Java并发学习笔记11 Future

bilibili-Java并发学习笔记11 Future

基于 java 1.8.0

P41_Future模式示例剖析与源码详解

package java.util.concurrent;

/**
 * Future 表示异步计算的结果。它提供了检查计算是否完成的方法,以等待计算的完成,并获取计算的结果。
 * 计算完成后只能使用 get 方法来获取结果,如有必要,计算完成前可以阻塞此方法。取消则由 cancel 方法来执行。
 * 还提供了其他方法,以确定任务是正常完成还是被取消了。一旦计算完成,就不能再取消计算。
 * 如果为了可取消性而使用 Future 但又不提供可用的结果,则可以声明 Future<?> 形式类型、并返回 null 作为底层任务的结果。
 *
 * 用法示例(注意,下列各类都是构造好的。)
 *
 * interface ArchiveSearcher { String search(String target); }
 * class App {
 *   ExecutorService executor = ...
 *   ArchiveSearcher searcher = ...
 *   void showSearch(final String target)
 *       throws InterruptedException {
 *     Future<String> future
 *       = executor.submit(new Callable<String>() {
 *         public String call() {
 *             return searcher.search(target);
 *         }});
 *     displayOtherThings(); // do other things while searching
 *     try {
 *       displayText(future.get()); // use future
 *     } catch (ExecutionException ex) { cleanup(); return; }
 *   }
 * }}
 *
 * FutureTask 类是 Future 的一个实现,Future 可实现 Runnable,所以可通过 Executor 来执行。
 * 例如,可用下列内容替换上面带有 submit 的构造:
 *
 * FutureTask<String> future =
 *   new FutureTask<String>(new Callable<String>() {
 *     public String call() {
 *       return searcher.search(target);
 *   }});
 * executor.execute(future);}</pre>
 *
 * 内存一致性效果:异步计算采取的操作  happen-before 另一线程中紧跟在相应的 Future.get() 之后的操作。
 *
 * @see FutureTask
 * @see Executor
 * @since 1.5
 * @author Doug Lea
 * @param <V> The result type returned by this Future's {@code get} method
 */
public interface Future<V> {

    /**
     * 试图取消对此任务的执行。如果任务已完成、或已取消,或者由于某些其他原因而无法取消,则此尝试将失败。
     * 当调用 cancel 时,如果调用成功,而此任务尚未启动,则此任务将永不运行。
     * 如果任务已经启动,则 mayInterruptIfRunning 参数确定是否应该以试图停止任务的方式来中断执行此任务的线程。
     *
     * 此方法返回后,对 isDone() 的后续调用将始终返回 true。如果此方法返回 true,
     * 则对 isCancelled() 的后续调用将始终返回 true。
     *
     * @param mayInterruptIfRunning 如果应该中断执行此任务的线程,则为 true;否则允许正在运行的任务运行完成
     * @return 如果无法取消任务,则返回 false,这通常是由于它已经正常完成;否则返回 true
     */
    boolean cancel(boolean mayInterruptIfRunning);

    /**
     * 如果在任务正常完成前将其取消,则返回 true。
     *
     * @return 如果任务完成前将其取消,则返回 true
     */
    boolean isCancelled();

    /**
     * 如果任务已完成,则返回 true。 可能由于正常终止、异常或取消而完成,在所有这些情况中,此方法都将返回 true。
     *
     * @return 如果任务已完成,则返回 true
     */
    boolean isDone();

    /**
     * 如有必要,等待计算完成,然后获取其结果。
     *
     * @return 计算的结果
     * @throws CancellationException 如果计算被取消
     * @throws ExecutionException 如果计算抛出异常
     * @throws InterruptedException 如果当前的线程在等待时被中断
     */
    V get() throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException;

    /**
     * 如有必要,最多等待为使计算完成所给定的时间之后,获取其结果(如果结果可用)。
     *
     * @param timeout 等待的最大时间
     * @param unit timeout 参数的时间单位
     * @return 计算的结果
     * @throws CancellationException 如果计算被取消
     * @throws ExecutionException 如果计算抛出异常
     * @throws InterruptedException 如果当前的线程在等待时被中断
     * @throws TimeoutException 如果等待超时
     */
    V get(long timeout, TimeUnit unit)
        throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException, TimeoutException;
}
package java.util.concurrent;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.LockSupport;

