动程序发送)  
    signal(SIGIO, my_signal_fun);  
    buttons_fd = open("/dev/buttons_test", 0);
    if (buttons_fd < 0) {
        perror("open device buttons");
        exit(1);
    }
     //将当前进程PID设置为fd文件所对应驱动程序将要发送SIGIO,SIGUSR信号进程PID  
     fcntl(buttons_fd, F_SETOWN, getpid());  
    //获取fd的打开方式  
    Oflags = fcntl(buttons_fd, F_GETFL);   

//将fd的打开方式设置为FASYNC --- 即 支持异步通知  
//该行代码执行会触发 驱动程序中 file_operations->fasync 函数 ------fasync函数调用fasync_helper初始化一个fasync_struct结构体,该结构体描述了将要发送信号的进程PID (fasync_struct->fa_file->f_owner->pid)  
    fcntl(buttons_fd, F_SETFL, Oflags | FASYNC);  
        while (1)  
        {  
        sleep(1000);  
        if(break_flg == 1)
        break;
        } 

    close(buttons_fd);
    return 0;
}

完整代码:

//内核源码:
/*
 * linux/drivers/char/mini210_buttons.c
 *
 * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
 * published by the Free Software Foundation.
 */

#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <linux/fs.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/delay.h>
#include <linux/sched.h>
#include <linux/poll.h>
#include <linux/irq.h>
#include <asm/irq.h>
#include <asm/io.h>
#include <linux/interrupt.h>
#include <asm/uaccess.h>
#include <mach/hardware.h>
#include <linux/platform_device.h>
#include <linux/cdev.h>
#include <linux/miscdevice.h>

#include <mach/map.h>
#include <mach/gpio.h>
#include <mach/regs-clock.h>
#include <mach/regs-gpio.h>

#define DEVICE_NAME     "buttons_test"

struct button_desc {
    int gpio;
    int number;
    char *name; 
    struct timer_list timer;
};

static struct button_desc buttons[] = {
    { S5PV210_GPH2(0), 0, "KEY0" },
    { S5PV210_GPH2(1), 1, "KEY1" },
    { S5PV210_GPH2(2), 2, "KEY2" },
    { S5PV210_GPH2(3), 3, "KEY3" },
    { S5PV210_GPH3(0), 4, "KEY4" },
    { S5PV210_GPH3(1), 5, "KEY5" },
    { S5PV210_GPH3(2), 6, "KEY6" },
    { S5PV210_GPH3(3), 7, "KEY7" },
};

static volatile char key_values[] = {
    '0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0'
};

static DECLARE_WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD(button_waitq);

static volatile int ev_press = 0;
static struct fasync_struct *button_async;
static void mini210_buttons_timer(unsigned long _data)
{
    struct button_desc *bdata = (struct button_desc *)_data;
    int down;
    int number;
    unsigned tmp;

    tmp = gpio_get_value(bdata->gpio);

    /* active low */
    down = !tmp;
    printk("KEY %d: %08x\n", bdata->number, down);

    number = bdata->number;
    if (down != (key_values[number] & 1)) {
        key_values[number] = '0' + down;

        ev_press = 1;
        wake_up_interruptible(&button_waitq);
    }
}

static irqreturn_t button_interrupt(int irq, void *dev_id)
{
    struct button_desc *bdata = (struct button_desc *)dev_id;

    mod_timer(&bdata->timer, jiffies + msecs_to_jiffies(40));
        //发送信号SIGIO信号给fasync_struct 结构体所描述的PID,触发应用程序的SIGIO信号处理函数  
    kill_fasync(&button_async, SIGIO, POLL_IN);  

    return IRQ_HANDLED;
}

static int mini210_buttons_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
{
    int irq;
    int i;
    int err = 0;

    for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(buttons); i++) {
        if (!buttons[i].gpio)
            continue;

        setup_timer(&buttons[i].timer, mini210_buttons_timer,
                (unsigned long)&buttons[i]);

        irq = gpio_to_irq(buttons[i].gpio);
        err = request_irq(irq, button_interrupt, IRQ_TYPE_EDGE_BOTH, 
                buttons[i].name, (void *)&buttons[i]);
        if (err)
            break;
    }

    if (err) {
        i--;
        for (; i >= 0; i--) {
            if (!buttons[i].gpio)
                continue;

            irq = gpio_to_irq(buttons[i].gpio);
            disable_irq(irq);
            free_irq(irq, (void *)&buttons[i]);

            del_timer_sync(&buttons[i].timer);
        }

        return -EBUSY;
    }

    ev_press = 1;
    return 0;
}

static int mini210_buttons_close(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
{
    int irq, i;

    for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(buttons); i++) {
        if (!buttons[i].gpio)
            continue;

        irq = gpio_to_irq(buttons[i].gpio);
        free_irq(irq, (void *)&buttons[i]);

        del_timer_sync(&buttons[i].timer);
    }

    return 0;
}

static int mini210_buttons_read(struct file *filp, char __user *buff,
        size_t count, loff_t *offp)
{
    unsigned long err;

    if (!ev_press) {
        if (filp->f_flags & O_NONBLOCK)
            return -EAGAIN;
        else
            wait_event_interruptible(button_waitq, ev_press);
    }

    ev_press = 0;

    err = copy_to_user((void *)buff, (const void *)(&key_values),
            min(sizeof(key_values), count));

