LeetCode-String_Compression

题目:

Given an array of characters, compress it in-place.

The length after compression must always be smaller than or equal to the original array.

Every element of the array should be a character (not int) of length 1.

After you are done modifying the input array in-place, return the new length of the array.


Follow up:
Could you solve it using only O(1) extra space?


Example 1:

Input:
["a","a","b","b","c","c","c"]

Output:
Return 6, and the first 6 characters of the input array should be: ["a","2","b","2","c","3"]

Explanation:
"aa" is replaced by "a2". "bb" is replaced by "b2". "ccc" is replaced by "c3".

Example 2:

Input:
["a"]

Output:
Return 1, and the first 1 characters of the input array should be: ["a"]

Explanation:
Nothing is replaced.

Example 3:

Input:
["a","b","b","b","b","b","b","b","b","b","b","b","b"]

Output:
Return 4, and the first 4 characters of the input array should be: ["a","b","1","2"].

Explanation:
Since the character "a" does not repeat, it is not compressed. "bbbbbbbbbbbb" is replaced by "b12".
Notice each digit has it's own entry in the array.


翻译:

给定一组字符,将它们就地压缩。

压缩后的长度务必小于或等于原始数组。

数组的每个元素应该是长度为1的字符(不是int)。

当你就地处理完输入的数组,返回数组的新的长度。

进一步:

你能解决它只使用O(1)额外的空间?


例子1:

输入:
["a","a","b","b","c","c","c"]

输出:
返回 6, 输入数组的前六个元素应该是: ["a","2","b","2","c","3"]

解释:
"aa" 被替换为 "a2". "bb" 被替换为 "b2". "ccc" 被替换为 "c3".


例子2:

输入:
["a"]

输出:
返回 1, 输入数组的第一个元素应该是: ["a"]

解释:
不需要被替换。


例子3:

输入:
["a","b","b","b","b","b","b","b","b","b","b","b","b"]

输出:
返回 4, 输入数组的前4个元素应该是: ["a","b","1","2"].

Explanation:
因为 "a" 没有重复, 不需要被替换. "bbbbbbbbbbbb" 被替换为 "b12".
注意每个数字在数组中都有它自己的条目。


思路:

因为题中说了就地,也就是不能再开辟额外的空间,因此,只在原数组上操作的话,采用一个下标标记字符出现的个数然后对数组进行修改。


C++代码(Visual Studio 2017):

#include "stdafx.h"
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
#include <map>
#include <string>
using namespace std;

class Solution {
public:
	int compress(vector<char>& chars) {
		/*map是无序的,并且题意要求不能开辟额外空间
		map<char, int> m;
		string result="";
		for (int i = 0; i < chars.size(); i++) {
		m[chars[i]]++;
		}
		map<char, int>::iterator it;
		for (it = m.begin(); it != m.end(); it++) {
		if (it->second <= 1)
		result += it->first;
		else
		result += it->first+to_string(it->second);
		}
		cout << result<<" ";
		return result.size();
		*/
		int n = chars.size(), cur = 0;
		for (int i = 0, j = 0; i < n; i = j) {
			while (j < n &&chars[j] == chars[i])
				j++;
			chars[cur++] = chars[i];
			if (j - i == 1)
				continue;
			for (char c : to_string(j - i))
				chars[cur++] = c;
		}
		for (int i = 0; i < chars.size(); i++) {
			cout << chars[i] << " ";
		}
		return cur;
	}
};

int main()
{
	Solution s;
	vector<char> chars = { 'a' , 'b', 'b' ,  'b' ,  'b' ,  'b' , 'b' , 'b' ,  'b' ,  'b' ,  'b' , 'b' ,  'b'  };
	//vector<char> chars = { 'a','a','b','b','c','c','c' };
	int result;
	result = s.compress(chars);
	cout << result;
	return 0;
}

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