leetcode回溯法欣赏——配合前文套路教学效果更佳

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Leetcode 回溯法欣赏,助你发现其中套路(部分内容引自评论区)

Subsets : https://leetcode.com/problems/subsets/

public List<List<Integer>> subsets(int[] nums) {
    List<List<Integer>> list = new ArrayList<>();
    Arrays.sort(nums);
    backtrack(list, new ArrayList<>(), nums, 0);
    return list;
}

private void backtrack(List<List<Integer>> list , List<Integer> tempList, int [] nums, int start){
    list.add(new ArrayList<>(tempList));
    for(int i = start; i < nums.length; i++){
        tempList.add(nums[i]);
        backtrack(list, tempList, nums, i + 1);
        tempList.remove(tempList.size() - 1);
    }
}

Subsets II (contains duplicates) : https://leetcode.com/problems/subsets-ii/

public List<List<Integer>> subsetsWithDup(int[] nums) {
    List<List<Integer>> list = new ArrayList<>();
    Arrays.sort(nums);
    backtrack(list, new ArrayList<>(), nums, 0);
    return list;
}

private void backtrack(List<List<Integer>> list, List<Integer> tempList, int [] nums, int start){
    list.add(new ArrayList<>(tempList));
    for(int i = start; i < nums.length; i++){
        if(i > start && nums[i] == nums[i-1]) continue; // skip duplicates
        tempList.add(nums[i]);
        backtrack(list, tempList, nums, i + 1);
        tempList.remove(tempList.size() - 1);
    }
} 
Permutations : https://leetcode.com/problems/permutations/

public List<List<Integer>> permute(int[] nums) {
   List<List<Integer>> list = new ArrayList<>();
   // Arrays.sort(nums); // not necessary
   backtrack(list, new ArrayList<>(), nums);
   return list;
}

private void backtrack(List<List<Integer>> list, List<Integer> tempList, int [] nums){
   if(tempList.size() == nums.length){
      list.add(new ArrayList<>(tempList));
   } else{
      for(int i = 0; i < nums.length; i++){ 
         if(tempList.contains(nums[i])) continue; // element already exists, skip
         tempList.add(nums[i]);
         backtrack(list, tempList, nums);
         tempList.remove(tempList.size() - 1);
      }
   }
} 
Permutations II (contains duplicates) : https://leetcode.com/problems/permutations-ii/

public List<List<Integer>> permuteUnique(int[] nums) {
    List<List<Integer>> list = new ArrayList<>();
    Arrays.sort(nums);
    backtrack(list, new ArrayList<>(), nums, new boolean[nums.length]);
    return list;
}

private void backtrack(List<List<Integer>> list, List<Integer> tempList, int [] nums, boolean [] used){
    if(tempList.size() == nums.length){
        list.add(new ArrayList<>(tempList));
    } else{
        for(int i = 0; i < nums.length; i++){
            if(used[i] || i > 0 && nums[i] == nums[i-1] && !used[i - 1]) continue;
            used[i] = true; 
            tempList.add(nums[i]);
            backtrack(list, tempList, nums, used);
            used[i] = false; 
            tempList.remove(tempList.size() - 1);
        }
    }
}




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