Java 枚举:理解枚举本质

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/AndroidBluetooth/article/details/7945020

C 语言中可以这样来定义枚举

enum color {
        RED=0, GREEN, BLUE, YELLOW
} col;


关键字 enum 定义枚举,在定义枚举的同时,声明该枚举变量 col.

注意:C 语言中枚举成员的值是根据上下文自动加 1 的(GREEN = 1, BLUE = 2 等)。

C 语言中 switch 语句支持枚举类型

#include<stdio.h>
int main() {
    enum color {
        RED=0, GREEN, BLUE, YELLOW
    } col;

    int cl;

    printf("0=red,1=green,2=blue,3=yellow. seclect:\n");
    scanf("%d",&cl);

    col=(enum color) cl;

    switch(col) {
        case RED:
            printf("the color is red\n");
            break;
        case GREEN:
            printf("the color is green\n");
            break;
        case BLUE:
             printf("the color is blue\n");
            break;
        case YELLOW:
            printf("the color is yellow\n");
            break;
        defalut:
            printf("no this color\n");
            break;
    }

    return 0;
}


那么,Java 里面的枚举与其类似,但是又不是完全一样。

 

 

Java 语言中定义枚举也是使用关键字 enum

 

public enum Color {
	RED, GREEN, BLUE, YELLOW;
}

 

上述定义了一个枚举类型 Color(可以说是类,编译之后是 Color.class).

 

上面的定义,还可以改成下面的这种形式

public enum Color {
	RED(), GREEN(), BLUE(), YELLOW();
}


到这里你就会觉得迷茫(如果你是初学者的话),为什么这样子也可以?

 

其实,枚举的成员就是枚举对象,只不过他们是静态常量而已。

使用 javap 命令(javap 文件名<没有后缀.class>)可以反编译 class 文件,如下:

 

我们可以使用普通类来模拟枚举,下面定义一个 Color 类。

 

public class Color {
	private static final Color RED = new Color();
	private static final Color GREEN = new Color();
	private static final Color BLUE = new Color();
	private static final Color YELLOW = new Color();
}


对比一下,你就明白了。

如果按照这个逻辑,是否还可以为其添加另外的构造方法?答案是肯定的!

public enum Color {
		RED("red color", 0), GREEN("green color", 1), 
		BLUE("blue color", 2), YELLOW("yellow color", 3);

		Color(String name, int id) {
			_name = name;
			_id = id;
		}

		String _name;
		int _id;
}

 

为 Color 声明了两个成员变量,并为其构造带参数的构造器。

如果你这样创建一个枚举

public enum Color {
		RED("red color", 0), GREEN("green color", 1), 
		BLUE("blue color", 2), YELLOW("yellow color", 3);
}


编译器就会报错

The constructor EnumDemo.Color(String, int) is undefined

到此,你就可以明白,枚举和普通类基本一致(但是不完全一样)。

 

对于类来讲,最好将其成员变量私有化,然后,为成员变量提供 get、set 方法。

按照这个原则,可以进一步写好 enum Color.

public enum Color {
		RED("red color", 0), GREEN("green color", 1),
		BLUE("blue color", 2), YELLOW("yellow color", 3);

		Color(String name, int id) {
			_name = name;
			_id = id;
		}

		private String _name;
		private int _id;
		
		public void setName(String name) {
			_name = name;
		}
		
		public void setId(int id) {
			_id = id;
		}

		public String getName() {
			return _name;
		}

		public int getId() {
			return _id;
		}
}

但是,java 设计 enum 的目的是提供一组常量,方便用户设计。

如果我们冒然的提供 set 方法(外界可以改变其成员属性),好像是有点违背了设计的初衷。

那么,我们应该舍弃 set 方法,保留 get 方法。

public enum Color {
		RED("red color", 0), GREEN("green color", 1),
		BLUE("blue color", 2), YELLOW("yellow color", 3);

		Color(String name, int id) {
			_name = name;
			_id = id;
		}

		private String _name;
		private int _id;
		
		public String getName() {
			return _name;
		}

		public int getId() {
			return _id;
		}
}


普通类,我们可以将其实例化,那么,能否实例化枚举呢?

