50年前端开发写CSS3炫酷动画(不炫酷来打我)

CSS3炫酷动画教程

以前问了很多身边同事,他们对动画的掌握如何,了解一些css3的基本动画吗,即使他们工作几年了,我感觉他们对原生css3动画了解的并不多,只有他们在用到的时候才会看看,而且基本都是用第三方动画库,笔者个人认为君子确实要善假于物,但是做为一个慢慢成长的技术开发,你必须了解原生动画是如何写的。项目中往往因为一个动画而去引入一个动画库是不值得的,性能也比不上原生动画。

另外我想和大家分享的是能用css实现的就不要用js,因为js操作DOM是很耗性能的,浏览器最怕的就是重排,就可能是你操作DOM引起的,这就是为啥Vue,React,Angular都采用虚拟节点,而不去直接操作真实DOM,就是考虑到性能问题。下面就跟着笔者一起来学习一下CSS3炫酷动画。


基本概念

css3动画分以下三种:
1.transition(过渡效果)       用法transition: all 3s linear
2.transform()       用法transform: translate(10px,10px);x,y偏移,transform: rotate(360deg);旋转,transform: scale(1.2);缩放,transform: skew(30deg,50deg);倾斜
3.animation帧动画,可以用from 和 to,也可以用0% {},100%{}

下面就直接看实例吧

一、初级帧动画尝试

上下左右移动并且变色动画,示例代码如下:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style> 
div {
	width:100px;
	height:100px;
	background:red;
	position:relative;
	animation:myAnimation 4s infinite; /*动画名字,持续时间,是否一直播放动画*/
	animation-direction:alternate; /*动画播放完后是否方向播放*/
}

@keyframes myAnimation  {  /*自定义的动画名字*/
	0%   {background:red; left:0px; top:0px;}
	25%  {background:yellow; left:200px; top:0px;}
	50%  {background:blue; left:200px; top:200px;}
	75%  {background:green; left:0px; top:200px;}
	100% {background:red; left:0px; top:0px;}
}
</style>
</head>
<body>
	<div></div>
</body>
</html>

效果图如下(笔者还不会放动态图,只能截图静态动画帧):
在这里插入图片描述
在这里插入图片描述
两个小球左右旋转移动动画,示例代码如下:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style> 
.one, .two {
    display:inline-block;
    width:100px;
    height:100px;
    border-radius: 50%;
    background:cyan;
    text-align:center;
    line-height:100px;
    position:relative;
    animation:myAnimation 5s infinite;
    animation-direction:alternate;
}

@keyframes myAnimation {
    0% {
        left:0px;
        top:0px;
    }
    100% {
        left:400px; 
        top:0px;
        transform: rotate(360deg);
    }
}
</style>
</head>
<body>
    <div class="one">我会滚动哦</div>
    <div class="two">我会滚动哦</div>
</body>
</html>

效果图如下(左右移动并旋转的小球):
在这里插入图片描述

二、进阶动画演示

字节跳动动画代码如下(示例):

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
    <title>Document</title>
    <style>
        .letter {
            animation: bounce 1.5s cubic-bezier(0.05, 0, 0.2, 1) infinite alternate;
            display: inline-block;
            transform: translate3d(0, 0, 0);
            margin-top: 0.5em;
            font-size: 20px;
        }
        .letter:nth-child(1) {
            animation-delay: 0s;
            color: #c9dd22;
        }
        .letter:nth-child(2) {
            animation-delay: 0.3s;
            color: #2edfa3;
        }
        .letter:nth-child(3) {
            animation-delay: 0.5s;
            color: #3eede7;
        }
        .letter:nth-child(4) {
            animation-delay: 0.7s;
            color: #801da0;
        }
        .letter:nth-child(5) {
            animation-delay: 0.9s;
            color: #896c39;
        }
        .letter:nth-child(6) {
            animation-delay: 1.1s;
            color: #9d2933;
        }
        @keyframes bounce {
            0% {
            transform: translate3d(0, 0, 0);
            }
            100% {
            transform: translate3d(0, 1em, 0);
            }
        }
    </style>
</head>
<body>
    <div class="wrapper">
        <span class="letter"></span>
        <span class="letter"></span>
        <span class="letter"></span>
        <span class="letter"></span>
        <span class="letter"></span>
        <span class="letter">.</span>
    </div>
</body>
</html>

