linux 查看主板sn_怎么查看Linux服务器硬件信息,这些命令告诉你

Linux服务器配置文档找不到,你还在为查询Linux服务器硬件信息发愁吗?学会这些命令,让你轻松查看Linux服务器的CPU,内存,硬盘,SN序列号等信息,根本就不用去机房。

一、查看CPU信息

CPU信息常常包括查看CPU型号信息,物理CPU个数,每个物理CPU中core的个数(即核数),逻辑CPU个数信息。默认Linux服务器中,这些信息都保存在/proc/cpuinfo文件中,通过cat命令结合grep命令我们可以很容易查询出来。

1、查看CPU型号信息

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep name | cut -f2 -d: | uniq -c

32 Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2650 v2 @ 2.60GHz

这其中的32是逻辑CPU的个数,Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2650 v2 @ 2.60GHz是CPU型号信息及频率。

2、查看物理CPU个数

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/cpuinfo| grep "physical id"| sort| uniq| wc -l

2

上面命令执行后,结果为2,这就是物理CPU个数。

3、每个物理CPU中核数

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/cpuinfo| grep "cpu cores"| uniq

cpu cores : 8

可以从结果中看出,每个cpu核数是8。

4、查看逻辑CPU的个数

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/cpuinfo| grep "processor"| wc -l

32

5、整体查看CPU相关信息

lscpu

输出结果:

[root@localhost ~]# lscpu

Architecture: x86_64 #cpu架构

CPU op-mode(s): 32-bit, 64-bit

Byte Order: Little Endian

CPU(s): 32 #逻辑CPU核数

On-line CPU(s) list: 0-31

Thread(s) per core: 2 #每核超线程数

Core(s) per socket: 8 #每个cpu核数

Socket(s): 2 #物理cpu个数

NUMA node(s): 2

Vendor ID: GenuineIntel #cpu产商 intel

CPU family: 6

Model: 62

Model name: Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2650 v2 @ 2.60GHz

Stepping: 4

CPU MHz: 1200.000 #cpu主频

BogoMIPS: 5187.29

Virtualization: VT-x #支持cpu虚拟化技术

L1d cache: 32K

L1i cache: 32K

L2 cache: 256K

L3 cache: 20480K

NUMA node0 CPU(s): 0-7,16-23

NUMA node1 CPU(s): 8-15,24-31

结合上面的信息,我们需要了解的CPU的物理数,CPU核数,物理核数,超线程数概念关系如下:

CPU总核数(16) = 物理CPU个数(2) * 每颗物理CPU的核数(8)

CPU总逻辑数(32) = 物理CPU个数(2) * 每颗物理CPU的核数(8) * 超线程数(2)

二、查看内存信息

在Linux系统中查看linux内存的大小时,我们最长用到的命令就是free命令。free命令可以查看当前内存大小及使用情况,但如果要查看更多关于内存的物理信息,例如内存条数,内存插槽数,内存速率等信息,我们就需要dmidecode命令。

dmidecode命令工具用于获取服务器的硬件信息,不用到机房打开机箱查看设备型号,使用该命令来查找硬件详细信息。

1、查看内存使用情况

[root@localhost ~]# free -h

total used free shared buffers cached

Mem: 62G 60G 2.7G 1.2M 483M 56G

-/+ buffers/cache: 3.1G 59G

Swap: 31G 0B 31G

-h以人类可读的方式显示,即后边会自动带上单位。

2、查询内存(RAM)信息 通过以下命令,可以查询机器最大支持的内存总量**

[root@localhost ~]# dmidecode -t 16

# dmidecode 2.12

SMBIOS 2.7 present.

Handle 0x002B, DMI type 16, 23 bytes

Physical Memory Array

Location: System Board Or Motherboard

Use: System Memory

Error Correction Type: Multi-bit ECC

Maximum Capacity: 768 GB

Error Information Handle: Not Provided

Number Of Devices: 12

这里可以查看到当前服务器允许扩容的最大内存,从输出结果可以看出,该机器理论上支持的最大内存为768G。

3、查看可用内存大小

首先我们可以通过cat命令查看/proc/meminfo文件内容获取内存大小信息。

[root@localhost ~]# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo

MemTotal: 65890032 kB

4、查看内存大小、内存数、内存插槽数

[root@localhost ~]# dmidecode|grep -P -A5 "Memory Device" |grep Size

Size: 16384 MB

Size: No Module Installed

Size: No Module Installed

Size: No Module Installed

Size: No Module Installed

Size: No Module Installed

Size: 16384 MB

Size: No Module Installed

Size: No Module Installed

Size: No Module Installed

Size: No Module Installed

Size: No Module Installed

Size: 16384 MB

Size: No Module Installed

Size: No Module Installed

Size: No Module Installed

Size: No Module Installed

Size: No Module Installed

Size: 16384 MB

Size: No Module Installed

Size: No Module Installed

Size: No Module Installed

Size: No Module Installed

Size: No Module Installed

从上面的结果可以看出,插槽总数为24,内存数量为4,总大小为4 x 16384 MB = 65536 MB ,65536 MB /1024 = 64G。

5、查看内存速率

[root@localhost ~]# dmidecode|grep -A16 "Memory Device"|grep 'Speed' | grep -v "Unknown"

Speed: 1600 MHz

Speed: 1600 MHz

Speed: 1600 MHz

Speed: 1600 MHz

从上面的结果我们们可以看出,所有内存的速率都是1600 MHz。

三、查看硬盘信息

查看挂接的分区状态

1、查看挂接的分区状态

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l |grep Disk

Disk /dev/sda: 1197.8 GB, 1197759004672 bytes

Disk identifier: 0x0005efcd

2、查看硬盘和分区分布

[root@localhost ~]# lsblk

NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT

sda 8:0 0 1.1T 0 disk

├─sda1 8:1 0 500M 0 part /boot

├─sda2 8:2 0 31.3G 0 part [SWAP]

└─sda3 8:3 0 1.1T 0 part /

sr0 11:0 1 1024M 0 rom

3、查看硬盘和分区的详细信息

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 1197.8 GB, 1197759004672 bytes

255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 145619 cylinders

Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

Disk identifier: 0x0005efcd

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

/dev/sda1 * 1 64 512000 83 Linux

Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.

