第二章 : 微服务环境搭建

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我们承接上一篇开始 第一章 :微服务的架构介绍发展 SpringCloudAlibaba技术栈的学习

我们本次是使用的电商项目中的商品、订单、用户为案例进行讲解。

2.1 案例准备

2.1.1 技术选型

  • maven:3.6.0

  • 数据库:MySQL 5.7

  • 持久层: SpingData Jpa

  • 其他: SpringCloud Alibaba 技术栈

2.1.2 模块设计

下面是项目端口号说明及项目结构

  • springcloud-alibaba 父工程
    • shop-common公共模块【实体类】
    • shop-user用户微服务 【端口: 807x】
    • shop-product商品微服务 【端口: 808x】
    • shop-order订单微服务 【端口: 809x】

在这里插入图片描述

2.1.3 微服务调用

在微服务架构中,最常见的场景就是微服务之间的相互调用。我们以电商系统中常见的用户下单为例来演示微服务的调用:客户向订单微服务发起一个下单的请求,在进行保存订单之前需要调用商品微服务查询商品的信息。

我们一般把服务的主动调用方称为服务消费者,把服务的被调用方称为服务提供者。

在这里插入图片描述在这种场景下,订单微服务就是一个服务消费者, 商品微服务就是一个服务提供者。

2.2 创建父工程


创建一个maven工程,然后在pom.xml文件中添加下面内容

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <groupId>com.spiritmark.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
    <packaging>pom</packaging>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>

  
    <!--父工程-->
    <parent>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
        <version>2.1.3.RELEASE</version>
    </parent>


    <!--依赖版本的锁定-->
    <properties>
        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
        <spring-cloud.version>Greenwich.RELEASE</spring-cloud.version>
        <!--        <spring-cloud-alibaba.version>2.1.1.RELEASE</spring-cloud-alibaba.version>-->
        <spring-cloud-alibaba.version>2.1.0.RELEASE</spring-cloud-alibaba.version>
    </properties>
	<!--选择 SpringCloud 和 SpringCloud Alibaba的版本对应-->
    <dependencyManagement>
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>${spring-cloud.version}</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>com.alibaba.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-alibaba-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>${spring-cloud-alibaba.version}</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    </dependencyManagement>

   

</project>

截自 2020 年 1月 7日 版本对应:

在这里插入图片描述

2.3 创建基础模块

1 创建shop-common 模块,在pom.xml中添加依赖

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <parent>
        <artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
     	<groupId>com.spiritmark.cloud</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <artifactId>shop-common</artifactId>

    <!--依赖-->
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-jpa</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
            <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.alibaba</groupId>
            <artifactId>fastjson</artifactId>
            <version>1.2.56</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>mysql</groupId>
            <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
            <version>5.1.6</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>

</project>

2 创建实体类

用户类

import lombok.Data;

import javax.persistence.Entity;
import javax.persistence.GeneratedValue;
import javax.persistence.GenerationType;
import javax.persistence.Id;

//用户
@Entity(name = "shop_user")//实体类跟数据表的对应
@Data//不再去写set和get方法
public class User {
    @Id
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)//数据库自增
    private Integer uid;//主键
    private String username;//用户名
    private String password;//密码
    private String telephone;//手机号
}

商品类

import lombok.Data;

import javax.persistence.Entity;
import javax.persistence.GeneratedValue;
import javax.persistence.GenerationType;
import javax.persistence.Id;

//商品
@Entity(name = "shop_product")
@Data
public class Product {
    @Id
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    private Integer pid;//主键

    private String pname;//商品名称
    private Double pprice;//商品价格
    private Integer stock;//库存
}

订单类

import lombok.Data;

import javax.persistence.Entity;
import javax.persistence.GeneratedValue;
import javax.persistence.GenerationType;
import javax.persistence.Id;

//订单
@Entity(name = "shop_order")
@Data
public class Order {
    @Id
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    private Long oid;//订单id

    //用户
    private Integer uid;//用户id
    private String username;//用户名

    //商品
    private Integer pid;//商品id
    private String pname;//商品名称
    private Double pprice;//商品单价

    //数量
    private Integer number;//购买数量
}

2.4 创建用户微服务

步骤:

  • 1 创建模块 导入依赖
  • 2 创建SpringBoot主类
  • 3 加入配置文件
  • 4 创建必要的接口和实现类(controller service dao)

新建一个shop-user 模块,然后进行下面操作

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <parent>
        <artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
       <groupId>com.spiritmark.cloud</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <artifactId>shop-user</artifactId>

    <dependencies>
        <!--shop-common-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.spiritmark.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>shop-common</artifactId>
            <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
        </dependency>
 
    </dependencies>

</project>

2 编写主类

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableDiscoveryClient
public class UserApplication {
public static void main(String[] args) {
	SpringApplication.run(UserApplication.class, args);
}
}

3. 编写配置文件

server:
  port: 8071
spring:
  application:
    name: service-user
  datasource:
    driver-class-name: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
    url: jdbc:mysql:///shop?serverTimezone=UTC&useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf-8&useSSL=true
    username: root
    password: root
  jpa:
    properties:
      hibernate:
        hbm2ddl:
          auto: update
        dialect: org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5InnoDBDialect