效果图如下(文字依次上下跳动):
在这里插入图片描述

如果你感觉这个动画还不够炫酷,那么接下来一个肯定又炫又酷(嵌套滚动立方体,鼠标悬浮立方体散开),直接上代码:(代码中的图片要换成自己的图片地址)

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
  <title>Document</title>
  <style>
    .xz{
        position:absolute;
        top:0px;
        left:0px;
        width:100px;
        height:100px;
    }
    .wrap {
        width: 100px;
        height: 100px;
        margin: 150px 0 0 150px;
        /*position: relative;*/
        position:absolute;
    }
    /*包裹所有容器样式*/
    .cube {
        width: 50px;
        height: 50px;
        margin: 0 auto;
        transform-style: preserve-3d;
        transform: rotateX(-30deg) rotateY(-80deg);
        animation: rotate linear 20s infinite;
    }
    @keyframes rotate {
        from {
            transform: rotateX(0deg) rotateY(0deg);
        }
        to {
            transform: rotateX(360deg) rotateY(360deg);
        }
    }
    .cube div {
        position: absolute;
        width: 200px;
        height: 200px;
        opacity: 0.5;
        transition: all .4s;
    }
    /*定义所有图片样式*/
    .pic {
        width: 200px;
        height: 200px;
    }
    .cube .out_front {
        transform: rotateY(0deg) translateZ(100px);
    }
    .cube .out_back {
        transform: translateZ(-100px) rotateY(180deg);
    }
    .cube .out_left {
        transform: rotateY(-90deg) translateZ(100px);
    }
    .cube .out_right {
        transform: rotateY(90deg) translateZ(100px);
    }
    .cube .out_top {
        transform: rotateX(90deg) translateZ(100px);
    }
    .cube .out_bottom {
        transform: rotateX(-90deg) translateZ(100px);
    }
    /*定义小正方体样式*/
    .cube span {
        display: block;
        width: 100px;
        height: 100px;
        position: absolute;
        top: 50px;
        left: 50px;
    }
    .cube .in_pic {
        width: 100px;
        height: 100px;
    }
    .cube .in_front {
        transform: rotateY(0deg) translateZ(50px);
    }
    .cube .in_back {
        transform: translateZ(-50px) rotateY(180deg);
    }
    .cube .in_left {
        transform: rotateY(-90deg) translateZ(50px);
    }
    .cube .in_right {
        transform: rotateY(90deg) translateZ(50px);
    }
    .cube .in_top {
        transform: rotateX(90deg) translateZ(50px);
    }
    .cube .in_bottom {
        transform: rotateX(-90deg) translateZ(50px);
    }
    /*鼠标移入后样式*/
    .cube:hover .out_front {
        transform: rotateY(0deg) translateZ(200px);
    }
    .cube:hover .out_back {
        transform: translateZ(-200px) rotateY(180deg);
    }
    .cube:hover .out_left {
        transform: rotateY(-90deg) translateZ(200px);
    }
    .cube:hover .out_right {
        transform: rotateY(90deg) translateZ(200px);
    }
    .cube:hover .out_top {
        transform: rotateX(90deg) translateZ(200px);
    }
    .cube:hover .out_bottom {
        transform: rotateX(-90deg) translateZ(200px);
    }
</style>
</head>
<body>
  <div class="xz">
		<!-- 外层最大容器 -->
        <div class="wrap">
            <!--包裹所有元素的容器-->
            <div class="cube">
                <!--前面图片 -->
                <div class="out_front">
                    <img src="./images/001.jpg" class="pic">
                </div>
                <!--后面图片 -->
                <div class="out_back">
                    <img src="./images/002.jpg" class="pic">
                </div>
                <!--左面图片 -->
                <div class="out_left">
                    <img src="./images/003.jpg" class="pic">
                </div>
                <!--右面图片 -->
                <div class="out_right">
                    <img src="./images/004.jpg" class="pic">
                </div>
                <!--上面图片 -->
                <div class="out_top">
                    <img src="./images/001.jpg" class="pic">
                </div>
                <!--下面图片 -->
                <div class="out_bottom">
                    <img src="./images/002.jpg" class="pic">
                </div>

