leetcode18~4Sum

Given an array S of n integers, are there elements a, b, c, and d in S such that a + b + c + d = target? Find all unique quadruplets in the array which gives the sum of target.
For example, given array S = [1, 0, -1, 0, -2, 2], and target = 0.

A solution set is:
    [
        [-1,  0, 0, 1],
        [-2, -1, 1, 2],
        [-2,  0, 0, 2]
    ]

比求3Sum多一层嵌套循环,还有一种解法是使用hashmap,先缓存两个数的和,然后再求解。
下面给出了两种解法,第二种解法参考leetcode讨论区的代码,过滤条件比较多,最后运行时间真的很短,可以借鉴一下~

public class FourSum {

    //时间复杂度O(n^3)
    public List<List<Integer>> fourSum2(int[] nums, int target) {
        List<List<Integer>> res = new ArrayList<>();
        if(nums==null || nums.length<4) return res;
        Arrays.sort(nums);
        for(int i=0;i<nums.length-3;i++) {
            if(i>0 && nums[i]==nums[i-1]) continue;
            for(int j=i+1;j<nums.length-2;j++) {
                if(j>i+1 && nums[j]==nums[j-1]) continue;
                int top = j+1,tail= nums.length-1;
                while(top<tail) {
                    if(nums[i]+nums[j]+nums[top]+nums[tail]==target) {
                        List<Integer> list = new ArrayList<Integer>();
                        list.add(nums[i]);
                        list.add(nums[j]);
                        list.add(nums[top]);
                        list.add(nums[tail]);
                        res.add(list);
                        while(top<tail && nums[top]==nums[top+1]) top++;
                        while(top<tail && nums[tail]==nums[tail-1]) tail--;
                        top++;
                        tail--;
                    } else if(nums[i]+nums[j]+nums[top]+nums[tail]<target) {
                        top++;
                    } else {
                        tail--;
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        return res;
    }


    public List<List<Integer>> fourSum(int[] nums, int target) {
        ArrayList<List<Integer>> res = new ArrayList<List<Integer>>();
        int len = nums.length;
        if (nums == null || len < 4)
            return res;

        Arrays.sort(nums);

        int max = nums[len - 1];
        if (4 * nums[0] > target || 4 * max < target)
            return res;

        int i, z;
        for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
            z = nums[i];
            if (i > 0 && z == nums[i - 1])// avoid duplicate
                continue;
            if (z + 3 * max < target) // z is too small
                continue;
            if (4 * z > target) // z is too large
                break;
            if (4 * z == target) { // z is the boundary
                if (i + 3 < len && nums[i + 3] == z)
                    res.add(Arrays.asList(z, z, z, z));
                break;
            }

            threeSumForFourSum(nums, target - z, i + 1, len - 1, res, z);
        }

        return res;
    }

    /*
     * Find all possible distinguished three numbers adding up to the target
     * in sorted array nums[] between indices low and high. If there are,
     * add all of them into the ArrayList fourSumList, using
     * fourSumList.add(Arrays.asList(z1, the three numbers))
     */
    public void threeSumForFourSum(int[] nums, int target, int low, int high, ArrayList<List<Integer>> fourSumList,
            int z1) {
        if (low + 1 >= high)
            return;

        int max = nums[high];
        if (3 * nums[low] > target || 3 * max < target)
            return;

        int i, z;
        for (i = low; i < high - 1; i++) {
            z = nums[i];
            if (i > low && z == nums[i - 1]) // avoid duplicate
                continue;
            if (z + 2 * max < target) // z is too small
                continue;

            if (3 * z > target) // z is too large
                break;

            if (3 * z == target) { // z is the boundary
                if (i + 1 < high && nums[i + 2] == z)
                    fourSumList.add(Arrays.asList(z1, z, z, z));
                break;
            }

            twoSumForFourSum(nums, target - z, i + 1, high, fourSumList, z1, z);
        }

    }

    /*
     * Find all possible distinguished two numbers adding up to the target
     * in sorted array nums[] between indices low and high. If there are,
     * add all of them into the ArrayList fourSumList, using
     * fourSumList.add(Arrays.asList(z1, z2, the two numbers))
     */
    public void twoSumForFourSum(int[] nums, int target, int low, int high, ArrayList<List<Integer>> fourSumList,
            int z1, int z2) {

        if (low >= high)
            return;

        if (2 * nums[low] > target || 2 * nums[high] < target)
            return;

        int i = low, j = high, sum, x;
        while (i < j) {
            sum = nums[i] + nums[j];
            if (sum == target) {
                fourSumList.add(Arrays.asList(z1, z2, nums[i], nums[j]));

                x = nums[i];
                while (++i < j && x == nums[i]) // avoid duplicate
                    ;
                x = nums[j];
                while (i < --j && x == nums[j]) // avoid duplicate
                    ;
            }
            if (sum < target)
                i++;
            if (sum > target)
                j--;
        }
        return;
    }
}
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