线程不安全的HashMap及其结构解读

4.1.线程不安全的HashMap

  • HashMap的底层结构
  • 如何添加元素
  • 如何删除元素
  • 扩容
  • 为什么扩容时是2的倍数,有什么好处?
HashMap的几个参数
属性说明JDK8JDK7
DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY默认初始容量 1 << 4 = 16
MAXIMUM_CAPACITY最大容量 1 << 30
DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR默认加载因子 0.75f
TREEIFY_THRESHOLD链表转换红黑树的临界值 8
UNTREEIFY_THRESHOLD红黑树转换链表的临界值 6
MIN_TREEIFY_CAPACITY链表转换红黑树的容量临界值 64
modCount数据改变次数的统计
threshold扩容临界值
loadFactor加载因子,默认为0.75,和扩容有关
HashMap PUT实现
  1. 判断数hash组是否为空,为空则resize() 数组
  2. 通过hash定位元素在数组中的索引,判断数组中该节点是否为NULL
  3. 为NULL则新建Node进行赋值
  4. 不为NULL,则有:
    1. hash值是否相等&&key值是否相等,相等则值用新值覆盖
    2. 节点是否为红黑树,是则插入红黑树
    3. 否,则为链表,遍历链表,
      1. key如果在链表中存在,则用新值覆盖,
      2. 如果不存在,则新节点插入链表尾部
      3. 判断链表长度是否超过TREEIFY_THRESHOLD:8
      4. 超过则调用转换方法
      5. 转换方法中,节点数超过 MIN_TREEIFY_CAPACITY 则链表转红黑树
      6. 小于则扩容
  5. ++modCount和++size
  6. size 大于threshold(扩容临界值),则进行扩容
/**
 * Associates the specified value with the specified key in this map.
 * If the map previously contained a mapping for the key, the old
 * value is replaced.
 *
 * @param key key with which the specified value is to be associated
 * @param value value to be associated with the specified key
 * @return the previous value associated with <tt>key</tt>, or
 *         <tt>null</tt> if there was no mapping for <tt>key</tt>.
 *         (A <tt>null</tt> return can also indicate that the map
 *         previously associated <tt>null</tt> with <tt>key</tt>.)
 */
public V put(K key, V value) {
    return putVal(hash(key), key, value, false, true);
}
/**
     * Implements Map.put and related methods.
     *
     * @param hash hash for key
     * @param key the key
     * @param value the value to put
     * @param onlyIfAbsent if true, don't change existing value
     * @param evict if false, the table is in creation mode.
     * @return previous value, or null if none
     */
final V putVal(int hash, K key, V value, boolean onlyIfAbsent,
               boolean evict) {
    Node<K,V>[] tab; Node<K,V> p; int n, i;
    if ((tab = table) == null || (n = tab.length) == 0)
        n = (tab = resize()).length;
    if ((p = tab[i = (n - 1) & hash]) == null)
        tab[i] = newNode(hash, key, value, null);
    else {
        Node<K,V> e; K k;
        if (p.hash == hash &&
            ((k = p.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
            e = p;
        else if (p instanceof TreeNode)
            e = ((TreeNode<K,V>)p).putTreeVal(this, tab, hash, key, value);
        else {
            for (int binCount = 0; ; ++binCount) {
                if ((e = p.next) == null) {
                    p.next = newNode(hash, key, value, null);
                    if (binCount >= TREEIFY_THRESHOLD - 1) // -1 for 1st
                        treeifyBin(tab, hash);
                    break;
                }
                if (e.hash == hash &&
                    ((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
                    break;
                p = e;
            }
        }
        if (e != null) { // existing mapping for key
            V oldValue = e.value;
            if (!onlyIfAbsent || oldValue == null)
                e.value = value;
            afterNodeAccess(e);
            return oldValue;
        }
    }
    ++modCount;
    if (++size > threshold)
        resize();
    afterNodeInsertion(evict);
    return null;
}
HashMap GET实现
  1. 计算key的hash
  2. hash计算数组的index
  3. 找出index的节点
    1. 第一个节点hash和key相等,直接返回first node
    2. 不相等
      1. 是否为红黑树,是则在树中查找
      2. 链表,则遍历链表,找出节点
public V get(Object key) {
    Node<K,V> e;
    return (e = getNode(hash(key), key)) == null ? null : e.value;
}
/**
     * Implements Map.get and related methods.