/dev/sda2 64 4144 32768000 82 Linux swap / Solaris

/dev/sda3 4144 145620 1136405504 83 Linux

4、查看挂接的分区状态

[root@localhost ~]# mount | column -t

/dev/sda3 on / type ext4 (rw)

proc on /proc type proc (rw)

sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw)

devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)

tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,rootcontext="system_u:object_r:tmpfs_t:s0")

/dev/sda1 on /boot type ext4 (rw)

none on /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc type binfmt_misc (rw)

none on /sys/kernel/config type configfs (rw)

sunrpc on /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs type rpc_pipefs (rw)

nfsd on /proc/fs/nfsd type nfsd (rw)

5、查看硬盘使用情况

[root@localhost ~]# df -hT

Filesystem Type Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on

/dev/sda3 ext4 1.1T 355G 658G 36% /

tmpfs tmpfs 32G 68K 32G 1% /dev/shm

/dev/sda1 ext4 477M 40M 412M 9% /boot

四、查看网卡信息

1、查看网卡硬件信息

[root@localhost ~]# lspci | grep -i 'eth'

02:00.0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation I350 Gigabit Network Connection (rev 01)

02:00.1 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation I350 Gigabit Network Connection (rev 01)

07:00.0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation I350 Gigabit Network Connection (rev 01)

07:00.1 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation I350 Gigabit Network Connection (rev 01)

查看系统的所有网络接口

ifconfig -a

ip link show

查看某个网络接口的详细信息,例如eth0的详细参数和指标

[root@localhost ~]# ethtool eth0

Settings for eth0:

Supported ports: [ TP ]

Supported link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full

100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full

1000baseT/Full

Supported pause frame use: Symmetric

Supports auto-negotiation: Yes

Advertised link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full

100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full

1000baseT/Full

Advertised pause frame use: Symmetric

Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes

Speed: 1000Mb/s

Duplex: Full

Port: Twisted Pair

PHYAD: 1

Transceiver: internal

Auto-negotiation: on

MDI-X: off (auto)

Supports Wake-on: pumbg

Wake-on: g

Current message level: 0x00000007 (7)

drv probe link

Link detected: yes

六、其它硬件信息

dmidecode命令不仅仅可以查看内存等信息,另外这个命令强大到几乎可以查任何硬件信息 包括设备型号、bios 、cpu、主板 、处理器、内存、缓存详细信息等等都例举出来。

1、查看服务器型号、序列号

[root@localhost ~]# dmidecode|grep "System Information" -A9|egrep "Manufacturer|Product|Serial"

Manufacturer: FUJITSU

Product Name: PRIMERGY RX200 S8

Serial Number: MANS012234

2、查看主板型号

[root@localhost ~]# dmidecode |grep -A16 "System Information$"

System Information

Manufacturer: FUJITSU

Product Name: PRIMERGY RX200 S8

Version: GS01

Serial Number: MANS012234

UUID: 2B5C344E-4406-E411-9EFE-70E284092502

Wake-up Type: Power Switch

SKU Number: S26361-K1455-Vxxx

Family: SERVER

Handle 0x0002, DMI type 2, 15 bytes

Base Board Information

Manufacturer: FUJITSU

Product Name: D3302-A1

Version: S26361-D3302-A100 GS02

Serial Number: 5556W06001G4280004BJ0D1

Asset Tag:

3、查看BIOS信息

[root@localhost ~]# dmidecode -t bios

# dmidecode 2.12

SMBIOS 2.7 present.

Handle 0x0000, DMI type 0, 24 bytes

BIOS Information

Vendor: FUJITSU // American Megatrends Inc.

Version: V4.6.5.4 R1.8.0 for D3302-A1x

Release Date: 06/23/2014

Address: 0xF0000

Runtime Size: 64 kB

ROM Size: 13248 kB

Characteristics:

PCI is supported

BIOS is upgradeable

BIOS shadowing is allowed

Boot from CD is supported

Selectable boot is supported

EDD is supported

Print screen service is supported (int 5h)

Serial services are supported (int 14h)

Printer services are supported (int 17h)

ACPI is supported

USB legacy is supported

BIOS boot specification is supported

Targeted content distribution is supported

UEFI is supported

BIOS Revision: 1.8

Handle 0x0114, DMI type 13, 22 bytes

BIOS Language Information

Language Description Format: Abbreviated

Installable Languages: 1

enUS

Currently Installed Language: enUS

如果要了解更多关于dmidecode,不妨在命令终端中输入dmidecode --help查看该命令的具体使用说明。

写在最后

对于大部分普通Linux用户来说,不知道这些命令很正常。但是如果你需要了解一下服务器信息时,这些命令就非常有用了,不论是维系系统还是核查设备信息,绝对是必备技能。

也许你现在不需要,但你以后可能会用到,聪明的你不妨先做收藏以备后用。

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