【JUC源码解析】Exchanger

简介

Exchanger,并发工具类,用于线程间的数据交换。

使用

两个线程,两个缓冲区,一个线程往一个缓冲区里面填数据,另一个线程从另一个缓冲区里面取数据。当填数据的线程将缓冲区填满时,或者取数据的线程将缓冲区里的数据取空时,就主动向对方发起交换缓冲区的动作,而交换的时机是,一个缓冲区满,另一个缓冲区空。代码如下,很简单,没有加注释。

  1 public class FillAndEmpty {
  2     Exchanger<DataBuffer> exchanger = new Exchanger<DataBuffer>();
  3     DataBuffer initialEmptyBuffer = DataBuffer.allocate(1024);
  4     DataBuffer initialFullBuffer = DataBuffer.allocate(1024);
  5 
  6     class FillingLoop implements Runnable {
  7         public void run() {
  8             DataBuffer currentBuffer = initialEmptyBuffer;
  9             try {
 10                 while (currentBuffer != null) {
 11                     addToBuffer(currentBuffer);
 12                     if (currentBuffer.isFull()) {
 13                         System.out.println("[FillingLoop](Before)" + currentBuffer);
 14                         currentBuffer = exchanger.exchange(currentBuffer);
 15                         System.out.println("[FillingLoop](After)" + currentBuffer);
 16                     }
 17                 }
 18             } catch (InterruptedException ex) {
 19                 Thread.currentThread().interrupt();
 20             }
 21         }
 22     }
 23 
 24     class EmptyingLoop implements Runnable {
 25         public void run() {
 26             DataBuffer currentBuffer = initialFullBuffer;
 27             try {
 28                 while (currentBuffer != null) {
 29                     takeFromBuffer(currentBuffer);
 30                     if (currentBuffer.isEmpty()) {
 31                         System.out.println("[EmptyingLoop](Before)" + currentBuffer);
 32                         currentBuffer = exchanger.exchange(currentBuffer);
 33                         System.out.println("[EmptyingLoop](After)" + currentBuffer);
 34                     }
 35                 }
 36             } catch (InterruptedException ex) {
 37                 Thread.currentThread().interrupt();
 38             }
 39         }
 40     }
 41 
 42     void start() {
 43         Thread fillingLoopThread = new Thread(new FillingLoop());
 44         Thread emptyingLoopThread = new Thread(new EmptyingLoop());
 45 
 46         fillingLoopThread.start();
 47         emptyingLoopThread.start();
 48 
 49         try {
 50             Thread.sleep(10);
 51         } catch (InterruptedException e) {
 52             // do nothing
 53         }
 54         fillingLoopThread.interrupt();
 55         emptyingLoopThread.interrupt();
 56     }
 57 
 58     public void takeFromBuffer(DataBuffer buf) {
 59         buf.take();
 60     }
 61 
 62     public void addToBuffer(DataBuffer buf) {
 63         buf.add(1);
 64     }
 65 
 66     private static class DataBuffer {
 67         private final int[] buf;
 68         private final int size;
 69         private int index;
 70 
 71         private DataBuffer(int size) {
 72             this.size = size;
 73             this.buf = new int[size];
 74         }
 75 
 76         public static DataBuffer allocate(int size) {
 77             return new DataBuffer(size);
 78         }
 79 
 80         public boolean isEmpty() {
 81             return index == 0;
 82         }
 83 
 84         public boolean isFull() {
 85             return index == size - 1;
 86         }
 87 
 88         public int take() {
 89             if (index > 0) {
 90                 return buf[index--];
 91             }
 92 
 93             return -1;
 94         }
 95 
 96         public void add(int data) {
 97             if (index < size - 1) {
 98                 buf[index++] = data;
 99             }
100         }
101     }
102 
103     public static void main(String[] args) {
104         FillAndEmpty fae = new FillAndEmpty();
105         fae.start();
106     }
107 }

输出如下,交换前后,两个线程所持的数据缓冲区对调。(部分输出未给出)

 1 [EmptyingLoop](Before)com.luoluo.exchanger.FillAndEmpty$DataBuffer@1733c6a5
 2 [FillingLoop](Before)com.luoluo.exchanger.FillAndEmpty$DataBuffer@39bcfec1
 3 [FillingLoop](After)com.luoluo.exchanger.FillAndEmpty$DataBuffer@1733c6a5
 4 [EmptyingLoop](After)com.luoluo.exchanger.FillAndEmpty$DataBuffer@39bcfec1
 5 ......

