spring学习笔记(12)@AspectJ研磨分析[3]增强织入顺序实例详解

增强的织入顺序

当一个连接点同时织入多个增强时,就存在顺序调用问题:
1. 增强在同一个切面类中定义:依照增强在切面类中定义的顺序依次织入。
2. 增强位于不同的切面,但果这些切面都实现了org.springframework.core.Ordered
接口,则由接口注解的顺序号决定,顺序号越小,对于不同的增强,织入顺序为:
1. 前置增强->越先织入
2. 后置增强->越后织入
3. 最终增强->越后织入
4. 环绕增强->调用原方法之前的部分先织入,调用原方法之后的部分后织入
我们先来看一个实例:

1.目标对象

package test.aop2;

public class UserController {
    public void login(String name){
        System.out.println("I'm "+name+" ,I'm logining");
    }
}

2. 切面配置

/*-----------------------有序切面类1--------------------------*/
@Aspect
public class Annotation_aspect implements Ordered {//实现顺序接口

    @Pointcut("target(test.aop2.UserController)")
    private void pointcut(){}//定义切点

    @AfterThrowing("pointcut()")//后置增强
    public void AfterThrowing() throws Throwable{
        System.out.println("Annotation_aspect 实施AfterThrowing,优先级为" + getOrder());
    }
    @After("pointcut()")//最终增强
    public void after() throws Throwable{
        System.out.println("Annotation_aspect 实施after,优先级为" + getOrder());
    }
    @Before("pointcut()")//前置增强
    public void before() throws Throwable{
        System.out.println("Annotation_aspect 实施@before,优先级为" + getOrder());
    }
    @Around("pointcut()")//环绕增强
    public void around(ProceedingJoinPoint joinPoint) throws Throwable{
        System.out.println("Annotation_aspect 实施around前,优先级为" + getOrder());
        joinPoint.proceed();
        System.out.println("Annotation_aspect 实施around后,优先级为" + getOrder());
    }

    @Override
    public int getOrder() {
        return 1;
    }

}
/*-----------------------有序切面类2--------------------------*/
@Aspect
public class Annotation_aspect2 implements Ordered {

    @Pointcut("target(test.aop2.UserController)")
    private void pointcut(){}


    @AfterThrowing("pointcut()")
    public void AfterThrowing() throws Throwable{
        System.out.println("Annotation_aspect2 实施AfterThrowing,优先级为" + getOrder());
    }
    @After("pointcut()")
    public void after() throws Throwable{
        System.out.println("Annotation_aspect2 实施after,优先级为" + getOrder());
    }
    @Before("pointcut()")
    public void before() throws Throwable{
        System.out.println("Annotation_aspect2 实施@before,优先级为" + getOrder());
    }
    @Around("pointcut()")
    public void around(ProceedingJoinPoint joinPoint) throws Throwable{
        System.out.println("Annotation_aspect2 实施around前,优先级为" + getOrder());
        joinPoint.proceed();
        System.out.println("Annotation_aspect2 实施around后,优先级为" + getOrder());
    }

    @Override
    public int getOrder() {
        return 2;
    }


}
/*-----------------------无序切面类1--------------------------*/
@Aspect
public class noOrder_aspect {

    @Pointcut("target(test.aop2.UserController)")
    private void pointcut(){}


    @AfterThrowing("pointcut()")
    public void AfterThrowing() throws Throwable{
        System.out.println("noOrder_aspect 实施AfterThrowing,无优先级");
    }
    @After("pointcut()")
    public void after() throws Throwable{
        System.out.println("noOrder_aspect 实施after,无优先级");
    }
    @Before("pointcut()")
    public void before() throws Throwable{
        System.out.println("noOrder_aspect 实施@before,无优先级");
    }
    @Around("pointcut()")
    public void around(ProceedingJoinPoint joinPoint) throws Throwable{
        System.out.println("noOrder_aspect 实施around前,无优先级");
        joinPoint.proceed();
        System.out.println("noOrder_aspect 实施around后,无优先级");
    }
}
/*-----------------------无序切面类2--------------------------*/
@Aspect
public class noOrder_aspect2 {