在回答这个问题之前,先来看看,编译之后的 Color.class 文件

public static enum Color {
		RED("red color", 0), GREEN("green color", 1),
		BLUE("blue color", 2), YELLOW("yellow color", 3);

		private String _name;
		private int _id;

		private Color(String name, int id) {
			this._name = name;
			this._id = id;
		}

		public String getName() {
			return this._name;
		}

		public int getId() {
			return this._id;
		}
}


可以看出,编译器淘气的为其构造方法加上了 private,那么也就是说,我们无法实例化枚举。

所有枚举类都继承了 Enum 类的方法,包括 toString 、equals、hashcode 等方法。

因为 equals、hashcode 方法是 final 的,所以不可以被枚举重写(只可以继承)。

但是,可以重写 toString 方法。

关于 Enum 源码,详见附录!

那么,使用 Java 的不同类来模拟一下枚举,大概是这个样子

package mark.demo;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class Color {
	private static final Color RED = new Color("red color", 0);
	private static final Color GREEN = new Color("green color", 1);
	private static final Color BLUE = new Color("blue color", 2);
	private static final Color YELLOW = new Color("yellow color", 3);

	private final String _name;
	private final int _id;

	private Color(String name, int id) {
		_name = name;
		_id = id;
	}

	public String getName() {
		return _name;
	}

	public int getId() {
		return _id;
	}

	public static List<Color> values() {
		List<Color> list = new ArrayList<Color>();
		list.add(RED);
		list.add(GREEN);
		list.add(BLUE);
		list.add(YELLOW);
		return list;
	}

	@Override
	public String toString() {
		return "the color _name=" + _name + ", _id=" + _id;
	}

}

 

附录

Enum.java

 

 

/*
 * %W% %E%
 *
 * Copyright (c) 2006, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 * ORACLE PROPRIETARY/CONFIDENTIAL. Use is subject to license terms.
 */

package java.lang;

import java.io.Serializable;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InvalidObjectException;
import java.io.ObjectInputStream;
import java.io.ObjectStreamException;

/**
 * This is the common base class of all Java language enumeration types.
 *
 * @author  Josh Bloch
 * @author  Neal Gafter
 * @version %I%, %G%
 * @since   1.5
 */
public abstract class Enum<E extends Enum<E>>
        implements Comparable<E>, Serializable {
    /**
     * The name of this enum constant, as declared in the enum declaration.
     * Most programmers should use the {@link #toString} method rather than
     * accessing this field.
     */
    private final String name;

    /**
     * Returns the name of this enum constant, exactly as declared in its
     * enum declaration.
     * 
     * <b>Most programmers should use the {@link #toString} method in
     * preference to this one, as the toString method may return
     * a more user-friendly name.</b>  This method is designed primarily for
     * use in specialized situations where correctness depends on getting the
     * exact name, which will not vary from release to release.
     *
     * @return the name of this enum constant
     */
    public final String name() {
	return name;
    }

    /**
     * The ordinal of this enumeration constant (its position
     * in the enum declaration, where the initial constant is assigned
     * an ordinal of zero).
     * 
     * Most programmers will have no use for this field.  It is designed
     * for use by sophisticated enum-based data structures, such as
     * {@link java.util.EnumSet} and {@link java.util.EnumMap}.
     */
    private final int ordinal;

    /**
     * Returns the ordinal of this enumeration constant (its position
     * in its enum declaration, where the initial constant is assigned
     * an ordinal of zero).
     * 
     * Most programmers will have no use for this method.  It is
     * designed for use by sophisticated enum-based data structures, such
     * as {@link java.util.EnumSet} and {@link java.util.EnumMap}.
     *
     * @return the ordinal of this enumeration constant
     */
    public final int ordinal() {
	return ordinal;
    }

