Longest Increasing Path in a Matrix

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Given an integer matrix, find the length of the longest increasing path.

From each cell, you can either move to four directions: left, right, up or down. You may NOT move diagonally or move outside of the boundary (i.e. wrap-around is not allowed).

Example 1:

nums = [
  [9,9,4],
  [6,6,8],
  [2,1,1]
]

Return 4
The longest increasing path is [1, 2, 6, 9].

Example 2:

nums = [
  [3,4,5],
  [3,2,6],
  [2,2,1]
]

Return 4

The longest increasing path is [3, 4, 5, 6]. Moving diagonally is not allowed.

注意从任何一个位置出发可上、下、左、右移动,不可以沿着对角线移动,环绕也是不可以的

故在解题的过程中加入记忆化搜索,具体方法如下:

从起点开始遍历矩阵,递归寻找其最长递增路径。定义辅助数组record,用于记录已经搜索过的矩阵元素的数据,如record[x][y]存储了从坐标(x, y)出发的最长递增路径长度。

之后,进行深度优先搜索。逐一检查某个元素的四个方向,并继续从所有可能出现最长路径的方向上进行搜索。 当遇到record[x][y]已算出的情况,直接返回record[x][y],减少运算量。

代码如下:

int dfs(vector<vector<int>>& matrix, vector<vector<int>>& record, int x, int y, int last)
    {
        if(x < 0 || y < 0 || x >= matrix.size() || y >= matrix[0].size()) return 0;
        if(matrix[x][y] > last)
        {
            if (record[x][y] != 0) return record[x][y]; // 路线已算出,直接返回结果
            int left = dfs(matrix,record,x, y - 1 , matrix[x][y]) + 1;
            int right = dfs(matrix,record,x, y + 1 , matrix[x][y]) + 1;
            int top = dfs(matrix,record,x-1, y , matrix[x][y]) + 1;
            int botton = dfs(matrix,record,x+1, y , matrix[x][y]) + 1;
            record[x][y] = max(left,max(right,max(top,botton)));
            return record [x][y];
            
        }
    
        return 0;
    }
    
    int longestIncreasingPath(vector<vector<int>>& matrix) {
        if(matrix.size() == 0) return 0;
        
        vector<vector<int>> record(matrix.size(),vector<int>(matrix[0].size(),0));
        int longest = 0;
        for(int i = 0; i < matrix.size(); i++)
        {
            for(int j = 0; j < matrix[0].size(); j++)
            {
                longest = max(longest,dfs(matrix,record,i,j,-1));
            }
        }
        
        return longest;
    }


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