脉冲神经网络 学习算法-Tempotron

脉冲神经网络 学习算法-Tempotron

一.Tempotron算法

  1. 论文链接
  2. SNN系列|学习算法篇(1)Tempotron 原理推荐
  3. 脉冲神经网络之Tempotron(二)代码推荐

今天读了一下《The tempotron : a neuron that learns spike timing based decisions》这篇论文,然后找了网上tempotron算法的demo。代码是参考 脉冲神经网络之Tempotron(二),添加了精度图像绘制。代码即运行结果如下:

二.代码-matlab

  1. 百度云代码链接 提取码:4jox
function TempotronClassify()
% Tempotron: a neuron that learns spike timing-based decisions
% Rober Gutig 2006 Nature Neuroscience
clear; 
clc;
NumImages = 26;
for i =  1:NumImages
    ImageName = strcat('Icon16X16\Letter-',char('A'+i-1),'-black-icon');% 从icon16X16文件夹中读取所有图片 strcat横向连接字符串
    %imread用來读取图片
    ImageMatrix = imread(ImageName,'bmp');% 读取图片为灰度图,保存在矩阵中(黑色为0,白色为1)
    ImageMatrix = ~ImageMatrix;  % 取反 白色为0,黑色为1
    TrainPtns(:,i) = image2ptn(ImageMatrix); %image2ptn对外界刺激进行编码,也就是将图片数据转换成脉冲序列的形式%
end


TrainPtns = TrainPtns * 1e-3;  % scale to ms
nAfferents = size(TrainPtns,1); %nAfferents輸入脉冲的数量32
nPtns = NumImages; %26

nOutputs = 5; %5个二进制数表示一个字母的编号
 
loadData=0;% 是否载入已保存的模型
 
V_thr = 1; V_rest = 0;
T = 256e-3;         % pattern duration ms 时间窗口取256ms
dt = 1e-3; %单位时间为1ms
tau_m = 20e-3; % 膜时间常数
tau_s = tau_m/4; %突触时间常数 4倍关系

% 公式:K(t-ti)=V0(exp[-(t-ti)/τ]–exp[-(t-ti)/τs])
% (0:dt:3*tau_m)产生间隔为0.001,0-0.06的数值
aa = exp(-(0:dt:3*tau_m)/tau_m)-exp(-(0:dt:3*tau_m)/tau_s); %(exp[-(t-ti)/τ]–exp[-(t-ti)/τs])
%V0 = 1/max(exp(-(0:dt:3*tau_m)/tau_m)-exp(-(0:dt:3*tau_m)/tau_s));
V0=1/max(aa)
lmd = 2e-2; %类比学习率 %1e-2/V0;   % optimal performance lmd=3e-3*T/(tau_m*nAfferents*V0)  1e-4/V0;

maxEpoch = 200; %200次训练
mu = 0.99;  % momentum factor
% generate patterns (each pattern consists one spik-e per afferent)
 
if loadData ==0 %初始化网络
    weights = 1e-2*randn(nAfferents,nOutputs);  % 1e-3*randn(nAfferents,1);
    save('weights0','weights');
else
    load('weights0','weights');
end
%Class = logical(eye(nOutputs));     % desired class label for each pattern
%Class = false(1,26); Class(26)=true;
Class = de2bi(1:26,'left-msb');  %26个分类,用5位二进制表示
Class=Class';
 
correctRate=zeros(1,maxEpoch);
dw_Past=zeros(nAfferents,nPtns,nOutputs);  % momentum for accelerating learning.上一个权重的更新,用于动量计算
for epoch=1:maxEpoch    
    
    Class_Tr = false(nOutputs,nPtns);  % actual outputs of training
    for pp=1:nPtns  %26个样本
 %       Class_Tr = false(nOutputs,1);  % actual outputs of training
                
        for neuron=1:nOutputs %5个输出神经元分别进行计算
            Vmax=0; tmax=0;
            fired=false;        
            Vm1=zeros(1,256); indx1= 1; % trace pattern 1 记录了此输出神经元膜电位(在一个时间窗口内)的变化
            for t=dt:dt:T %对每个样本的每个输出神经元的每个时间步长进行计算
                Vm = 0; 
                if fired==false
                    Tsyn=find(TrainPtns(:,pp)<=t+0.1*dt);    % no cut window
                else
                    Tsyn=find(TrainPtns(:,pp)<=t_fire+0.1*dt); % shut down inputs
                end
                if ~isempty(Tsyn)                    
                    A1=TrainPtns(:,pp);
                    A2=A1(Tsyn);
                    K =V0*(exp(-(t-A2)/tau_m)-exp(-(t-A2)/tau_s)); % the kernel value for each fired afferent
                    A1=weights(:,neuron);
                    firedWeights=A1(Tsyn);
                    Vm = Vm + firedWeights'*K ;%Weights'*K记录了此输出神经元膜电位(在一个时间窗口内)的变化
                end
 
