PHP学习笔记 06 - 数组

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PHP 数组

  • 使用 array() 创建数组
  • 类型:索引数组、关联数组

索引数组

  • 语法:array(element1, element2, …)
  • 访问元素:$arr[index]
  • count() 返回数组长度

示例:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
    <meta charset="utf-8"/>
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0"/>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="http://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.6/css/bootstrap.min.css">
    <title>Indexed Array</title>
</head>

<body>
    <div class="well">
    <?php
    $fav_langs = array('PHP', 'C++', 'Java', 'Python', 'Go');
    echo 'My favorite programming languages are ' . $fav_langs[0];
    $arrlength = count($fav_langs);
    for ($i = 1; $i < $arrlength - 1; ++$i) {
        echo ', ' . $fav_langs[$i];
    }
    echo ' and ' . $fav_langs[$arrlength - 1] . '<br>';
    ?>
    </div>
</body>

</html>

查看运行结果

关联数组

  • 关联数组类似 Map,存放键值对
  • 语法:array(key1=>value1, key2=>value2, …)
  • 访问元素:$arr[key]
  • 使用 foreach 遍历关联数组:

    foreach($arr as $key => $value) {
    // do something using $key and $value
    }

示例:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
    <meta charset="utf-8"/>
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0"/>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="http://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.6/css/bootstrap.min.css">
    <title>Associative Array</title>
</head>

<body>
    <div class="well">
    <?php
    $fav_colors = array('red'=>'#FF0000', 'green'=>'#00FF00', 'blue'=>'#0000FF');
    foreach ($fav_colors as $color => $value) {
        echo '<span style="color:' . $value . '">' . $color . ': ' . $value . '</span><br>';
    }

    ?>
    </div>
</body>

</html>

查看运行结果

打印数组

  • 使用 print_r() 打印数组

数组排序

函数 说明
short() 数组升序排序
rsort() 数组降序排序
asort() 关联数组按值升序排序
ksort() 关联数组按键升序排序
arsort() 关联数组按值降序排序
krsort() 关联数组按键降序排序


示例:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
    <meta charset="utf-8"/>
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0"/>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="http://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.6/css/bootstrap.min.css">
    <title>Sorting Arrays</title>
</head>

<body>
    <div class="well">
    <?php

    function print_indexed_arr($arr) {
        for ($i = 0; $i < count($arr); ++$i) {
            echo $arr[$i] . ' ';
        }
    }

    function print_associative_arr($arr) {
        foreach ($arr as $color => $value) {
            echo $color . '=>' . $value . ' ';
        }
    }

    echo '<h2>Sorting indexed array</h2>';
    $fav_langs = array('PHP', 'C++', 'Java', 'Python', 'Go');
    echo 'origin:<br>';
    print_indexed_arr($fav_langs);
    echo '<br>';
    sort($fav_langs);
    echo 'ascending order:<br>';
    print_indexed_arr($fav_langs);
    echo '<br>';
    rsort($fav_langs);
    echo 'descending order:<br>';
    print_indexed_arr($fav_langs);

    echo '<br><br>';

    echo '<h2>Sorting associative array</h2>';
    $fav_colors = array('red'=>'#FF0000', 'chocolate'=>'#D2691E', 'green'=>'#00FF00', 'blue'=>'#0000FF');
    echo 'origin:<br>';
    print_associative_arr($fav_colors);
    echo '<br>';
    asort($fav_colors);
    echo 'ascending order by value:<br>';
    print_associative_arr($fav_colors);
    echo '<br>';
    ksort($fav_colors);
    echo 'ascending order by key:<br>';
    print_associative_arr($fav_colors);
    echo '<br>';
    arsort($fav_colors);
    echo 'descending order by value:<br>';
    print_associative_arr($fav_colors);
    echo '<br>';
    krsort($fav_colors);
    echo 'descending order by key:<br>';
    print_associative_arr($fav_colors);
    echo '<br>';
    ?>
    </div>
</body>

</html>

查看运行结果

数组的增删改

修改元素的值

  • 修改索引数组元素的值:$arr[index] = newValue;index 从 0 开始
  • 修改关联数组元素的值:$arr[keyName] = newValue;

示例

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
    <meta charset="utf-8"/>
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0"/>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="http://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.6/css/bootstrap.min.css">
    <title>Array Modification</title>
</head>

<body>
    <div class="well">
    <?php

    function print_indexed_arr($arr) {
        for ($i = 0; $i < count($arr); ++$i) {
            echo $arr[$i] . ' ';
        }
    }

    function print_associative_arr($arr) {
        foreach ($arr as $color => $value) {
            echo $color . '=>' . $value . ' ';
        }
    }