2.5 创建商品微服务


1 创建一个名为shop_product 的模块,并添加springboot依赖

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <parent>
        <artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
        <groupId>com.spiritmark.cloud</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <artifactId>shop-product</artifactId>
    <dependencies>
        <!--springboot-web-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <!--shop-common-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.spiritmark.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>shop-common</artifactId>
            <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>


</project>

2 创建工程的主类

@SpringBootApplication
public class ProductApplication {
	public static void main(String[] args) {
	SpringApplication.run(ProductApplication.class, args);
}
}

3 创建配置文件application.yml

server:
  port: 8081
spring:
  application:
    name: service-product
  datasource:
    driver-class-name: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
    url: jdbc:mysql:///shop?serverTimezone=UTC&useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf-8&useSSL=true
    username: root
    password: root
  jpa:
    properties:
      hibernate:
        hbm2ddl:
          auto: update
        dialect: org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5InnoDBDialect

4 创建ProductDao接口

public interface ProductDao extends JpaRepository<Product,Integer> {
}

5 创建ProductService接口和实现类

@Service
public class ProductServiceImpl implements ProductService {
@Autowired
private ProductDao productDao;
@Override
public Product findByPid(Integer pid) {
return productDao.findById(pid).get();
}
}

6 创建Controller

import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PathVariable;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestParam;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

@RestController
@Slf4j
public class ProductController {

    @Autowired
    private ProductService productService;

    //商品信息查询
    @RequestMapping("/product/{pid}")
    public Product product(@PathVariable("pid") Integer pid) {
        log.info("接下来要进行{}号商品信息的查询", pid);
        Product product = productService.findByPid(pid);
        return product;
    }

7 启动工程,等到数据库表创建完毕之后,加入测试数据

INSERT INTO shop_product VALUE (NULL, '小米', '1000', '5000');
INSERT INTO shop_product VALUE (NULL, '华为', '2000', '5000');
INSERT INTO shop_product VALUE (NULL, '苹果', '3000', '5000');
INSERT INTO shop_product VALUE (NULL, 'OPPO', '4000', '5000');

8 通过浏览器访问服务

在这里插入图片描述

2.6 创建订单微服务

1 创建一个名为shop-order 的模块,并添加springboot依赖

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <parent>
        <artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
        <groupId>com.spiritmark.cloud</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <artifactId>shop-order</artifactId>
    <dependencies>
        <!--springboot-web-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <!--shop-common-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.spiritmark.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>shop-common</artifactId>
            <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>


</project>

2 创建工程的主类

   @SpringBootApplication
    public class OrderApplication {
        public static void main(String[] args) {
            SpringApplication.run(OrderApplication.class, args);
        }
    }

3 创建配置文件application.yml

server:
  port: 8091
spring:
  application:
    name: service-order
  datasource:
    driver-class-name: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
    url: jdbc:mysql:///shop?serverTimezone=UTC&useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf-8&useSSL=true
    username: root
    password: root
  jpa:
    properties:
      hibernate:
        hbm2ddl:
          auto: update
        dialect: org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5InnoDBDialect

4 创建OrderDao接口

public interface OrderDao extends JpaRepository<Order,Long> {
}

5 创建OrderService接口和实现类

   @Service
    public class OrderServiceImpl implements OrderService {
        @Autowired
        private OrderDao orderDao;

        @Override
        public void save(Order order) {
            orderDao.save(order);
        }
    }

6 创建RestTemplate


    @SpringBootApplication
    public class OrderApplication {
        public static void main(String[] args) {
            SpringApplication.run(OrderApplication.class, args);
        }

        @Bean
        public RestTemplate getRestTemplate() {
            return new RestTemplate();
        }
    }

7 创建Controller

   @RestController
    @Slf4j
    public class OrderController {
        @Autowired
        private RestTemplate restTemplate;
        @Autowired
        private OrderService orderService;

  //准备买1件商品
    @GetMapping("/order/prod/{pid}")
    public Order order(@PathVariable("pid") Integer pid) {
        log.info(">>客户下单,这时候要调用商品微服务查询商品信息");
//通过restTemplate调用商品微服务
        Product product = restTemplate.getForObject(
                "http://localhost:8081/product/" + pid, Product.class);
  //通过restTemplate调用商品微服务
    Product product = restTemplate.getForObject(
            "http://localhost:8081/product/" + pid, Product.class);
            
    log.info(">>商品信息,查询结果:" + JSON.toJSONString(product));
        Order order = new Order();
        order.setUid(1);
        order.setUsername("测试用户");
        order.setPid(product.getPid());
        order.setPname(product.getPname());
        order.setPprice(product.getPprice());
        order.setNumber(1);
        orderService.save(order);
        return order;
            
    }


7 启动工程,通过浏览器访问服务进行测试

在这里插入图片描述

本章只是搭建基本环境,并不过多讲解

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