源码解析

常量介绍

1     private static final int ASHIFT = 7; // 两个有效槽(slot -> Node)之间的字节地址长度(内存地址,以字节为单位),1 << 7至少为缓存行的大小,防止伪共享 
2     private static final int MMASK = 0xff; // 场地(一排槽,arena -> Node[])的可支持的最大索引,可分配的大小为 MMASK + 1
3     private static final int SEQ = MMASK + 1; // bound的递增单元,确立其唯一性
4     private static final int NCPU = Runtime.getRuntime().availableProcessors(); // CPU的个数,用于场地大小和自旋控制
5     static final int FULL = (NCPU >= (MMASK << 1)) ? MMASK : NCPU >>> 1; // 最大的arena索引
6     private static final int SPINS = 1 << 10; // 自旋次数,NCPU = 1时,禁用
7     private static final Object NULL_ITEM = new Object();// 空对象,对应null
8     private static final Object TIMED_OUT = new Object();// 超时对象,对应timeout

ASHIFT,两个有效的槽之间的地址长度是1 << 7(至少为缓存行的大小,避免伪共享问题,见下面说明)

MMASK,多槽交换可支持的最大索引,大小为MMASK + 1(index从0开始)

SEQ,bound的递增单元,确定其唯一性(高位)

NCPU,CPU的个数

FULL,最大的arena索引,不大于MMASK;arena,一排slot,为的是获得良好的伸缩性,避免所有的线程争用同一个槽位。

SPINS,自旋次数,用于自旋等待,是最轻量的等待,依次是 spin -> yield -> block

 

伪共享,高速缓存与内存之间是以缓存行为单位交换数据的,根据局部性原理,相邻地址空间的数据会被加载到高速缓存的同一个数据块上(缓存行),而数组是连续的(逻辑,涉及到虚拟内存)内存地址空间,因此,多个slot会被加载到同一个缓存行上,当一个slot改变时,会导致这个slot所在的缓存行上所有的数据(包括其他的slot)无效,需要从内存重新加载,影响性能。

所以,为了避免这种情况,需要填充数据,使得有效的slot不被加载到同一个缓存行上。填充的大小即为1 << 7,如下图所示

 

数据结构Node

1     static final class Node {
2         int index; // arena的索引
3         int bound; // 记录上次的bound
4         int collides; // 当前bound下CAS失败的次数
5         int hash; // 伪随机,用于自旋
6         Object item; // 当前线程携带的数据
7         volatile Object match; // 存放释放线程携带的数据
8         volatile Thread parked; // 挂在此结点上阻塞着的线程
9     }

index,arena的索引

bound,记录上次的bound

collides,当前bound下CAS失败的次数,最大为m,m(bound & MMASK)为当前bound下最大有效索引,从右往左遍历,等到collides == m时,有效索引的槽位也已经遍历完了,这时需要增长槽位,增长的方式是重置bound(依赖SEQ更新其版本,高位;+1,低位),同时collides重置

hash,伪随机,用于自旋

item,当前线程携带的数据

match,存放释放线程(来交换的线程)携带的数据

parked,挂在此结点上阻塞着的线程,等待被释放

见下图

 

数据结构Participant

1     // 每个线程携带一个Node
2     static final class Participant extends ThreadLocal<Node> {
3         public Node initialValue() {
4             return new Node();
5         }
6     }

Participant直接继承自ThreadLocal保存当前线程携带的Node,交换操作主要依赖Node的行为

 