/**
 * 可取消的异步计算。利用开始和取消计算的方法、查询计算是否完成的方法和获取计算结果的方法,此类提供了对 Future 的基本实现。
 * 仅在计算完成时才能获取结果;如果计算尚未完成,则阻塞 get 方法。一旦计算完成,就不能再重新开始或取消计算。
 *
 * 可使用 FutureTask 包装 Callable 或 Runnable 对象。因为 FutureTask 实现了 Runnable,所以可将 FutureTask 提交给 Executor 执行。
 *
 * 除了作为一个独立的类外,此类还提供了 protected 功能,这在创建自定义任务类时可能很有用。
 *
 * @since 1.5
 * @author Doug Lea
 * @param <V>  此 FutureTask 的 get 方法所返回的结果类型。
 */
public class FutureTask<V> implements RunnableFuture<V> {

    /**
     * The run state of this task, initially NEW.  The run state
     * transitions to a terminal state only in methods set,
     * setException, and cancel.  During completion, state may take on
     * transient values of COMPLETING (while outcome is being set) or
     * INTERRUPTING (only while interrupting the runner to satisfy a
     * cancel(true)). Transitions from these intermediate to final
     * states use cheaper ordered/lazy writes because values are unique
     * and cannot be further modified.
     *
     * Possible state transitions:
     * NEW -> COMPLETING -> NORMAL
     * NEW -> COMPLETING -> EXCEPTIONAL
     * NEW -> CANCELLED
     * NEW -> INTERRUPTING -> INTERRUPTED
     */
    private volatile int state;
    private static final int NEW          = 0;
    private static final int COMPLETING   = 1;
    private static final int NORMAL       = 2;
    private static final int EXCEPTIONAL  = 3;
    private static final int CANCELLED    = 4;
    private static final int INTERRUPTING = 5;
    private static final int INTERRUPTED  = 6;

    /** The underlying callable; nulled out after running */
    private Callable<V> callable;
    /** The result to return or exception to throw from get() */
    private Object outcome; // non-volatile, protected by state reads/writes
    /** The thread running the callable; CASed during run() */
    private volatile Thread runner;
    /** Treiber stack of waiting threads */
    private volatile WaitNode waiters;

    /**
     * Returns result or throws exception for completed task.
     *
     * @param s completed state value
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    private V report(int s) throws ExecutionException {
        Object x = outcome;
        if (s == NORMAL)
            return (V)x;
        if (s >= CANCELLED)
            throw new CancellationException();
        throw new ExecutionException((Throwable)x);
    }

    /**
     * 创建一个 FutureTask,一旦运行就执行给定的 Callable。
     *
     * @param  callable 可调用的任务
     * @throws NullPointerException 如果 callable 为 null
     */
    public FutureTask(Callable<V> callable) {
        if (callable == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();
        this.callable = callable;
        this.state = NEW;       // ensure visibility of callable
    }

    /**
     * 创建一个 FutureTask,一旦运行就执行给定的 Runnable,并安排成功完成时 get 返回给定的结果 。
     *
     * @param runnable 可运行的任务。
     * @param result 成功完成时要返回的结果。如果不需要特定的结果,则考虑使用下列形式的构造:Future<?> f = new FutureTask<Object>(runnable, null)
     * @throws NullPointerException 如果 runnable 为 null
     */
    public FutureTask(Runnable runnable, V result) {
        this.callable = Executors.callable(runnable, result);
        this.state = NEW;       // ensure visibility of callable
    }

    public boolean isCancelled() {
        return state >= CANCELLED;
    }

    public boolean isDone() {
        return state != NEW;
    }

    public boolean cancel(boolean mayInterruptIfRunning) {
        if (!(state == NEW &&
              UNSAFE.compareAndSwapInt(this, stateOffset, NEW,
                  mayInterruptIfRunning ? INTERRUPTING : CANCELLED)))
            return false;
        try {    // in case call to interrupt throws exception
            if (mayInterruptIfRunning) {
                try {
                    Thread t = runner;
                    if (t != null)
                        t.interrupt();
                } finally { // final state
                    UNSAFE.putOrderedInt(this, stateOffset, INTERRUPTED);
                }
            }
        } finally {
            finishCompletion();
        }
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @throws CancellationException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public V get() throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
        int s = state;
        if (s <= COMPLETING)
            s = awaitDone(false, 0L);
        return report(s);
    }

    /**
     * @throws CancellationException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public V get(long timeout, TimeUnit unit)
        throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException, TimeoutException {
        if (unit == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();
        int s = state;
        if (s <= COMPLETING &&
            (s = awaitDone(true, unit.toNanos(timeout))) <= COMPLETING)
            throw new TimeoutException();
        return report(s);
    }

    /**
     * 当此任务转换到状态 isDone(不管是正常地还是通过取消)时,调用受保护的方法。默认实现不执行任何操作。子类可以重写此方法,以调用完成回调或执行簿记。注意,可以查询此方法的实现内的状态,从而确定是否已取消了此任务。
     */
    protected void done() { }

