Linux创建swap分区实录

Linux创建swap分区实录

方法一:使用物理分区创建swap分区

[root@7-64-test tmp]# echo "使用物理分区构建swap空间"
使用物理分区构建swap空间
[root@7-64-test tmp]# fdisk /dev/sdb		//开始创建swap所需要使用的物理分区
WARNING: fdisk GPT support is currently new, and therefore in an experimental phase. Use at your own discretion.
Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.23.2).

Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
Be careful before using the write command.


Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes, 2097152 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: gpt
Disk identifier: 26965E7C-1CD5-4EB3-B1F4-DE7E5B896224


#         Start          End    Size  Type            Name
 1         2048       206847    100M  Linux filesyste 

Command (m for help): n						//创建一个新的分区
Partition number (2-128, default 2): 
First sector (206848-2097118, default 206848): 	//开始柱面请默认
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G,T,P} (206848-2097118, default 2097118): +100M	//增加一个大小为100MB的分区
Created partition 2


Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes, 2097152 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: gpt
Disk identifier: 26965E7C-1CD5-4EB3-B1F4-DE7E5B896224


#         Start          End    Size  Type            Name
 1         2048       206847    100M  Linux filesyste 
 2       206848       411647    100M  Linux filesyste 

Command (m for help): t					//修改新建分区的磁盘Type
Partition number (1,2, default 2): 2	//选择新建分区的磁盘编号,选择Linux swap
Partition type (type L to list all types): L		/查看全部磁盘Type
  1 EFI System                     C12A7328-F81F-11D2-BA4B-00A0C93EC93B
  2 MBR partition scheme           024DEE41-33E7-11D3-9D69-0008C781F39F
  3 Intel Fast Flash               D3BFE2DE-3DAF-11DF-BA40-E3A556D89593
  4 BIOS boot                      21686148-6449-6E6F-744E-656564454649
  5 Sony boot partition            F4019732-066E-4E12-8273-346C5641494F
  6 Lenovo boot partition          BFBFAFE7-A34F-448A-9A5B-6213EB736C22
  7 PowerPC PReP boot              9E1A2D38-C612-4316-AA26-8B49521E5A8B
  8 ONIE boot                      7412F7D5-A156-4B13-81DC-867174929325
  9 ONIE config                    D4E6E2CD-4469-46F3-B5CB-1BFF57AFC149
 10 Microsoft reserved             E3C9E316-0B5C-4DB8-817D-F92DF00215AE
 11 Microsoft basic data           EBD0A0A2-B9E5-4433-87C0-68B6B72699C7
 12 Microsoft LDM metadata         5808C8AA-7E8F-42E0-85D2-E1E90434CFB3
 13 Microsoft LDM data             AF9B60A0-1431-4F62-BC68-3311714A69AD
 14 Windows recovery environment   DE94BBA4-06D1-4D40-A16A-BFD50179D6AC
 15 IBM General Parallel Fs        37AFFC90-EF7D-4E96-91C3-2D7AE055B174
 16 Microsoft Storage Spaces       E75CAF8F-F680-4CEE-AFA3-B001E56EFC2D
 17 HP-UX data                     75894C1E-3AEB-11D3-B7C1-7B03A0000000
 18 HP-UX service                  E2A1E728-32E3-11D6-A682-7B03A0000000
 19 Linux swap*斜体样式*                     0657FD6D-A4AB-43C4-84E5-0933C84B4F4F
 20 Linux filesystem               0FC63DAF-8483-4772-8E79-3D69D8477DE4
 21 Linux server data              3B8F8425-20E0-4F3B-907F-1A25A76F98E8
 22 Linux root (x86)               44479540-F297-41B2-9AF7-D131D5F0458A
 23 Linux root (ARM)               69DAD710-2CE4-4E3C-B16C-21A1D49ABED3
 24 Linux root (x86-64)            4F68BCE3-E8CD-4DB1-96E7-FBCAF984B709
 25 Linux root (ARM-64)            B921B045-1DF0-41C3-AF44-4C6F280D3FAE
 26 Linux root	(IA-64)             993D8D3D-F80E-4225-855A-9DAF8ED7EA97
 27 Linux reserved                 8DA63339-0007-60C0-C436-083AC8230908
 28 Linux home                     933AC7E1-2EB4-4F13-B844-0E14E2AEF915
 29 Linux RAID                     A19D880F-05FC-4D3B-A006-743F0F84911E
 30 Linux extended boot            BC13C2FF-59E6-4262-A352-B275FD6F7172
 31 Linux LVM                      E6D6D379-F507-44C2-A23C-238F2A3DF928
 32 FreeBSD data                   516E7CB4-6ECF-11D6-8FF8-00022D09712B