                <!--小正方体 -->
                <span class="in_front">
                    <img src="./images/001.jpg" class="in_pic">
                </span>
                <span class="in_back">
                    <img src="./images/002.jpg" class="in_pic">
                </span>
                <span class="in_left">
                    <img src="./images/003.jpg" class="in_pic">
                </span>
                <span class="in_right">
                    <img src="./images/004.jpg" class="in_pic">
                </span>
                <span class="in_top">
                    <img src="./images/001.jpg" class="in_pic">
                </span>
                <span class="in_bottom">
                    <img src="./images/002.jpg" class="in_pic">
                </span>
            </div>
        </div>
	</div>
</body>
</html>

效果图如下:
在这里插入图片描述
鼠标悬浮效果:
在这里插入图片描述
想想如果把这图片换成自己喜欢的妹子,是不是又可以拿去撩妹装逼了!

三、高级装逼动画演示

示例代码如下:(点击可以切换动画图形),使用的是jquery+canvas以及动画的基本知识实现。

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
	<meta charset="UTF-8">
	<title>动态粒子效果</title>
	<script src="https://cdn.bootcss.com/jquery/3.4.1/jquery.js"></script>
	<style>
		html,body {
			width: 100%;
			height: 100%;
			margin: 0;
			padding: 0;
			overflow: hidden;
     	}
		.container{
			width: 100%;
			height: 100%;
			margin: 0;
			padding: 0;
			background-color: #000000;
		}
	</style>
</head>
<body>

