assert.h原理以及自己的实现

1.该博客对assert.c的原理和使用方法进行了阐述

函数原型为 void assert(scalar expr); //scalar expr为常量表达式,该函数采用宏实现.

我们为什么用assert.c呢,它有什么优优点呢?

我们常常需要对函数的参数进行检查,当出现错误时,我们就不必再执行函数体,这样可以提前发现错误,减小开销.

由于在DEBUG 和 RELEASE模式下,采用的方案不同,我们可以在DEBU模式下,进行参数检查,当发现没有问题的时候,我们在RELEASE模式下,不再运行该函数,这就是assert.c函数的设计哲学.是不是发现很巧妙?

它怎么实现的呢?

主要是通过常量NDEBUG,该常量在DEBUG模式下,没有定义,而定义在RELEASE模式下.通过条件编译我们就可以简单实现.


使用的注意事项:

1.在函数开始处对参数检查.

2.每次只检查一个参数,否则若断言失败,无法确定是哪个条件错误.

 比如assert(n > 0 && n <10);

    通常写成:

           assert(n > 0);

           assert(n < 10);

下面代码是glib中的源码

/* Copyright (C) 1991,1992,1994-2001,2003,2004,2007
   Free Software Foundation, Inc.
   This file is part of the GNU C Library.

   The GNU C Library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
   modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
   License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
   version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

   The GNU C Library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
   Lesser General Public License for more details.

   You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
   License along with the GNU C Library; if not, write to the Free
   Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA
   02111-1307 USA.  */

/*
 *	ISO C99 Standard: 7.2 Diagnostics	<assert.h>
 */

#ifdef	_ASSERT_H

# undef	_ASSERT_H
# undef	assert
# undef __ASSERT_VOID_CAST

# ifdef	__USE_GNU
#  undef assert_perror
# endif

#endif /* assert.h	*/

#define	_ASSERT_H	1
#include <features.h>

#if defined __cplusplus && __GNUC_PREREQ (2,95)
# define __ASSERT_VOID_CAST static_cast<void>
#else
# define __ASSERT_VOID_CAST (void)
#endif

/* void assert (int expression);

   If NDEBUG is defined, do nothing.
   If not, and EXPRESSION is zero, print an error message and abort.  */

#ifdef	NDEBUG

# define assert(expr)		(__ASSERT_VOID_CAST (0))

/* void assert_perror (int errnum);

   If NDEBUG is defined, do nothing.  If not, and ERRNUM is not zero, print an
   error message with the error text for ERRNUM and abort.
   (This is a GNU extension.) */

# ifdef	__USE_GNU
#  define assert_perror(errnum)	(__ASSERT_VOID_CAST (0))
# endif

#else /* Not NDEBUG.  */

__BEGIN_DECLS

/* This prints an "Assertion failed" message and aborts.  */
extern void __assert_fail (__const char *__assertion, __const char *__file,
			   unsigned int __line, __const char *__function)
     __THROW __attribute__ ((__noreturn__));

/* Likewise, but prints the error text for ERRNUM.  */
extern void __assert_perror_fail (int __errnum, __const char *__file,
				  unsigned int __line,
				  __const char *__function)
     __THROW __attribute__ ((__noreturn__));


/* The following is not at all used here but needed for standard
   compliance.  */
extern void __assert (const char *__assertion, const char *__file, int __line)
     __THROW __attribute__ ((__noreturn__));


__END_DECLS

# define assert(expr)							\
  ((expr)								\
   ? __ASSERT_VOID_CAST (0)						\
   : __assert_fail (__STRING(expr), __FILE__, __LINE__, __ASSERT_FUNCTION))

# ifdef	__USE_GNU
#  define assert_perror(errnum)						\
  (!(errnum)								\
   ? __ASSERT_VOID_CAST (0)						\
   : __assert_perror_fail ((errnum), __FILE__, __LINE__, __ASSERT_FUNCTION))
# endif

/* Version 2.4 and later of GCC define a magical variable `__PRETTY_FUNCTION__'
   which contains the name of the function currently being defined.
   This is broken in G++ before version 2.6.
   C9x has a similar variable called __func__, but prefer the GCC one since
   it demangles C++ function names.  */
# if defined __cplusplus ? __GNUC_PREREQ (2, 6) : __GNUC_PREREQ (2, 4)
#   define __ASSERT_FUNCTION	__PRETTY_FUNCTION__
# else
#  if defined __STDC_VERSION__ && __STDC_VERSION__ >= 199901L
#   define __ASSERT_FUNCTION	__func__
#  else
#   define __ASSERT_FUNCTION	((__const char *) 0)
#  endif
# endif

#endif /* NDEBUG.  */



接下来是我自己的实现方案,采用两种思路.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
//#define NDEBUG

#define ASSERT_VOID_CAST  (void)



//version 1
#ifndef NDEBUG
#define assert(expr)  \
   if(expr)  \
       do{ \
         fprintf(stderr, "Assertion failed:%s, file %s, line %d\n", #expr, __FILE__,__LINE__); \
         abort(); \
       }while(0)
#else
#define assert(expr)  ASSERT_VOID_CAST(0)
#endif


version 2
//void assert_fail(const char *expr, const char *file, int line)
//  {
//    fprintf(stderr, "Assertion failed:%s, file %s, line %d\n", expr, file, line);
//    abort(); \
//  }

//#ifndef NDEBUG
//#define assert(expr)  \
//   ( (expr) \
//     ? ASSERT_VOID_CAST(0)   \
//     : assert_fail(#expr, __FILE__, __LINE__) \
//    )
//#else
//#define assert(expr)  ASSERT_VOID_CAST(0)
//#endif

int main( void )
{
       FILE *fp;

       fp = fopen( "test1.txt", "w" );//以可写的方式打开一个文件,如果不存在就创建一个同名文件
       assert( fp );                           //所以这里不会出错
       fclose( fp );

       fp = fopen( "test2.txt", "r" );//以只读的方式打开一个文件,如果不存在就打开文件失败
       assert( fp );                           //所以这里出错
       fclose( fp );                           //程序永远都执行不到这里来
       return 0;
}



当采用version1时:

预编译后代码为:

运行结果:


当采用version2时:

预编译后代码为:


运行结果:


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