属性介绍

1     private final Participant participant;// 每个线程携带一个Node
2     private volatile Node[] arena; // 场地,Node数组
3     private volatile Node slot;// 槽,单个Node
4     private volatile int bound;// 当前最大有效arena索引,高8位+SEQ确立其唯一性,低8位记录有效索引

bound,记录最大有效的arena索引,动态变化,竞争激烈时(槽位全满)增加, 槽位空旷时减小。bound + SEQ +/- 1,其高位+ 1(SEQ,oxff + 1)确定其版本唯一性(比如,+1后,又-1,实际上是两个版本的bound,collides要重置的,而且从右向左遍历的索引也要更新,一般来讲,左边槽位比右边槽位竞争激烈,所以要从右向左找,为的是快速找到一个空位置,并尝试占领它,当bound加一又减一后,遍历索引右侧的槽位应该就空出来了,因为大家都往左边靠拢,所以要更新到最右侧,如果没有bound的版本唯一性,便没有索引更新,就一直往左遍历竞争激烈的槽位,还会误判,本来bound应该缩减的,反而又使其增加,于是会很影响效率的。),低位+/-1实际有效的索引(&MMASK)

 
如下图

 

 

 exchange方法

1     public V exchange(V x) throws InterruptedException {
2         Object v;
3         Object item = (x == null) ? NULL_ITEM : x; // 转换成空对象
4         // arena == null, 路由到slotExchange(单槽交换), 如果arena != null或者单槽交换失败,且线程没有被中断,则路由到arenaExchange(多槽交换),返回null,则抛出中断异常
5         if ((arena != null || (v = slotExchange(item, false, 0L)) == null)
6                 && ((Thread.interrupted() || (v = arenaExchange(item, false, 0L)) == null)))
7             throw new InterruptedException();
8         return (v == NULL_ITEM) ? null : (V) v;
9     }

首先判断arena是否为null,如果为null,则调用slotExchange方法,如果arena不为null,或者slotExchange方法返回null,然后判断当前线程是否被中断(中断标记),有则抛出中断异常,没有则继续调用arenaExchange方法,如果该方法返回null,抛出中断异常,最后返回结果。

 

 带超时的exchange方法

 1     public V exchange(V x, long timeout, TimeUnit unit) throws InterruptedException, TimeoutException {
 2         Object v;
 3         Object item = (x == null) ? NULL_ITEM : x;// 转换成空对象
 4         long ns = unit.toNanos(timeout);
 5         // arena == null, 路由到slotExchange(单槽交换), 如果arena != null或者单槽交换失败,且线程没有被中断,则路由到arenaExchange(多槽交换),返回null,则抛出中断异常
 6         if ((arena != null || (v = slotExchange(item, true, ns)) == null)
 7                 && ((Thread.interrupted() || (v = arenaExchange(item, true, ns)) == null)))
 8             throw new InterruptedException();
 9         if (v == TIMED_OUT)// 超时
10             throw new TimeoutException();
11         return (v == NULL_ITEM) ? null : (V) v;
12     }

同上,加了超时的判断。 

 