	<div id="jsi-particle-container" class="container"></div>
	<script>
		var RENDERER = {
			PARTICLE_COUNT : 1000,
			PARTICLE_RADIUS : 1,
			MAX_ROTATION_ANGLE : Math.PI / 60,
			TRANSLATION_COUNT : 500,
			init : function(strategy){
				this.setParameters(strategy);
				this.createParticles();
				this.setupFigure();
				this.reconstructMethod();
				this.bindEvent();
				this.drawFigure();
			},
			setParameters : function(strategy){
				this.$window = $(window);
				this.$container = $('#jsi-particle-container');
				this.width = this.$container.width();
				this.height = this.$container.height();
				this.$canvas = $('<canvas />').attr({width : this.width, height : this.height}).appendTo(this.$container);
				this.context = this.$canvas.get(0).getContext('2d');
				this.center = {x : this.width / 2, y : this.height / 2};
				this.rotationX = this.MAX_ROTATION_ANGLE;
				this.rotationY = this.MAX_ROTATION_ANGLE;
				this.strategyIndex = 0;
				this.translationCount = 0;
				this.theta = 0;
				this.strategies = strategy.getStrategies();
				this.particles = [];
			},
			createParticles : function(){
				for(var i = 0; i < this.PARTICLE_COUNT; i ++){
					this.particles.push(new PARTICLE(this.center));
				}
			},
			reconstructMethod : function(){
				this.setupFigure = this.setupFigure.bind(this);
				this.drawFigure = this.drawFigure.bind(this);
				this.changeAngle = this.changeAngle.bind(this);
			},
			bindEvent : function(){
				this.$container.on('click', this.setupFigure);
				this.$container.on('mousemove', this.changeAngle);
			},
			changeAngle : function(event){
				var offset = this.$container.offset(),
					x = event.clientX - offset.left + this.$window.scrollLeft(),
					y = event.clientY - offset.top + this.$window.scrollTop();
				this.rotationX = (this.center.y - y) / this.center.y * this.MAX_ROTATION_ANGLE;
				this.rotationY = (this.center.x - x) / this.center.x * this.MAX_ROTATION_ANGLE;
			},
			setupFigure : function(){
				for(var i = 0, length = this.particles.length; i < length; i++){
					this.particles[i].setAxis(this.strategies[this.strategyIndex]());
				}
				if(++this.strategyIndex == this.strategies.length){
					this.strategyIndex = 0;
				}
				this.translationCount = 0;
			},
			drawFigure : function(){
				requestAnimationFrame(this.drawFigure);
				this.context.fillStyle = 'rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2)';
				this.context.fillRect(0, 0, this.width, this.height);
				for(var i = 0, length = this.particles.length; i < length; i++){
					var axis = this.particles[i].getAxis2D(this.theta);
					this.context.beginPath();
					this.context.fillStyle = axis.color;
					this.context.arc(axis.x, axis.y, this.PARTICLE_RADIUS, 0, Math.PI * 2, false);
					this.context.fill();
				}
				this.theta++;
				this.theta %= 360;
				for(var i = 0, length = this.particles.length; i < length; i++){
					this.particles[i].rotateX(this.rotationX);
					this.particles[i].rotateY(this.rotationY);
				}
				this.translationCount++;
				this.translationCount %= this.TRANSLATION_COUNT;
				if(this.translationCount == 0){
					this.setupFigure();
				}
			}
		};
		var STRATEGY = {
			SCATTER_RADIUS :150,
			CONE_ASPECT_RATIO : 1.5,
			RING_COUNT : 5,
			getStrategies : function(){
				var strategies = [];
				for(var i in this){
					if(this[i] == arguments.callee || typeof this[i] != 'function'){
						continue;
					}
					strategies.push(this[i].bind(this));
				}
				return strategies;
			},
			createSphere : function(){
				var cosTheta = Math.random() * 2 - 1,
					sinTheta = Math.sqrt(1 - cosTheta * cosTheta),
					phi = Math.random() * 2 * Math.PI;
				return {
					x : this.SCATTER_RADIUS * sinTheta * Math.cos(phi),
					y : this.SCATTER_RADIUS * sinTheta * Math.sin(phi),
					z : this.SCATTER_RADIUS * cosTheta,
					hue : Math.round(phi / Math.PI * 30)
				};
			},
			createTorus : function(){
				var theta = Math.random() * Math.PI * 2,
					x = this.SCATTER_RADIUS + this.SCATTER_RADIUS / 6 * Math.cos(theta),
					y = this.SCATTER_RADIUS / 6 * Math.sin(theta),
					phi = Math.random() * Math.PI * 2;
				return {
					x : x * Math.cos(phi),
					y : y,
					z : x * Math.sin(phi),
					hue : Math.round(phi / Math.PI * 30)
				};
			},
			createCone : function(){
				var status = Math.random() > 1 / 3,
					x,
					y,
					phi = Math.random() * Math.PI * 2,
					rate = Math.tan(30 / 180 * Math.PI) / this.CONE_ASPECT_RATIO;
				if(status){
					y = this.SCATTER_RADIUS * (1 - Math.random() * 2);
					x = (this.SCATTER_RADIUS - y) * rate;
				}else{
					y = -this.SCATTER_RADIUS;
					x = this.SCATTER_RADIUS * 2 * rate * Math.random();
				}
				return {
					x : x * Math.cos(phi),
					y : y,
					z : x * Math.sin(phi),
					hue : Math.round(phi / Math.PI * 30)
				};
			},
			createVase : function(){
				var theta = Math.random() * Math.PI,
					x = Math.abs(this.SCATTER_RADIUS * Math.cos(theta) / 2) + this.SCATTER_RADIUS / 8,
					y = this.SCATTER_RADIUS * Math.cos(theta) * 1.2,
					phi = Math.random() * Math.PI * 2;
				