    @Pointcut("target(test.aop2.UserController)")
    private void pointcut(){}


    @AfterThrowing("pointcut()")
    public void AfterThrowing() throws Throwable{
        System.out.println("noOrder_aspect2 实施AfterThrowing,无优先级");
    }
    @After("pointcut()")
    public void after() throws Throwable{
        System.out.println("noOrder_aspect2 实施after,无优先级");
    }
    @Before("pointcut()")
    public void before() throws Throwable{
        System.out.println("noOrder_aspect2 实施@before,无优先级");
    }
    @Around("pointcut()")
    public void around(ProceedingJoinPoint joinPoint) throws Throwable{
        System.out.println("noOrder_aspect1 实施around前,无优先级");
        joinPoint.proceed();
        System.out.println("noOrder_aspect1 实施around后,无优先级");
    }

}

3. IOC容器配置

<aop:aspectj-autoproxy />   <!-- 使@AspectJ注解生效 -->
<bean class="test.aop2.noOrder_aspect" />
<bean class="test.aop2.noOrder_aspect2" />
<bean class="test.aop2.Annotation_aspect2" />
<bean class="test.aop2.Annotation_aspect" />
<bean id="userController" class="test.aop2.UserController" /><!-- 注册目标对象 -->

4. 测试方法

public static void main(String args[]) throws Exception{
    ApplicationContext ac = new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext("classpath:test/aop2/aop.xml");
    UserController userController = (UserController) ac.getBean("userController");
    User user = new User();
    userController.login("zenghao");
}

运行测试方法,控制台输出:

Annotation_aspect 实施around前,优先级为1
Annotation_aspect 实施@before,优先级为1
Annotation_aspect2 实施around前,优先级为2
Annotation_aspect2 实施@before,优先级为2
noOrder_aspect 实施around前,无优先级
noOrder_aspect 实施@before,无优先级
noOrder_aspect1 实施around前,无优先级
noOrder_aspect2 实施@before,无优先级
I’m zenghao ,I’m logining
noOrder_aspect1 实施around后,无优先级
noOrder_aspect2 实施after,无优先级
noOrder_aspect2 实施AfterReturning,无优先级
noOrder_aspect 实施around后,无优先级
noOrder_aspect 实施after,无优先级
noOrder_aspect 实施AfterReturning,无优先级
Annotation_aspect2 实施around后,优先级为2
Annotation_aspect2 实施after,优先级为2
Annotation_aspect2 实施AfterReturning,优先级为2
Annotation_aspect 实施around后,优先级为1
Annotation_aspect 实施after,优先级为1
Annotation_aspect 实施AfterReturning,优先级为1

针对以上信息,我们再复述前面结论来对比看,是完全符合的,顺序号越小,对于不同的增强,织入顺序为:
1. 前置增强->越先织入
2. 后置增强->越后织入
3. 最终增强->越后织入
4. 环绕增强->调用原方法之前的部分先织入,调用原方法之后的部分后织入

认真观察,我们还会发现:
1. 同一切面中,不同增强的织入顺序为:环绕增强前半部分->前置增强->原目标函数调用->环绕增强后半部分->最终增强->后置增强
2. 没有实现order接口的“优先级”总是低于实现了order接口的,如针对前置增强来看,顺序为:
Annotation_aspect > Annotation_aspect2 > noOrder_aspect > noOrder_aspect
3. 先观察无序接口,我们会发现noOrder_aspect的优先级总是高于noOrder_aspect2的优先级,这是有前面IOC容器中前面Bean的配置顺序决定的:

<bean class="test.aop2.noOrder_aspect" />
<bean class="test.aop2.noOrder_aspect2" />
<bean class="test.aop2.Annotation_aspect2" />
<bean class="test.aop2.Annotation_aspect" />