 33 FreeBSD boot                   83BD6B9D-7F41-11DC-BE0B-001560B84F0F
 34 FreeBSD swap                   516E7CB5-6ECF-11D6-8FF8-00022D09712B
 35 FreeBSD UFS                    516E7CB6-6ECF-11D6-8FF8-00022D09712B
 36 FreeBSD ZFS                    516E7CBA-6ECF-11D6-8FF8-00022D09712B
 37 FreeBSD Vinum                  516E7CB8-6ECF-11D6-8FF8-00022D09712B
 38 Apple HFS/HFS+                 48465300-0000-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC
 39 Apple UFS                      55465300-0000-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC
 40 Apple RAID                     52414944-0000-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC
 41 Apple RAID offline             52414944-5F4F-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC
 42 Apple boot                     426F6F74-0000-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC
 43 Apple label                    4C616265-6C00-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC
 44 Apple TV recovery              5265636F-7665-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC
 45 Apple Core storage             53746F72-6167-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC
 46 Solaris boot                   6A82CB45-1DD2-11B2-99A6-080020736631
 47 Solaris root                   6A85CF4D-1DD2-11B2-99A6-080020736631
 48 Solaris /usr & Apple ZFS       6A898CC3-1DD2-11B2-99A6-080020736631
 49 Solaris swap                   6A87C46F-1DD2-11B2-99A6-080020736631
 50 Solaris backup                 6A8B642B-1DD2-11B2-99A6-080020736631
 51 Solaris /var                   6A8EF2E9-1DD2-11B2-99A6-080020736631
 52 Solaris /home                  6A90BA39-1DD2-11B2-99A6-080020736631
 53 Solaris alternate sector       6A9283A5-1DD2-11B2-99A6-080020736631
 54 Solaris reserved 1             6A945A3B-1DD2-11B2-99A6-080020736631
 55 Solaris reserved 2             6A9630D1-1DD2-11B2-99A6-080020736631
 56 Solaris reserved 3             6A980767-1DD2-11B2-99A6-080020736631
 57 Solaris reserved 4             6A96237F-1DD2-11B2-99A6-080020736631
 58 Solaris reserved 5             6A8D2AC7-1DD2-11B2-99A6-080020736631
 59 NetBSD swap                    49F48D32-B10E-11DC-B99B-0019D1879648
 60 NetBSD FFS                     49F48D5A-B10E-11DC-B99B-0019D1879648
 61 NetBSD LFS                     49F48D82-B10E-11DC-B99B-0019D1879648
 62 NetBSD concatenated            2DB519C4-B10E-11DC-B99B-0019D1879648
 63 NetBSD encrypted               2DB519EC-B10E-11DC-B99B-0019D1879648
 64 NetBSD RAID                    49F48DAA-B10E-11DC-B99B-0019D1879648
 65 ChromeOS kernel                FE3A2A5D-4F32-41A7-B725-ACCC3285A309
 66 ChromeOS root fs               3CB8E202-3B7E-47DD-8A3C-7FF2A13CFCEC
 67 ChromeOS reserved              2E0A753D-9E48-43B0-8337-B15192CB1B5E
 68 MidnightBSD data               85D5E45A-237C-11E1-B4B3-E89A8F7FC3A7
 69 MidnightBSD boot               85D5E45E-237C-11E1-B4B3-E89A8F7FC3A7
 70 MidnightBSD swap               85D5E45B-237C-11E1-B4B3-E89A8F7FC3A7
 71 MidnightBSD UFS                0394EF8B-237E-11E1-B4B3-E89A8F7FC3A7
 72 MidnightBSD ZFS                85D5E45D-237C-11E1-B4B3-E89A8F7FC3A7
 73 MidnightBSD Vinum              85D5E45C-237C-11E1-B4B3-E89A8F7FC3A7
 74 Ceph Journal                   45B0969E-9B03-4F30-B4C6-B4B80CEFF106
 75 Ceph Encrypted Journal         45B0969E-9B03-4F30-B4C6-5EC00CEFF106
 76 Ceph OSD                       4FBD7E29-9D25-41B8-AFD0-062C0CEFF05D
 77 Ceph crypt OSD                 4FBD7E29-9D25-41B8-AFD0-5EC00CEFF05D
 78 Ceph disk in creation          89C57F98-2FE5-4DC0-89C1-F3AD0CEFF2BE
 79 Ceph crypt disk in creation    89C57F98-2FE5-4DC0-89C1-5EC00CEFF2BE
 80 OpenBSD data                   824CC7A0-36A8-11E3-890A-952519AD3F61
 81 QNX6 file system               CEF5A9AD-73BC-4601-89F3-CDEEEEE321A1
 82 Plan 9 partition               C91818F9-8025-47AF-89D2-F030D7000C2C

