SpringCloud——Feign实例及原理

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一、实例

1、配置feign

添加依赖

在maven的pom中添加feign

   <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-feign</artifactId>
    </dependency>

配置启用

在Application启动类中添加@EnableFeignClients注解。

@EnableEurekaClient
@EnableFeignClients
public class Application {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);
    }


}

2、新建feign

@FeignClient(name = "SERVICE-NAME", url = "${***}")
public interface TestFeign {
}

其中:
name:微服务的名称,一定要以eureka后台配置的保持一致。
url:可以手动指定feign的调用地址
fallback:标记容错后执行的类

在feign中定义接口的方式与正常接口并无差异,需注意参数名称等保持一致。如:

 @RequestMapping(value = "/user/message", method = RequestMethod.POST)
    JSONObject sendMessage(@RequestParam("userId") String userId, @RequestParam("content") String content);

3、调用feign

在ServiceImpl中注入feign接口,正常使用即可。

 @Autowired
 TestFeign testFeign;

二、原理

如果不使用springcloud的相关组件,调用服务需要要走http,配置请求head、body,然后才能发起请求。获得响应体后,还需解析等操作,十分繁琐。

那为什么feign的使用如此简单轻量呢?

1、如何启用

启动配置上检查是否有@EnableFeignClients注解,如果有该注解,则开启包扫描,扫描被@FeignClient注解接口。扫描出该注解后,通过beanDefinition注入到IOC容器中,方便后续被调用使用。

在FeignClientsRegistrar中,registerFeignClients()完成了注册feign的操作。

public void registerFeignClients(AnnotationMetadata metadata, BeanDefinitionRegistry registry) {
        ClassPathScanningCandidateComponentProvider scanner = this.getScanner();
        scanner.setResourceLoader(this.resourceLoader);
        Map<String, Object> attrs = metadata.getAnnotationAttributes(EnableFeignClients.class.getName());
        ......

//遍历该项目所需调用的服务
Iterator var17 = ((Set)basePackages).iterator();

        while(var17.hasNext()) {
            String basePackage = (String)var17.next();
            Set<BeanDefinition> candidateComponents = scanner.findCandidateComponents(basePackage);
            Iterator var21 = candidateComponents.iterator();

            while(var21.hasNext()) {
                BeanDefinition candidateComponent = (BeanDefinition)var21.next();
                if (candidateComponent instanceof AnnotatedBeanDefinition) {
                    AnnotatedBeanDefinition beanDefinition = (AnnotatedBeanDefinition)candidateComponent;
                    //获取feign中的详细信息
                    AnnotationMetadata annotationMetadata = beanDefinition.getMetadata();
                    Map<String, Object> attributes = annotationMetadata.getAnnotationAttributes(FeignClient.class.getCanonicalName());
                    String name = this.getClientName(attributes);
                    //注册配置信息
                    this.registerClientConfiguration(registry, name, attributes.get("configuration"));
                    //注册feign客户端
                    this.registerFeignClient(registry, annotationMetadata, attributes);
                }
            }
        }
      }

注册feign客户端,包括使用注解时配置的所有信息。

private void registerFeignClient(BeanDefinitionRegistry registry, AnnotationMetadata annotationMetadata, Map<String, Object> attributes) {
        String className = annotationMetadata.getClassName();
        BeanDefinitionBuilder definition = BeanDefinitionBuilder.genericBeanDefinition(FeignClientFactoryBean.class);
        this.validate(attributes);
        definition.addPropertyValue("url", this.getUrl(attributes));
        definition.addPropertyValue("path", this.getPath(attributes));
        String name = this.getName(attributes);
        definition.addPropertyValue("name", name);
        definition.addPropertyValue("type", className);
        definition.addPropertyValue("decode404", attributes.get("decode404"));
        definition.addPropertyValue("fallback", attributes.get("fallback"));
        definition.addPropertyValue("fallbackFactory", attributes.get("fallbackFactory"));
        definition.setAutowireMode(2);
        String alias = name + "FeignClient";
        AbstractBeanDefinition beanDefinition = definition.getBeanDefinition();
        boolean primary = ((Boolean)attributes.get("primary")).booleanValue();
        beanDefinition.setPrimary(primary);
        String qualifier = this.getQualifier(attributes);
        if (StringUtils.hasText(qualifier)) {
            alias = qualifier;
        }