    /**
     * 除非已经设置了此 Future 或已将其取消,否则将其结果设置为给定的值。在计算成功完成时通过 run 方法内部调用此方法。
     *
     * @param v the value
     */
    protected void set(V v) {
        if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapInt(this, stateOffset, NEW, COMPLETING)) {
            outcome = v;
            UNSAFE.putOrderedInt(this, stateOffset, NORMAL); // final state
            finishCompletion();
        }
    }

    /**
     * 除非已经设置了此 Future 或已将其取消,否则它将报告一个 ExecutionException,并将给定的 throwable 作为其原因。在计算失败时通过 run 方法内部调用此方法。
     *
     * @param t  失败的原因
     */
    protected void setException(Throwable t) {
        if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapInt(this, stateOffset, NEW, COMPLETING)) {
            outcome = t;
            UNSAFE.putOrderedInt(this, stateOffset, EXCEPTIONAL); // final state
            finishCompletion();
        }
    }

    public void run() {
        if (state != NEW ||
            !UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, runnerOffset,
                                         null, Thread.currentThread()))
            return;
        try {
            Callable<V> c = callable;
            if (c != null && state == NEW) {
                V result;
                boolean ran;
                try {
                    result = c.call();
                    ran = true;
                } catch (Throwable ex) {
                    result = null;
                    ran = false;
                    setException(ex);
                }
                if (ran)
                    set(result);
            }
        } finally {
            // runner must be non-null until state is settled to
            // prevent concurrent calls to run()
            runner = null;
            // state must be re-read after nulling runner to prevent
            // leaked interrupts
            int s = state;
            if (s >= INTERRUPTING)
                handlePossibleCancellationInterrupt(s);
        }
    }

    /**
     * 执行计算而不设置其结果,然后将此 Future 重置为初始状态,如果计算遇到异常或已取消,则该操作失败。本操作被设计用于那些本质上要执行多次的任务。
     *
     * @return 如果成功运行并重置,则返回 true。
     */
    protected boolean runAndReset() {
        if (state != NEW ||
            !UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, runnerOffset,
                                         null, Thread.currentThread()))
            return false;
        boolean ran = false;
        int s = state;
        try {
            Callable<V> c = callable;
            if (c != null && s == NEW) {
                try {
                    c.call(); // don't set result
                    ran = true;
                } catch (Throwable ex) {
                    setException(ex);
                }
            }
        } finally {
            // runner must be non-null until state is settled to
            // prevent concurrent calls to run()
            runner = null;
            // state must be re-read after nulling runner to prevent
            // leaked interrupts
            s = state;
            if (s >= INTERRUPTING)
                handlePossibleCancellationInterrupt(s);
        }
        return ran && s == NEW;
    }

    /**
     * Ensures that any interrupt from a possible cancel(true) is only
     * delivered to a task while in run or runAndReset.
     */
    private void handlePossibleCancellationInterrupt(int s) {
        // It is possible for our interrupter to stall before getting a
        // chance to interrupt us.  Let's spin-wait patiently.
        if (s == INTERRUPTING)
            while (state == INTERRUPTING)
                Thread.yield(); // wait out pending interrupt

        // assert state == INTERRUPTED;

        // We want to clear any interrupt we may have received from
        // cancel(true).  However, it is permissible to use interrupts
        // as an independent mechanism for a task to communicate with
        // its caller, and there is no way to clear only the
        // cancellation interrupt.
        //
        // Thread.interrupted();
    }

    /**
     * Simple linked list nodes to record waiting threads in a Treiber
     * stack.  See other classes such as Phaser and SynchronousQueue
     * for more detailed explanation.
     */
    static final class WaitNode {
        volatile Thread thread;
        volatile WaitNode next;
        WaitNode() { thread = Thread.currentThread(); }
    }

    /**
     * Removes and signals all waiting threads, invokes done(), and
     * nulls out callable.
     */
    private void finishCompletion() {
        // assert state > COMPLETING;
        for (WaitNode q; (q = waiters) != null;) {
            if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, waitersOffset, q, null)) {
                for (;;) {
                    Thread t = q.thread;
                    if (t != null) {
                        q.thread = null;
                        LockSupport.unpark(t);
                    }
                    WaitNode next = q.next;
                    if (next == null)
                        break;
                    q.next = null; // unlink to help gc
                    q = next;
                }
                break;
            }
        }

        done();

        callable = null;        // to reduce footprint
    }

    /**
     * Awaits completion or aborts on interrupt or timeout.
     *
     * @param timed true if use timed waits
     * @param nanos time to wait, if timed
     * @return state upon completion
     */
    private int awaitDone(boolean timed, long nanos)
        throws InterruptedException {
        final long deadline = timed ? System.nanoTime() + nanos : 0L;
        WaitNode q = null;
        boolean queued = false;
        for (;;) {
            if (Thread.interrupted()) {
                removeWaiter(q);
                throw new InterruptedException();
            }