slotExchange方法

 1     private final Object slotExchange(Object item, boolean timed, long ns) {
 2         Node p = participant.get(); // 获取当前线程携带的Node
 3         Thread t = Thread.currentThread(); // 当前线程
 4         if (t.isInterrupted()) // 保留中断状态,以便调用者可以重新检查,Thread.interrupted() 会清除中断状态标记
 5             return null;
 6         for (Node q;;) {
 7             if ((q = slot) != null) { // slot不为null, 说明已经有线程在这里等待了
 8                 if (U.compareAndSwapObject(this, SLOT, q, null)) { // 将slot重新设置为null, CAS操作
 9                     Object v = q.item; // 取出等待线程携带的数据
10                     q.match = item; // 将当前线程的携带的数据交给等待线程
11                     Thread w = q.parked; // 可能存在的等待线程(可能中断,不等了)
12                     if (w != null)
13                         U.unpark(w); // 唤醒等待线程
14                     return v; // 返回结果,交易成功
15                 }
16                 // CPU的个数多于1个,并且bound为0时创建 arena,并将bound设置为SEQ大小
17                 if (NCPU > 1 && bound == 0 && U.compareAndSwapInt(this, BOUND, 0, SEQ))
18                     arena = new Node[(FULL + 2) << ASHIFT]; // 根据CPU的个数估计Node的数量
19             } else if (arena != null)
20                 return null; // 如果slot为null, 但arena不为null, 则转而路由到arenaExchange方法
21             else { // 最后一种情况,说明当前线程先到,则占用此slot
22                 p.item = item; // 将携带的数据卸下,等待别的线程来交易
23                 if (U.compareAndSwapObject(this, SLOT, null, p)) // 将slot的设为当前线程携带的Node
24                     break; // 成功则跳出循环
25                 p.item = null; // 失败,将数据清除,继续循环
26             }
27         }
28         // 当前线程等待被释放, spin -> yield -> block/cancel
29         int h = p.hash; // 伪随机,用于自旋
30         long end = timed ? System.nanoTime() + ns : 0L; // 如果timed为true,等待超时的时间点; 0表示没有设置超时
31         int spins = (NCPU > 1) ? SPINS : 1; // 自旋次数
32         Object v;
33         while ((v = p.match) == null) { // 一直循环,直到有线程来交易
34             if (spins > 0) { // 自旋,直至spins不大于0
35                 h ^= h << 1; // 伪随机算法, 目的是等h小于0(随机的)
36                 h ^= h >>> 3;
37                 h ^= h << 10;
38                 if (h == 0) // 初始值
39                     h = SPINS | (int) t.getId();
40                 else if (h < 0 && (--spins & ((SPINS >>> 1) - 1)) == 0)
41                     Thread.yield(); // 等到h < 0, 而spins的低9位也为0(防止spins过大,CPU空转过久),让出CPU时间片,每一次等待有两次让出CPU的时机(SPINS >>> 1)
42             } else if (slot != p) // 别的线程已经到来,正在准备数据,自旋等待一会儿,马上就好
43                 spins = SPINS;
44             // 如果线程没被中断,且arena还没被创建,并且没有超时
45             else if (!t.isInterrupted() && arena == null && (!timed || (ns = end - System.nanoTime()) > 0L)) {
46                 U.putObject(t, BLOCKER, this); // 设置当前线程将阻塞在当前对象上
47                 p.parked = t; // 挂在此结点上的阻塞着的线程
48                 if (slot == p)
49                     U.park(false, ns); // 阻塞, 等着被唤醒或中断
50                 p.parked = null; // 醒来后,解除与结点的联系
51                 U.putObject(t, BLOCKER, null); // 解除阻塞对象
52             } else if (U.compareAndSwapObject(this, SLOT, p, null)) { // 超时或其他(取消),给其他线程腾出slot
53                 v = timed && ns <= 0L && !t.isInterrupted() ? TIMED_OUT : null;
54                 break;
55             }
56         }
57         // 归位
58         U.putOrderedObject(p, MATCH, null);
59         p.item = null;
60         p.hash = h;
61         return v;
62     }

 总结

1. 检查slot是否为空(null),不为空,说明已经有线程在此等待,尝试占领该槽位,如果占领成功,与等待线程交换数据,并唤醒等待线程,交易结束,返回。

2. 如果占领槽位失败,创建arena,但要继续【步骤1】尝试抢占slot,直至slot为空,或者抢占成功,交易结束返回。

3. 如果slot为空,则判断arena是否为空,如果arena不为空,返回null,重新路由到arenaExchange方法

4. 如果arena为空,说明当前线程是先到达的,尝试占有slot,如果成功,将slot标记为自己占用,跳出循环,继续【步骤5】,如果失败,则继续【步骤1】

5 当前线程等待被释放,等待的顺序是先自旋(spin),不成功则让出CPU时间片(yield),最后还不行就阻塞(block),spin -> yield -> block

6. 如果超时(设置超时的话)或被中断,则退出循环。

7. 最后,重置数据,下次重用,返回结果,结束。

 见下图

 