    return err ? -EFAULT : min(sizeof(key_values), count);
}

static unsigned int mini210_buttons_poll( struct file *file,
        struct poll_table_struct *wait)
{
    unsigned int mask = 0;

    poll_wait(file, &button_waitq, wait);
    if (ev_press)
        mask |= POLLIN | POLLRDNORM;

    return mask;
}
static int mini210_buttons_fasync (int fd, struct file *filp, int on)  
{  
    printk("driver: fifth_drv_fasync\n");  
    //初始化/释放 fasync_struct 结构体 (fasync_struct->fa_file->f_owner->pid)  
    return fasync_helper(fd, filp, on, &button_async);
} 
static struct file_operations dev_fops = {
    .owner      = THIS_MODULE,
    .open       = mini210_buttons_open,
    .release    = mini210_buttons_close, 
    .read       = mini210_buttons_read,
    .poll       = mini210_buttons_poll,
    .fasync     = mini210_buttons_fasync,
};

static struct miscdevice misc = {
    .minor      = MISC_DYNAMIC_MINOR,
    .name       = DEVICE_NAME,
    .fops       = &dev_fops,
};

static int __init button_dev_init(void)
{
    int ret;

    ret = misc_register(&misc);

    printk(DEVICE_NAME"\tinitialized\n");

    return ret;
}

static void __exit button_dev_exit(void)
{
    misc_deregister(&misc);
}

module_init(button_dev_init);
module_exit(button_dev_exit);

MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
MODULE_AUTHOR("FriendlyARM Inc.");

Makefile:

obj-m := my_button.o                   #要生成的模块名     
my_buttonmodule-objs:= module        #生成这个模块名所需要的目标文件

#KDIR := /lib/modules/`uname -r`/build
KDIR := /opt/FriendlyARM/tiny210/android/linux-3.0.8
PWD := $(shell pwd)
MAKE:=make  
default:
    $(MAKE) -C $(KDIR) SUBDIRS=$(PWD) modules  
clean:
    $(MAKE) -C $(KDIR) SUBDIRS=$(PWD) clean
#default:
#   make -C $(KDIR) M=$(PWD) modules

#clean:
#   rm -rf *.o *.cmd *.ko *.mod.c .tmp_versions

测试代码:buttons_test.c

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <sys/select.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <signal.h>
int buttons_fd;
int break_flg;
char buttons[8] = {'0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0'};
//信号处理函数  
void my_signal_fun(int signum)  
{  
    char current_buttons[8];
    int count_of_changed_key;
    int i;
    if (read(buttons_fd, current_buttons, sizeof current_buttons) != sizeof current_buttons) {
        perror("read buttons:");
        exit(1);
    }

    for (i = 0, count_of_changed_key = 0; i < sizeof buttons / sizeof buttons[0]; i++) {
        if (buttons[i] != current_buttons[i]) {
            buttons[i] = current_buttons[i];
            printf("%skey %d is %s", count_of_changed_key? ", ": "", i+1, buttons[i] == '0' ? "0" : "1");
            count_of_changed_key++;
        }
    }
    if (count_of_changed_key) {
        printf("\n");
    }

    if((buttons[0] == '1')&&(buttons[7]=='1'))
    {
        printf("key test off\n");
break_flg = 1;
        //close(buttons_fd);        

    }
}  
int main(void)
{


    int Oflags;  
    break_flg = 0;
    //在应用程序中捕捉SIGIO信号(由驱动程序发送)  
    signal(SIGIO, my_signal_fun);  
    buttons_fd = open("/dev/buttons_test", 0);
    if (buttons_fd < 0) {
        perror("open device buttons");
        exit(1);
    }

     //将当前进程PID设置为fd文件所对应驱动程序将要发送SIGIO,SIGUSR信号进程PID  
     fcntl(buttons_fd, F_SETOWN, getpid());  

    //获取fd的打开方式  
    Oflags = fcntl(buttons_fd, F_GETFL);   

//将fd的打开方式设置为FASYNC --- 即 支持异步通知  
//该行代码执行会触发 驱动程序中 file_operations->fasync 函数 ------fasync函数调用fasync_helper初始化一个fasync_struct结构体,该结构体描述了将要发送信号的进程PID (fasync_struct->fa_file->f_owner->pid)  
    fcntl(buttons_fd, F_SETFL, Oflags | FASYNC);  


        while (1)  
        {  
        sleep(1000);  
        if(break_flg == 1)
        break;
        } 







    for (;;) {
        char current_buttons[8];
        int count_of_changed_key;
        int i;
        if (read(buttons_fd, current_buttons, sizeof current_buttons) != sizeof current_buttons) {
            perror("read buttons:");
            exit(1);
        }

        for (i = 0, count_of_changed_key = 0; i < sizeof buttons / sizeof buttons[0]; i++) {
            if (buttons[i] != current_buttons[i]) {
                buttons[i] = current_buttons[i];
                printf("%skey %d is %s", count_of_changed_key? ", ": "", i+1, buttons[i] == '0' ? "0" : "1");
                count_of_changed_key++;
            }
        }
        if (count_of_changed_key) {
            printf("\n");
        }

        if((buttons[0] == '1')&&(buttons[7]=='1'))
        {
            printf("key test off\n");
            break;
        }
    }

    close(buttons_fd);
    return 0;
}
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