# leetcode回溯法欣赏——配合前文套路教学效果更佳

Leetcode 回溯法欣赏，助你发现其中套路（部分内容引自评论区）

Subsets : https://leetcode.com/problems/subsets/

public List<List<Integer>> subsets(int[] nums) {
List<List<Integer>> list = new ArrayList<>();
Arrays.sort(nums);
backtrack(list, new ArrayList<>(), nums, 0);
return list;
}

private void backtrack(List<List<Integer>> list , List<Integer> tempList, int [] nums, int start){
list.add(new ArrayList<>(tempList));
for(int i = start; i < nums.length; i++){
tempList.add(nums[i]);
backtrack(list, tempList, nums, i + 1);
tempList.remove(tempList.size() - 1);
}
}

Subsets II (contains duplicates) : https://leetcode.com/problems/subsets-ii/

public List<List<Integer>> subsetsWithDup(int[] nums) {
List<List<Integer>> list = new ArrayList<>();
Arrays.sort(nums);
backtrack(list, new ArrayList<>(), nums, 0);
return list;
}

private void backtrack(List<List<Integer>> list, List<Integer> tempList, int [] nums, int start){
list.add(new ArrayList<>(tempList));
for(int i = start; i < nums.length; i++){
if(i > start && nums[i] == nums[i-1]) continue; // skip duplicates
tempList.add(nums[i]);
backtrack(list, tempList, nums, i + 1);
tempList.remove(tempList.size() - 1);
}
} 
Permutations : https://leetcode.com/problems/permutations/

public List<List<Integer>> permute(int[] nums) {
List<List<Integer>> list = new ArrayList<>();
// Arrays.sort(nums); // not necessary
backtrack(list, new ArrayList<>(), nums);
return list;
}

private void backtrack(List<List<Integer>> list, List<Integer> tempList, int [] nums){
if(tempList.size() == nums.length){
list.add(new ArrayList<>(tempList));
} else{
for(int i = 0; i < nums.length; i++){
if(tempList.contains(nums[i])) continue; // element already exists, skip
tempList.add(nums[i]);
backtrack(list, tempList, nums);
tempList.remove(tempList.size() - 1);
}
}
} 
Permutations II (contains duplicates) : https://leetcode.com/problems/permutations-ii/

public List<List<Integer>> permuteUnique(int[] nums) {
List<List<Integer>> list = new ArrayList<>();
Arrays.sort(nums);
backtrack(list, new ArrayList<>(), nums, new boolean[nums.length]);
return list;
}

private void backtrack(List<List<Integer>> list, List<Integer> tempList, int [] nums, boolean [] used){
if(tempList.size() == nums.length){
list.add(new ArrayList<>(tempList));
} else{
for(int i = 0; i < nums.length; i++){
if(used[i] || i > 0 && nums[i] == nums[i-1] && !used[i - 1]) continue;
used[i] = true;
tempList.add(nums[i]);
backtrack(list, tempList, nums, used);
used[i] = false;
tempList.remove(tempList.size() - 1);
}
}
}