arenaExchange方法

 1     private final Object arenaExchange(Object item, boolean timed, long ns) {
 2         Node[] a = arena; // 交换场地,一排slot
 3         Node p = participant.get(); // 获取当前线程携带的Node
 4         for (int i = p.index;;) { // arena的索引,数组下标
 5             int b, m, c;
 6             long j; // 原数组偏移量,包括填充值
 7             // 从场地中选出偏移地址为(i << ASHIFT) + ABASE的内存值,也即真正可用的Node
 8             Node q = (Node) U.getObjectVolatile(a, j = (i << ASHIFT) + ABASE);
 9             if (q != null && U.compareAndSwapObject(a, j, q, null)) { // 此槽位不为null, 说明已经有线程在这里等了,重新将其设置为null, CAS操作
10                 Object v = q.item; // 取出等待线程携带的数据
11                 q.match = item; // 将当前线程携带的数据交给等待线程
12                 Thread w = q.parked; // 可能存在的等待线程
13                 if (w != null)
14                     U.unpark(w); // 唤醒等待线程
15                 return v; // 返回结果, 交易成功
16             } else if (i <= (m = (b = bound) & MMASK) && q == null) { // 有效交换位置,且槽位为空
17                 p.item = item; // 将携带的数据卸下,等待别的线程来交易
18                 if (U.compareAndSwapObject(a, j, null, p)) { // 槽位占领成功
19                     long end = (timed && m == 0) ? System.nanoTime() + ns : 0L; // 计算出超时结束时间点
20                     Thread t = Thread.currentThread(); // 当前线程
21                     for (int h = p.hash, spins = SPINS;;) { // 一直循环,直到有别的线程来交易,或超时,或中断
22                         Object v = p.match; // 检查是否有别的线程来交换数据
23                         if (v != null) { // 有则返回
24                             U.putOrderedObject(p, MATCH, null); // match重置,等着下次使用
25                             p.item = null; // 清空,下次接着使用
26                             p.hash = h;
27                             return v; // 返回结果,交易结束
28                         } else if (spins > 0) { // 自旋
29                             h ^= h << 1;
30                             h ^= h >>> 3;
31                             h ^= h << 10; // 移位加异或,伪随机
32                             if (h == 0) // 初始值
33                                 h = SPINS | (int) t.getId();
34                             else if (h < 0 && // SPINS >>> 1, 一半的概率
35                                     (--spins & ((SPINS >>> 1) - 1)) == 0)
36                                 Thread.yield(); // 每一次等待有两次让出CPU的时机
37                         } else if (U.getObjectVolatile(a, j) != p)
38                             spins = SPINS; // 别的线程已经到来,正在准备数据,自旋等待一会儿,马上就好
39                         else if (!t.isInterrupted() && m == 0 && (!timed || (ns = end - System.nanoTime()) > 0L)) {
40                             U.putObject(t, BLOCKER, this); // 设置当前线程将阻塞在当前对象上
41                             p.parked = t; // 挂在此结点上的阻塞着的线程
42                             if (U.getObjectVolatile(a, j) == p)
43                                 U.park(false, ns); // 阻塞, 等着被唤醒或中断
44                             p.parked = null; // 醒来后,解除与结点的联系
45                             U.putObject(t, BLOCKER, null); // 解除阻塞对象
46                         } else if (U.getObjectVolatile(a, j) == p && U.compareAndSwapObject(a, j, p, null)) {
47                             if (m != 0) // 尝试缩减
48                                 U.compareAndSwapInt(this, BOUND, b, b + SEQ - 1); // 更新bound, 高位递增,低位 -1
49                             p.item = null; // 重置
50                             p.hash = h;
51                             i = p.index >>>= 1; // 索引减半,为的是快速找到汇合点(最左侧)
52                             if (Thread.interrupted())// 保留中断状态,以便调用者可以重新检查,Thread.interrupted() 会清除中断状态标记
53                                 return null;
54                             if (timed && m == 0 && ns <= 0L) // 超时
55                                 return TIMED_OUT;
56                             break; // 重新开始
57                         }
58                     }
59                 } else
60                     p.item = null; // 重置
61             } else {
62                 if (p.bound != b) { // 别的线程更改了bound,重置collides为0, i的情况如下:当i != m, 或者m = 0时,i = m; 否则,i = m-1; 从右往左遍历
63                     p.bound = b;
64                     p.collides = 0;
65                     i = (i != m || m == 0) ? m : m - 1; // index 左移
66                 } else if ((c = p.collides) < m || m == FULL || !U.compareAndSwapInt(this, BOUND, b, b + SEQ + 1)) { // 更新bound, 高位递增,低位 +1
67                     p.collides = c + 1;
68                     i = (i == 0) ? m : i - 1; // 左移,遍历槽位,m == FULL时,i == 0(最左侧),重置i = m, 重新从右往左循环遍历
69                 } else
70                     i = m + 1; // 槽位增长
71                 p.index = i;
72             }
73         }
74     }