那么,对于同样实现了order接口的切面,它们是否也满足这个规律呢?我们把Annotation_aspect2的优先级也设为1,然后运行测试函数,打印信息如下:
Annotation_aspect2 实施around前,优先级为1
Annotation_aspect2 实施@before,优先级为1
Annotation_aspect 实施around前,优先级为1
Annotation_aspect 实施@before,优先级为1
noOrder_aspect 实施around前,无优先级
noOrder_aspect 实施@before,无优先级
noOrder_aspect1 实施around前,无优先级
noOrder_aspect2 实施@before,无优先级
I’m zenghao ,I’m logining
noOrder_aspect1 实施around后,无优先级
noOrder_aspect2 实施after,无优先级
noOrder_aspect2 实施AfterReturning,无优先级
noOrder_aspect 实施around后,无优先级
noOrder_aspect 实施after,无优先级
noOrder_aspect 实施AfterReturning,无优先级
Annotation_aspect 实施around后,优先级为1
Annotation_aspect 实施after,优先级为1
Annotation_aspect 实施AfterReturning,优先级为1
Annotation_aspect2 实施around后,优先级为1
Annotation_aspect2 实施after,优先级为1
Annotation_aspect2 实施AfterReturning,优先级为1

关注粗体部分,是不是优先级和IOC容器的配置顺序对应上了,感兴趣的同学可以把两个没有实现order接口的配置顺序也交换一下,观察它们的织入优先级是否也跟着变化了?

除了实现org.springframework.core.Ordered配置顺序外,我们还可以使用注解@org.springframework.core.annotation.Order(优先级整数)来实现同样的效果。在这里,如果既使用注解,又使用接口实现的,且它们的优先级一致时,一样是看IOC容器的bean顺序,如:

<!-- <bean class="test.aop2.noOrder_aspect" />
<bean class="test.aop2.noOrder_aspect2" /> -->
<bean class="test.aop2.Annotation_aspect3" />
<bean class="test.aop2.Annotation_aspect4" />
<bean class="test.aop2.Annotation_aspect2" />
<bean class="test.aop2.Annotation_aspect" />

其中Annotation_aspect3和Annotation_aspect4的类定义头部为:

@Aspect
@Order(1)
public class Annotation_aspect3{
....
}
@Aspect
@Order(2)
public class Annotation_aspect4{
....
}

注释再次运行测试程序,得到打印信息:

Annotation_aspect3 实施around前,注解优先级为1
Annotation_aspect3 实施@before,注解优先级为1
Annotation_aspect 实施around前,优先级为1
Annotation_aspect 实施@before,优先级为1
Annotation_aspect4 实施around前,注解优先级为2
Annotation_aspect4 实施@before,注解优先级为2
Annotation_aspect2 实施around前,优先级为2
Annotation_aspect2 实施@before,优先级为2
I’m zenghao ,I’m logining
Annotation_aspect2 实施around后,优先级为2
Annotation_aspect2 实施after,优先级为2
Annotation_aspect2 实施AfterReturning,优先级为2
Annotation_aspect4 实施around后,注解优先级为2
Annotation_aspect4 实施after,注解优先级为2
Annotation_aspect4 实施AfterReturning,注解优先级为2
Annotation_aspect 实施around后,优先级为1
Annotation_aspect 实施after,优先级为1
Annotation_aspect 实施AfterReturning,优先级为1
Annotation_aspect3 实施around后,注解优先级为1
Annotation_aspect3 实施after,注解优先级为1
Annotation_aspect3 实施AfterReturning,注解优先级为1
观察IOC容器的配置顺序,这里也是对应上的。
综上,我们得到结论:多个同一类型的增强(如都是前置增强)对同一连接点的织入顺序是:配置有优先级看谁优先级高,优先级相同则看谁先在IOC容器注册,配置了order接口或注释的增强优先级总是高于没配置的。

通过以上分析,我们能够较好地总结出我们常用增强对应各种情况的织入顺序。在了解这些织入顺序后,有助于我们更灵活地将AOP运用到我们的项目中。

源码下载

本博文提到的示例源码请到我的github仓库https://github.com/jeanhao/spring的aop分支下载。

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