Partition type (type L to list all types): 19		//选在Linux swap这个磁盘类型的编号
Changed type of partition 'Linux filesystem' to 'Linux swap'

Command (m for help): p		//查看是否生效

Disk /dev/sdb: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes, 2097152 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: gpt
Disk identifier: 26965E7C-1CD5-4EB3-B1F4-DE7E5B896224


#         Start          End    Size  Type            Name
 1         2048       206847    100M  Linux filesyste 
 2       206848       411647    100M  **Linux swap**    		//已经产生变化  

Command (m for help): w			//保存退出
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
[root@7-64-test tmp]# partprobe 				//重新加载,非常重要!
 read-only.
[root@7-64-test tmp]# mkswap /dev/sdb2			//把物理分区制作成swap分区
Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 102396 KiB
no label, UUID=e8b9a4f5-24d2-4bc7-b2c7-89b3e1134415
[root@7-64-test tmp]# free					//查看此时内存及swap分区的大小
              total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
Mem:         995748      196836      517336        7792      281576      637456
Swap:       3145724           0     3145724
[root@7-64-test tmp]# swapon -s				//查看swap分区添加情况
Filename				Type		Size	Used	Priority
/dev/dm-1                              	partition	3145724	0	-2
[root@7-64-test tmp]# swapon /dev/sdb2		//启用swap分区
[root@7-64-test tmp]# swapon -s				//再次查看swap分区添加情况
Filename				Type		Size	Used	Priority
/dev/dm-1                              	partition	3145724	0	-2
/dev/sdb2                              	partition	102396	0	-3

方法二:使用文件创建swap分区

[root@7-64-test tmp]# echo "使用文件构建swap分区"
使用文件构建swap分区
[root@7-64-test tmp]# dd if=/dev/zero of=/tmp/testswap bs=1M count=40		//创建文件
40+0 records in
40+0 records out
41943040 bytes (42 MB) copied, 0.0233054 s, 1.8 GB/s
[root@7-64-test tmp]# mkswap /tmp/testswap 				//创建swap分区
Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 40956 KiB
no label, UUID=a8fa841a-36f7-4b1e-9997-71a65b4626f5
[root@7-64-test tmp]# swapon /tmp/testswap 				//启用swap分区
swapon: /tmp/testswap: insecure permissions 0644, 0600 suggested.	//需要把/tmp/swap权限改成600
swapon: /tmp/testswap: swapon failed: Device or resource busy
[root@7-64-test tmp]# swapoff /tmp/testswap 			//被占用了先解除占用
[root@7-64-test tmp]# swapon /tmp/testswap 				//再次启用swap分区
swapon: /tmp/testswap: insecure permissions 0644, 0600 suggested.
[root@7-64-test tmp]# chmod 600 /tmp/testswap 
[root@7-64-test tmp]# swapoff /tmp/testswap 
[root@7-64-test tmp]# swapon /tmp/testswap 
[root@7-64-test tmp]# swapon -s							//查看分区
Filename				Type		Size	Used	Priority
/dev/dm-1                              	partition	3145724	0	-2
/dev/sdb2                              	partition	102396	0	-3
/tmp/testswap                          	file	40956	0	-4
[root@7-64-test tmp]# vim /etc/fstab					//添加到开机自动挂载
[root@7-64-test tmp]# mount -a
[root@7-64-test tmp]# reboot
[root@7-64-test ~]# swapon -s
Filename				Type		Size	Used	Priority
/dev/sdb2                              	partition	102396	0	-2
/dev/dm-1                              	partition	3145724	0	-3

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