总结

1. 从场地中选出偏移地址为(i << ASHIFT) + ABASE的内存值,也即第i个真正可用的Node,判断其槽位是否为空,为空,进入【步骤2】;不为空,说明有线程在此等待,尝试抢占该槽位,抢占成功,交换数据,并唤醒等待线程,返回,结束;没有抢占成功,进入【步骤9】

2. 检查索引(i vs m)是否越界,越界,进入【步骤9】;没有越界,进入下一步。

3. 尝试占有该槽位,抢占失败,进入【步骤1】;抢占成功,进入下一步。

4. 检查match,是否有线程来交换数据,如果有,交换数据,结束;如果没有,进入下一步。

5. 检查spin是否大于0,如果不大于0,进入下一步;如果大于0,检查hash是否小于0,并且spin减半或为0,如果不是,进入【步骤4】;如果是,让出CPU时间,过一会儿,进入【步骤4】

6. 检查是否中断,m达到最小值,是否超时,如果没有中断,没有超时,并且m达到最小值,阻塞,过一会儿进入【步骤4】;否则,下一步。

7. 没有线程来交换数据,尝试丢弃原有的槽位重新开始,丢弃失败,进入【步骤4】;否则,下一步。

8. bound减1(m>0),索引减半;检查是否中断或超时,如果没有,进入【步骤1】;否则,返回,结束。

9. 检查bound是否发生变化,如果变化了,重置collides,索引重置为m或左移,转向【步骤1】;否则,进入下一步。

10. 检查collides是否达到最大值,如果没有,进入【步骤13】,否则下一步。

11. m是否达到FULL,是,进入【步骤13】;否则,下一步。

12. CAS bound加1是否成功,如果成功,i置为m+1,槽位增长,进入【步骤1】;否则,下一步。

13. collides加1,索引左移,进入【步骤1】

 

见下图(看不清图片?鼠标放在图片上面,【右键】 -> 【在新标签页中打开图片(I)】 -> 【点击(+)矢量放大】)

 

 

Unsafe

 1     private static final sun.misc.Unsafe U;
 2     private static final long BOUND;
 3     private static final long SLOT;
 4     private static final long MATCH;
 5     private static final long BLOCKER;
 6     private static final int ABASE;
 7     static {
 8         int s;
 9         try {
10             U = sun.misc.Unsafe.getUnsafe();
11             Class<?> ek = Exchanger.class;
12             Class<?> nk = Node.class;
13             Class<?> ak = Node[].class;
14             Class<?> tk = Thread.class;
15             BOUND = U.objectFieldOffset(ek.getDeclaredField("bound"));
16             SLOT = U.objectFieldOffset(ek.getDeclaredField("slot"));
17             MATCH = U.objectFieldOffset(nk.getDeclaredField("match"));
18             BLOCKER = U.objectFieldOffset(tk.getDeclaredField("parkBlocker"));
19             s = U.arrayIndexScale(ak); // 数组增量地址
20             ABASE = U.arrayBaseOffset(ak) + (1 << ASHIFT); // 数组首元素偏移地址
21         } catch (Exception e) {
22             throw new Error(e);
23         }
24         if ((s & (s - 1)) != 0 || s > (1 << ASHIFT))
25             throw new Error("Unsupported array scale");
26

s为数组中每个元素占用的地址空间大小,ABASE为数组首元素偏移地址,防止伪共享

 

最后,arena = new Node[(FULL + 2) << ASHIFT],FULL,<= MMASK,scale,<= 1 << ASHIFT,说明(FULL + 2)<< ASHIFT 个Node,真正可用的是FULL + 2个,实际上是FULL + 1 个,最后一个没有用,也是为了防止伪共享,如果最后一个也使用,那么,其右边并没有填充,别的数据修改可能会影响到它,也即是发生伪共享问题。最大的有效索引是MMASK(bound & MMASK),但m(实际的最大索引)增长到FULL时,不再增长,会循环遍历槽位,尝试交换数据。

伪随机

h ^= h << 1; h ^= h >>> 3; h ^= h << 10;

实际上是xorshift算法,T = (I + La)(I + Rb)(I + Lc),其中,L代表左移,R代表右移,a, b, c分别代表上式的1,3,10,I代表矩阵{0,1}共32位(int),也即是二进制int,T代表的就是随机算法。翻译过来就是上面的式子:h ^= h << 1; h ^= h >>> 3; h ^= h << 10.