            int s = state;
            if (s > COMPLETING) {
                if (q != null)
                    q.thread = null;
                return s;
            }
            else if (s == COMPLETING) // cannot time out yet
                Thread.yield();
            else if (q == null)
                q = new WaitNode();
            else if (!queued)
                queued = UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, waitersOffset,
                                                     q.next = waiters, q);
            else if (timed) {
                nanos = deadline - System.nanoTime();
                if (nanos <= 0L) {
                    removeWaiter(q);
                    return state;
                }
                LockSupport.parkNanos(this, nanos);
            }
            else
                LockSupport.park(this);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Tries to unlink a timed-out or interrupted wait node to avoid
     * accumulating garbage.  Internal nodes are simply unspliced
     * without CAS since it is harmless if they are traversed anyway
     * by releasers.  To avoid effects of unsplicing from already
     * removed nodes, the list is retraversed in case of an apparent
     * race.  This is slow when there are a lot of nodes, but we don't
     * expect lists to be long enough to outweigh higher-overhead
     * schemes.
     */
    private void removeWaiter(WaitNode node) {
        if (node != null) {
            node.thread = null;
            retry:
            for (;;) {          // restart on removeWaiter race
                for (WaitNode pred = null, q = waiters, s; q != null; q = s) {
                    s = q.next;
                    if (q.thread != null)
                        pred = q;
                    else if (pred != null) {
                        pred.next = s;
                        if (pred.thread == null) // check for race
                            continue retry;
                    }
                    else if (!UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, waitersOffset,
                                                          q, s))
                        continue retry;
                }
                break;
            }
        }
    }

    // Unsafe mechanics
    private static final sun.misc.Unsafe UNSAFE;
    private static final long stateOffset;
    private static final long runnerOffset;
    private static final long waitersOffset;
    static {
        try {
            UNSAFE = sun.misc.Unsafe.getUnsafe();
            Class<?> k = FutureTask.class;
            stateOffset = UNSAFE.objectFieldOffset
                (k.getDeclaredField("state"));
            runnerOffset = UNSAFE.objectFieldOffset
                (k.getDeclaredField("runner"));
            waitersOffset = UNSAFE.objectFieldOffset
                (k.getDeclaredField("waiters"));
        } catch (Exception e) {
            throw new Error(e);
        }
    }

}

案例:

package new_package.thread.p41;

import java.util.Random;
import java.util.concurrent.Callable;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.FutureTask;

public class FutureTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Callable<Integer> callable = () -> {
            System.out.println("futureTask start");
            Thread.sleep(5000);
            int c = new Random().nextInt(1000);
            System.out.println("futureTask over");
            return c;
        };

        FutureTask<Integer> futureTask = new FutureTask<>(callable);
        new Thread(futureTask).start();
        System.out.println("main thread start");

        try {
            Thread.sleep(2000);
            // get 阻塞方法
            System.out.println(futureTask.get());
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (ExecutionException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

P42_CompletableFuture示例剖析与源码解读

/**
 * @author Doug Lea
 * @since 1.8
 */
public class CompletableFuture<T> implements Future<T>, CompletionStage<T> {

}
/**
 * @author Doug Lea
 * @since 1.8
 */
public interface CompletionStage<T> {

}

CompletableFutureTest 示例:

package new_package.thread.p41;

import java.util.concurrent.CompletableFuture;

public class CompletableFutureTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        String value = CompletableFuture.supplyAsync(() -> "hello").thenApplyAsync(v -> v + " world").join();
        System.out.println(value);

        CompletableFuture.supplyAsync(() -> "hello").thenAccept(v -> System.out.println("www " + v));

        String v2 = CompletableFuture.supplyAsync(() -> {
            try {
                Thread.sleep(2000);
            } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
            return "hello ";
        }).thenCombine(
                CompletableFuture.supplyAsync(() -> {
                    try {
                        Thread.sleep(1000);
                    } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                        e.printStackTrace();
                    }
                    return "world";
                })
                ,
                (s1, s2) -> s1 + s2
        ).join();
        System.out.println(v2);
    }
}
package new_package.thread.p41;

import java.util.concurrent.CompletableFuture;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

public class CompletableFutureTest2 {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

        CompletableFuture<Void> completableFuture = CompletableFuture.runAsync(() -> {
            try {
                TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(2);
            } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }

            System.out.println("task finished");
        });
        completableFuture.whenComplete((t, action) -> System.out.println("task over"));

        System.out.println("main thread over");
        try {
            TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(5);
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}
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