                Vm = Vm + V_rest;
                if Vm>=V_thr && fired==false % fire
                    fired=true;
                    t_fire=t;
                    Class_Tr(neuron,pp)=true;
                end
                if Vm>Vmax
                    Vmax=Vm; tmax=t;
                end
 
                %if pp==1
                    Vm1(indx1)=Vm;
                    indx1=indx1+1;
                %end
            end
 
            %if pp==1
                %figure(1); plot(dt:dt:T,Vm1);
                %title(strcat('Image ',char('A'+pp-1),'; neuron: ',num2str(neuron))); drawnow;
            %end
            if Vmax <= 0
                tmax=max(TrainPtns(:,pp));
            end
            
            if Class_Tr(neuron,pp)~=Class(neuron,pp) % 神经元的输出和实际输出不相符时
                
                Tsyn=find(TrainPtns(:,pp)<=tmax+0.1*dt); 
                if ~isempty(Tsyn)                    
                    A1=TrainPtns(:,pp);
                    A2=A1(Tsyn);
                    K =V0*(exp(-(tmax-A2)/tau_m)-exp(-(tmax-A2)/tau_s)); % the kernel value for each fired afferent
                    A1=weights(:,neuron);
                    dwPst=dw_Past(:,pp,neuron);
                    if fired==false    % LTP 增大神经元的刺激,权重应该增加:论文中公式2
                        Dw=lmd*K; 
                    else           % LTD 抑制脉冲发放,于是权重应该减小
                        Dw=-1.1*lmd*K;
                    end
                    A1(Tsyn) = A1(Tsyn) + Dw + mu*dwPst(Tsyn);
                    weights(:,neuron)=A1;
                    dwPst(Tsyn)=Dw;
                    dw_Past(:,pp,neuron) = dwPst;
                end                
            end            
            
        end  % end of one neuron computation
        
   end % end of one image
   %CC=isequal(Class,Class_Tr);
   %correctRate(epoch)=sum(Class==Class_Tr)/length(Class);
   C = bi2de(Class','left-msb');
   CT = bi2de(Class_Tr','left-msb');
   CC= (C==CT);
   a = sum(CC)/length(CC);
   correctRate(epoch)=mean(a);
end
save('TrainedWt','weights');
figure(2); plot(1:maxEpoch,correctRate,'-b.');
end

%%将图片编码为脉冲序列并保存在向量中
function spikeTrain = image2ptn(A)  
%% convert a image to a spike train saved in a vector
RandParts = 1;
A1 = A'; %’行向量变为列向量,便于计算,满足矩阵运算规则。
B = [A1(:);A(:)];%按列排放
numPixels = length(B);
numInputNeurons = numPixels/8; % 64 neurons
spikeTrain = zeros(numInputNeurons,1);
for i = 1:numInputNeurons
    B1 = B((1+(i-1)*8):(8+(i-1)*8));%取B的连续8位 例如当i=1,则B1=[0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ]^T
    B1 = B1';
    spikeTime = bi2de(B1,'left-msb');   %将二进制转为十进制 
    if spikeTime == 0
        spikeTime = 2^8;  % put 0 to the end of the interval 没get到
    end
    spikeTrain(i) = spikeTime;
end

spikeTrain = zeros(32,1);
if RandParts == 1
    loadR = 1;
    AR = A(:);
    if loadR == 0
        R = randperm(size(A,1)*size(A,2));
        save('RandIndex','R');
    else
        load('RandIndex','R');
    end
    numRandNeus = 32;
    for i = 1:numRandNeus
        IndexR = R((1+(i-1)*8):(8+(i-1)*8));
        Bits = AR(IndexR); %按照IndexR为索引,从AR中取值01000001
        Bits = Bits';
        spikeTime = bi2de(Bits,'left-msb');    % 二进制转十进制 65
        if spikeTime == 0
            spikeTime = 2^8;  % put 0 to the end of the interval
        end
        spikeTrain(i) = spikeTime;
    end
end
end

运行结果
在这里插入图片描述

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