[leetcode] 230.Kth Smallest Element in a BST

题目:
Given a binary search tree, write a function kthSmallest to find the kth smallest element in it.

Note:
You may assume k is always valid, 1 ≤ k ≤ BST’s total elements.

Follow up:
What if the BST is modified (insert/delete operations) often and you need to find the kth smallest frequently? How would you optimize the kthSmallest routine?
题意:
给一个二叉搜索树,寻找第k大元素。
思路:
结合二叉搜索树的特点,对二叉搜索树进行中序遍历的结果就是按照元素的升序排列。
所以采用中序遍历,并且保存遍历到当前位置的下标,如果到了k的位置,那么赋值,并且返回。
以上。
代码如下:

/**
 * Definition for a binary tree node.
 * struct TreeNode {
 *     int val;
 *     TreeNode *left;
 *     TreeNode *right;
 *     TreeNode(int x) : val(x), left(NULL), right(NULL) {}
 * };
 */
class Solution {
public:
    int kthSmallest(TreeNode* root, int k) {
     if(root == NULL)return 0;
     int value = 0;
     int index = 0;
     InOrder(root, k, value, index);
     return value;
    }
    void InOrder(TreeNode* root, int k, int& value, int& before) {
        if(root == NULL)return;
        InOrder(root->left, k, value, before);
        before++;
        if(before == k){
            value = root->val;
            before = k;
            return;
        }
        else if(before > k)return;
        InOrder(root->right, k, value, before);
    }
};
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