    // 修改索引数组中的元素
    echo('<h2>Indexed Array Modification</h2>');
    $fav_langs = array('PHP', 'C++', 'Java', 'Python', 'Go');
    echo('origin:<br>');
    print_indexed_arr($fav_langs);
    echo('<br>');
    $fav_langs[1] = 'C/C++';   // 修改第2个元素的值
    $fav_langs[4] = 'Golang';  // 修改第5个元素的值
    echo('after modification:<br>');
    print_indexed_arr($fav_langs);
    echo('<br>');

    // 修改关联数组中的元素
    echo('<h2>Associative Array Modification</h2>');
    $fav_colors = array('red'=>'#FF0000', 'green'=>'#00FF00', 'blue'=>'#0000FF');
    echo('origin:<br>');
    print_associative_arr($fav_colors);
    echo('<br>');
    $fav_colors['red'] = '#EE0000';   // 修改key为'red'的元素的值
    $fav_colors['green'] = '#00EE00'; // 修改key为'green'的元素的值
    $fav_colors['blue'] = '#0000EE';  // 修改key为'blue'的元素的值
    echo('after modification:<br>');
    print_associative_arr($fav_colors);
    echo('<br>');
    ?>
    </div>
</body>

</html>

查看运行结果

增加元素

增加元素到索引数组

函数 说明
array_push(array,value1,value2…) 插入元素到数组末尾,不能应用于关联数组
array_unshift(array,value1,value2…) 插入元素到数组开头,不能应用于关联数组

增加元素到关联数组

  • $arr['newKey'] = value

示例

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
    <meta charset="utf-8"/>
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0"/>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="http://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.6/css/bootstrap.min.css">
    <title>Inserting Element to Array</title>
</head>

<body>
    <div class="well">
    <?php

    echo '<h2>Inserting Elements to Indexed Array</h2>';
    $fav_langs = array('PHP', 'C++', 'Java', 'Python', 'Go');
    echo 'origin:<br>';
    print_r($fav_langs);
    echo '<br>';
    echo 'Push element to back:<br>';
    array_push($fav_langs, 'C#', 'VB');  // 追加元素到末尾
    print_r($fav_langs);
    echo '<br>';
    echo 'Insert element to front:<br>';
    array_unshift($fav_langs, 'Perl', 'R');  // 插入元素到开头
    print_r($fav_langs);
    echo '<br>';

    echo '<h2>Inserting Elements to Associative Array</h2>';
    $fav_colors = array('red'=>'#FF0000', 'green'=>'#00FF00', 'blue'=>'#0000FF');
    echo 'origin:<br>';
    print_r($fav_colors);
    echo '<br>';
    $fav_colors['yellow'] = '#FFFF00';  // 插入元素到关联数组
    echo 'After insert element:<br>';
    print_r($fav_colors);
    echo '<br>';

    ?>
    </div>
</body>

</html>

查看运行结果

删除元素

函数 说明
array_pop(array) 删除末尾元素,返回删除的元素
array_shift(array) 删除开头元素,返回删除的元素

示例

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
    <meta charset="utf-8"/>
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0"/>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="http://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.6/css/bootstrap.min.css">
    <title>Removing Element from Array</title>
</head>

<body>
    <div class="well">
    <?php

    echo '<h2>Removing Elements from Indexed Array</h2>';
    $fav_langs = array('PHP', 'C++', 'Java', 'Python', 'Go');
    echo 'origin:<br>';
    print_r($fav_langs);
    echo '<br>';
    $e = array_pop($fav_langs);  // 删除末尾元素
    echo 'Removed last: ' . $e . '<br>';
    print_r($fav_langs);
    echo '<br>';
    $e = array_shift($fav_langs);  // 删除开头元素
    echo 'Removed front: ' . $e . '<br>';
    print_r($fav_langs);
    echo '<br>';

    echo '<h2>Removing Elements from Associative Array</h2>';
    $fav_colors = array('red'=>'#FF0000', 'green'=>'#00FF00', 'blue'=>'#0000FF');
    echo 'origin:<br>';
    print_r($fav_colors);
    echo '<br>';
    $e = array_pop($fav_colors);  // 删除末尾元素
    echo 'Removed last: ' . $e . '<br>';
    print_r($fav_colors);
    echo '<br>';
    $e = array_shift($fav_colors);  // 删除开头元素
    echo 'Removed front: ' . $e . '<br>';
    print_r($fav_colors);
    echo '<br>';

    ?>
    </div>
</body>

</html>

查看运行结果

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