     *
     * @param hash hash for key
     * @param key the key
     * @return the node, or null if none
     */
final Node<K,V> getNode(int hash, Object key) {
    Node<K,V>[] tab; Node<K,V> first, e; int n; K k;
    if ((tab = table) != null && (n = tab.length) > 0 &&
        (first = tab[(n - 1) & hash]) != null) {
        if (first.hash == hash && // always check first node
            ((k = first.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
            return first;
        if ((e = first.next) != null) {
            if (first instanceof TreeNode)
                return ((TreeNode<K,V>)first).getTreeNode(hash, key);
            do {
                if (e.hash == hash &&
                    ((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
                    return e;
            } while ((e = e.next) != null);
        }
    }
    return null;
}
HashMap的扩容
  1. 为什么数组扩容,每次*2呢?
    • 首先node对应数组的索引为hash & (length-1)
    • 扩容后,node对应的数组的索引为hash & (2*length -1)
    • 例如hash值为21 (10101),则有21 & 15 = 5,扩容后,21 & 31 = 21 = (5+16)
    • 例如hash值为13 (01101),则与13 & 15 = 13 ,扩容后,13 & 31 = 13 = (13)
    • 规律为 hash值对应的数组length的首位位数如果为1,则扩容后的数组位置为原index+length
    • 首位位数如果为0,则扩容后的数组位置不变,WOW,是不是很巧妙,扩容过后,既可以减少节点数组位置的转换,同时也可将部门节点按照原数组位置进行扩容(+length)
/**
 * Initializes or doubles table size.  If null, allocates in
 * accord with initial capacity target held in field threshold.
 * Otherwise, because we are using power-of-two expansion, the
 * elements from each bin must either stay at same index, or move
 * with a power of two offset in the new table.
 *
 * @return the table
 */
final Node<K,V>[] resize() {
    Node<K,V>[] oldTab = table;
    int oldCap = (oldTab == null) ? 0 : oldTab.length;
    int oldThr = threshold;
    int newCap, newThr = 0;
    if (oldCap > 0) {
        if (oldCap >= MAXIMUM_CAPACITY) {
            threshold = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
            return oldTab;
        }
        else if ((newCap = oldCap << 1) < MAXIMUM_CAPACITY &&
                 oldCap >= DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY)
            newThr = oldThr << 1; // double threshold
    }
    else if (oldThr > 0) // initial capacity was placed in threshold
        newCap = oldThr;
    else {               // zero initial threshold signifies using defaults
        newCap = DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY;
        newThr = (int)(DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR * DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY);
    }
    if (newThr == 0) {
        float ft = (float)newCap * loadFactor;
        newThr = (newCap < MAXIMUM_CAPACITY && ft < (float)MAXIMUM_CAPACITY ?
                  (int)ft : Integer.MAX_VALUE);
    }
    threshold = newThr;
    @SuppressWarnings({"rawtypes","unchecked"})
    Node<K,V>[] newTab = (Node<K,V>[])new Node[newCap];
    table = newTab;
    if (oldTab != null) {
        for (int j = 0; j < oldCap; ++j) {
            Node<K,V> e;
            if ((e = oldTab[j]) != null) {
                oldTab[j] = null;
                if (e.next == null)
                    newTab[e.hash & (newCap - 1)] = e;
                else if (e instanceof TreeNode)
                    ((TreeNode<K,V>)e).split(this, newTab, j, oldCap);
                else { // preserve order
                    Node<K,V> loHead = null, loTail = null;
                    Node<K,V> hiHead = null, hiTail = null;
                    Node<K,V> next;
                    do {
                        next = e.next;
                        if ((e.hash & oldCap) == 0) {
                            if (loTail == null)
                                loHead = e;
                            else
                                loTail.next = e;
                            loTail = e;
                        }
                        else {
                            if (hiTail == null)
                                hiHead = e;
                            else
                                hiTail.next = e;
                            hiTail = e;
                        }
                    } while ((e = next) != null);
                    if (loTail != null) {
                        loTail.next = null;
                        newTab[j] = loHead;
                    }
                    if (hiTail != null) {
                        hiTail.next = null;
                        newTab[j + oldCap] = hiHead;
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
    return newTab;
}
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