为什么要选用1,3,10呢?

其实,伪随机数,并不是真正的随机,而是通过算法模拟出来的,为了达到随机的效果,希望是周期越大越好。所谓周期指的是,当给定一个输入,得到的输出再作为下一次的输入,如此反复,直到某次输出恰巧等于最初的输入,可以作为随机算法关于随机数的周期。有了这个概念,我们就可以写代码测试下。

直观地推测,int类型最大周期应该是遍历该类型所有的值(0除外,【奇异矩阵】,如果是0的话,输出便一直是0,谈不上随机了),即是max - min = 232 - 1

Java代码

 1 public class PseudoRandom {
 2     private static final Map<Long, StringBuilder> map = new ConcurrentHashMap<>();
 3 
 4     public static void random(int a, int b, int c) {
 5         long cnt = 0;
 6         int h = 1;
 7         do {
 8             h ^= h << a;
 9             h ^= h >>> b;
10             h ^= h << c;
11             cnt++;
12         } while (h != 1);
13 
14         StringBuilder builder = map.get(cnt);
15         if (builder == null) {
16             builder = new StringBuilder();
17             map.put(cnt, builder);
18         }
19 
20         builder.append(" (" + a + ", " + b + ", " + c + ")");
21     }
22 
23     public static void main(String[] args) {
24         CountDownLatch latch = new CountDownLatch(11 * 11 * 11);
25         ExecutorService s = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(10);
26         for (int i = 1; i < 11; i++) { // i, j ,k实际上应该是31,这里仅为了说明问题,当改成31时,CountDownLatch应该初始化为31 * 31 * 31
27             for (int j = 1; j < 11; j++) {
28                 for (int k = 1; k < 11; k++) {
29                     final int ii = i;
30                     final int jj = j;
31                     final int kk = k;
32                     s.execute(new Runnable() {
33                         @Override
34                         public void run() {
35                             random(ii, jj, kk);
36                             latch.countDown();
37                         }
38                     });
39                 }
40             }
41         }
42 
43         s.shutdown();
44         try {
45             latch.await(300, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
46         } catch (InterruptedException e) {
47             Thread.currentThread().interrupt();
48         }
49 
50         TreeMap<Long, StringBuilder> t = new TreeMap<Long, StringBuilder>(Collections.reverseOrder());
51         t.putAll(map);
52 
53         for (Map.Entry<Long, StringBuilder> entry : t.entrySet()) {
54             System.out.println("[" + entry.getKey() + "]" + entry.getValue().toString());
55         }
56     }
57 }