    /**
     * Sole constructor.  Programmers cannot invoke this constructor.
     * It is for use by code emitted by the compiler in response to
     * enum type declarations.
     *
     * @param name - The name of this enum constant, which is the identifier
     *               used to declare it.
     * @param ordinal - The ordinal of this enumeration constant (its position
     *         in the enum declaration, where the initial constant is assigned
     *         an ordinal of zero).
     */
    protected Enum(String name, int ordinal) {
	this.name = name;
	this.ordinal = ordinal;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the name of this enum constant, as contained in the
     * declaration.  This method may be overridden, though it typically
     * isn't necessary or desirable.  An enum type should override this
     * method when a more "programmer-friendly" string form exists.
     *
     * @return the name of this enum constant
     */
    public String toString() {
	return name;
    }

    /**
     * Returns true if the specified object is equal to this
     * enum constant.
     *
     * @param other the object to be compared for equality with this object.
     * @return  true if the specified object is equal to this
     *          enum constant.
     */
    public final boolean equals(Object other) { 
        return this==other;
    }

    /**
     * Returns a hash code for this enum constant.
     *
     * @return a hash code for this enum constant.
     */
    public final int hashCode() {
        return super.hashCode();
    }

    /**
     * Throws CloneNotSupportedException.  This guarantees that enums
     * are never cloned, which is necessary to preserve their "singleton"
     * status.
     *
     * @return (never returns)
     */
    protected final Object clone() throws CloneNotSupportedException {
	throw new CloneNotSupportedException();
    }

    /**
     * Compares this enum with the specified object for order.  Returns a
     * negative integer, zero, or a positive integer as this object is less
     * than, equal to, or greater than the specified object.
     * 
     * Enum constants are only comparable to other enum constants of the
     * same enum type.  The natural order implemented by this
     * method is the order in which the constants are declared.
     */
    public final int compareTo(E o) {
	Enum other = (Enum)o;
	Enum self = this;
	if (self.getClass() != other.getClass() && // optimization
            self.getDeclaringClass() != other.getDeclaringClass())
	    throw new ClassCastException();
	return self.ordinal - other.ordinal;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the Class object corresponding to this enum constant's
     * enum type.  Two enum constants e1 and  e2 are of the
     * same enum type if and only if
     *   e1.getDeclaringClass() == e2.getDeclaringClass().
     * (The value returned by this method may differ from the one returned
     * by the {@link Object#getClass} method for enum constants with
     * constant-specific class bodies.)
     *
     * @return the Class object corresponding to this enum constant's
     *     enum type
     */
    public final Class<E> getDeclaringClass() {
	Class clazz = getClass();
	Class zuper = clazz.getSuperclass();
	return (zuper == Enum.class) ? clazz : zuper;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the enum constant of the specified enum type with the
     * specified name.  The name must match exactly an identifier used
     * to declare an enum constant in this type.  (Extraneous whitespace
     * characters are not permitted.) 
     *
     * @param enumType the <tt>Class</tt> object of the enum type from which
     *      to return a constant
     * @param name the name of the constant to return
     * @return the enum constant of the specified enum type with the
     *      specified name
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the specified enum type has
     *         no constant with the specified name, or the specified
     *         class object does not represent an enum type
     * @throws NullPointerException if <tt>enumType</tt> or <tt>name</tt>
     *         is null
     * @since 1.5
     */
    public static <T extends Enum<T>> T valueOf(Class<T> enumType,
                                                String name) {
        T result = enumType.enumConstantDirectory().get(name);
        if (result != null)
            return result;
        if (name == null)
            throw new NullPointerException("Name is null");
        throw new IllegalArgumentException(
            "No enum const " + enumType +"." + name);
    }

    /**
      * prevent default deserialization
      */
    private void readObject(ObjectInputStream in) throws IOException,
        ClassNotFoundException {
            throw new InvalidObjectException("can't deserialize enum");
    }

    private void readObjectNoData() throws ObjectStreamException {
        throw new InvalidObjectException("can't deserialize enum");
    }

    /**
     * enum classes cannot have finalize methods.
     */
    protected final void finalize() { }
}

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

没有更多推荐了,返回首页