        BeanDefinitionHolder holder = new BeanDefinitionHolder(beanDefinition, className, new String[]{alias});
        BeanDefinitionReaderUtils.registerBeanDefinition(holder, registry);
    }

2、如何发起请求

ReflectiveFeign内部使用了jdk的动态代理为目标接口生成了一个动态代理类,这里会生成一个InvocationHandler(jdk动态代理原理)统一的方法拦截器,同时为接口的每个方法生成一个SynchronousMethodHandler拦截器,并解析方法上的 元数据,生成一个http请求模板。

在SynchronousMethodHandler类中生成RequestTemplate发起请求。

 public Object invoke(Object[] argv) throws Throwable {
    RequestTemplate template = buildTemplateFromArgs.create(argv);
    Retryer retryer = this.retryer.clone();
    while (true) {
      try {
        return executeAndDecode(template);
      } catch (RetryableException e) {
        retryer.continueOrPropagate(e);
        if (logLevel != Logger.Level.NONE) {
          logger.logRetry(metadata.configKey(), logLevel);
        }
        continue;
      }
    }
  }


 Object executeAndDecode(RequestTemplate template) throws Throwable {
    Request request = targetRequest(template);
    Response response;
    long start = System.nanoTime();
    try {
      response = client.execute(request, options);
      // ensure the request is set. TODO: remove in Feign 10
      response.toBuilder().request(request).build();
    } catch (IOException e) {
      if (logLevel != Logger.Level.NONE) {
        logger.logIOException(metadata.configKey(), logLevel, e, elapsedTime(start));
      }
      throw errorExecuting(request, e);
    }
  }

发送http请求

 @Override
    public Response execute(Request request, Options options) throws IOException {
      HttpURLConnection connection = convertAndSend(request, options);
      return convertResponse(connection).toBuilder().request(request).build();
    }

    HttpURLConnection convertAndSend(Request request, Options options) throws IOException {
      final HttpURLConnection
          connection =
          (HttpURLConnection) new URL(request.url()).openConnection();
      if (connection instanceof HttpsURLConnection) {
        HttpsURLConnection sslCon = (HttpsURLConnection) connection;
        if (sslContextFactory != null) {
          sslCon.setSSLSocketFactory(sslContextFactory);
        }
        if (hostnameVerifier != null) {
          sslCon.setHostnameVerifier(hostnameVerifier);
        }
      }
      connection.setConnectTimeout(options.connectTimeoutMillis());
      connection.setReadTimeout(options.readTimeoutMillis());
      connection.setAllowUserInteraction(false);
      connection.setInstanceFollowRedirects(true);
      connection.setRequestMethod(request.method());

      Collection<String> contentEncodingValues = request.headers().get(CONTENT_ENCODING);
      boolean
          gzipEncodedRequest =
          contentEncodingValues != null && contentEncodingValues.contains(ENCODING_GZIP);
      boolean
          deflateEncodedRequest =
          contentEncodingValues != null && contentEncodingValues.contains(ENCODING_DEFLATE);

      boolean hasAcceptHeader = false;
      Integer contentLength = null;
      for (String field : request.headers().keySet()) {
        if (field.equalsIgnoreCase("Accept")) {
          hasAcceptHeader = true;
        }
        for (String value : request.headers().get(field)) {
          if (field.equals(CONTENT_LENGTH)) {
            if (!gzipEncodedRequest && !deflateEncodedRequest) {
              contentLength = Integer.valueOf(value);
              connection.addRequestProperty(field, value);
            }
          } else {
            connection.addRequestProperty(field, value);
          }
        }
      }
      // Some servers choke on the default accept string.
      if (!hasAcceptHeader) {
        connection.addRequestProperty("Accept", "*/*");
      }

      if (request.body() != null) {
        if (contentLength != null) {
          connection.setFixedLengthStreamingMode(contentLength);
        } else {
          connection.setChunkedStreamingMode(8196);
        }
        connection.setDoOutput(true);
        OutputStream out = connection.getOutputStream();
        if (gzipEncodedRequest) {
          out = new GZIPOutputStream(out);
        } else if (deflateEncodedRequest) {
          out = new DeflaterOutputStream(out);
        }
        try {
          out.write(request.body());
        } finally {
          try {
            out.close();
          } catch (IOException suppressed) { // NOPMD
          }
        }
      }
      return connection;
    }


三、小结

1、约定大于配置

2、新瓶装旧酒

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