				return {
					x : x * Math.cos(phi),
					y : y,
					z : x * Math.sin(phi),
					hue : Math.round(phi / Math.PI * 30)
				};
			}
		};
		var PARTICLE = function(center){
			this.center = center;
			this.init();
		};
		PARTICLE.prototype = {
			SPRING : 0.01,
			FRICTION : 0.9,
			FOCUS_POSITION : 300,
			COLOR : 'hsl(%hue, 100%, 70%)',
			init : function(){
				this.x = 0;
				this.y = 0;
				this.z = 0;
				this.vx = 0;
				this.vy = 0;
				this.vz = 0;
				this.color;
			},
			setAxis : function(axis){
				this.translating = true;
				this.nextX = axis.x;
				this.nextY = axis.y;
				this.nextZ = axis.z;
				this.hue = axis.hue;
			},
			rotateX : function(angle){
				var sin = Math.sin(angle),
					cos = Math.cos(angle),
					nextY = this.nextY * cos - this.nextZ * sin,
					nextZ = this.nextZ * cos + this.nextY * sin,
					y = this.y * cos - this.z * sin,
					z = this.z * cos + this.y * sin;
					
				this.nextY = nextY;
				this.nextZ = nextZ;
				this.y = y;
				this.z = z;
			},
			rotateY : function(angle){
				var sin = Math.sin(angle),
					cos = Math.cos(angle),
					nextX = this.nextX * cos - this.nextZ * sin,
					nextZ = this.nextZ * cos + this.nextX * sin,
					x = this.x * cos - this.z * sin,
					z = this.z * cos + this.x * sin;
					
				this.nextX = nextX;
				this.nextZ = nextZ;
				this.x = x;
				this.z = z;
			},
			rotateZ : function(angle){
				var sin = Math.sin(angle),
					cos = Math.cos(angle),
					nextX = this.nextX * cos - this.nextY * sin,
					nextY = this.nextY * cos + this.nextX * sin,
					x = this.x * cos - this.y * sin,
					y = this.y * cos + this.x * sin;
					
				this.nextX = nextX;
				this.nextY = nextY;
				this.x = x;
				this.y = y;
			},
			getAxis3D : function(){
				this.vx += (this.nextX - this.x) * this.SPRING;
				this.vy += (this.nextY - this.y) * this.SPRING;
				this.vz += (this.nextZ - this.z) * this.SPRING;
				
				this.vx *= this.FRICTION;
				this.vy *= this.FRICTION;
				this.vz *= this.FRICTION;
				
				this.x += this.vx;
				this.y += this.vy;
				this.z += this.vz;
				
				return {x : this.x, y : this.y, z : this.z};
			},
			getAxis2D : function(theta){
				var axis = this.getAxis3D(),
					scale = this.FOCUS_POSITION / (this.FOCUS_POSITION + axis.z);
				return {x : this.center.x + axis.x * scale, y : this.center.y - axis.y * scale, color : this.COLOR.replace('%hue', this.hue + theta)};
			}
		};
		$(function(){
			RENDERER.init(STRATEGY);
		});
	</script>
</body>
</html>

效果图如下:
在这里插入图片描述
在这里插入图片描述
在这里插入图片描述
在这里插入图片描述
在这里插入图片描述

写在最后

每次写完一篇博客都挺快乐的,因为分享是件快乐的事,每段代码都要自己写好自己测试n遍,就怕出现bug误人子弟!爱分享,爱实践,做一个不断学习,不断进步的程序员,喜欢的小伙伴可以收藏一下,一起交流学习。

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