输出,按周期次数倒序排列,即最大的在前

  1 [4294967295] (1, 3, 10) (2, 7, 7) (2, 7, 9) (5, 9, 7) (7, 1, 9) (7, 7, 2) (7, 9, 5)
  2 [4160749537] (1, 7, 9) (4, 1, 9) (6, 5, 9)
  3 [3900702255] (1, 3, 4) (5, 5, 7) (7, 5, 5)
  4 [3758096377] (1, 9, 2) (2, 9, 1) (7, 7, 9)
  5 [2147483647] (1, 5, 5) (1, 9, 6) (2, 5, 5) (2, 5, 7) (5, 5, 1) (5, 5, 2) (6, 5, 7) (6, 9, 1) (7, 5, 2) (7, 5, 6)
  6 [2147483644] (1, 9, 10)
  7 [2147213313] (2, 5, 3) (3, 5, 2)
  8 [2147188740] (4, 5, 5) (4, 9, 1) (5, 5, 4)
  9 [2145385473] (7, 9, 9)
 10 [2145382404] (1, 5, 9)
 11 [2143288833] (5, 1, 6) (6, 1, 5)
 12 [2139094020] (1, 7, 6)
 13 [2113929153] (1, 5, 4) (4, 5, 1)
 14 [2080374753] (2, 3, 3) (3, 3, 2)
 15 [1997533470] (2, 9, 9)
 16 [1879048185] (2, 5, 9) (4, 7, 9)
 17 [1747831785] (8, 9, 5)
 18 [1610612733] (7, 3, 10)
 19 [1560280902] (3, 5, 5) (5, 5, 3)
 20 [1431655765] (1, 7, 7) (2, 9, 5) (5, 1, 8) (5, 9, 2) (7, 7, 1) (8, 1, 5)
 21 [1431562923] (1, 1, 2) (2, 1, 1)
 22 [1430257323] (3, 9, 7) (7, 9, 3)
 23 [1409286123] (5, 3, 7) (7, 3, 5) (9, 1, 10)
 24 [1339553285] (1, 9, 5) (5, 9, 1)
 25 [1242911789] (3, 7, 10) (5, 3, 10)
 26 [1174405085] (1, 3, 5) (5, 3, 1) (9, 3, 4)
 27 [1073741823] (3, 1, 6) (6, 1, 3)
 28 [1073594370] (1, 9, 4)
 29 [1064182911] (4, 3, 7) (7, 3, 4)
 30 [1006632930] (3, 1, 10)
 31 [714429611] (3, 1, 4) (4, 1, 3)
 32 [713031595] (1, 7, 5) (5, 7, 1) (7, 7, 10)
 33 [704642988] (3, 9, 10)
 34 [626349395] (9, 5, 3)
 35 [621455450] (2, 3, 9)
 36 [613543351] (1, 5, 3) (3, 5, 1)
 37 [602795529] (1, 1, 9) (7, 3, 9) (9, 1, 1) (9, 3, 7)
 38 [536870911] (3, 5, 7) (6, 9, 7) (7, 5, 3) (7, 9, 6)
 39 [536772612] (1, 1, 3)
 40 [534773505] (6, 7, 1)
 41 [528482241] (8, 3, 9)
 42 [520093634] (1, 5, 10)
 43 [469762041] (1, 7, 4) (4, 1, 7) (7, 1, 4)
 44 [459276069] (4, 7, 5)
 45 [453248985] (1, 3, 7)
 46 [429286605] (5, 7, 6) (6, 7, 5)
 47 [426141261] (1, 3, 8) (8, 3, 1)
 48 [390070086] (1, 1, 6)
 49 [389118324] (3, 3, 10)
 50 [352321494] (6, 7, 9)
 51 [352106517] (3, 7, 5) (5, 7, 3)
 52 [341310837] (8, 7, 1)
 53 [335544315] (4, 9, 7) (7, 7, 8) (7, 9, 4) (8, 7, 7)
 54 [335360010] (3, 9, 5)
 55 [310727725] (9, 3, 2)
 56 [286331153] (5, 3, 8) (8, 3, 5)
 57 [268435455] (1, 9, 3) (3, 9, 1)
 58 [268435454] (3, 1, 8) (7, 9, 8) (8, 9, 7)
 59 [268435452] (3, 1, 7) (7, 1, 3)
 60 [268435448] (2, 3, 7)
 61 [267386370] (5, 7, 7) (7, 7, 5)
 62 [260046817] (4, 3, 1)
 63 [259507262] (9, 5, 5)
 64 [252645135] (3, 1, 5) (5, 1, 3)
 65 [249690255] (5, 9, 8)
 66 [234637326] (4, 1, 5)
 67 [201326586] (5, 3, 6) (5, 7, 9) (6, 3, 5)
 68 [201222147] (3, 7, 8) (8, 7, 3)
 69 [195225786] (8, 1, 7)
 70 [178924204] (3, 1, 1)
 71 [167772155] (4, 3, 9)
 72 [167680005] (5, 9, 3)
 73 [153391689] (1, 5, 2) (2, 5, 1)
 74 [153092023] (5, 7, 4)
 75 [142501905] (2, 3, 5) (5, 3, 2)
 76 [134217727] (8, 1, 3)
 77 [134217726] (7, 5, 8)
 78 [134150145] (3, 7, 9)
 79 [134085633] (3, 7, 6) (6, 7, 3)
 80 [133693185] (1, 9, 7) (7, 9, 1)
 81 [129753631] (3, 9, 4) (4, 9, 3) (5, 5, 9)
 82 [117318663] (5, 1, 4)
 83 [100663293] (8, 9, 9)
 84 [97612893] (7, 1, 8)
 85 [97517382] (1, 7, 8)
 86 [94371795] (1, 7, 3) (3, 7, 1)
 87 [93323175] (6, 1, 7) (7, 1, 6)
 88 [89478485] (3, 5, 9)
 89 [87951402] (5, 9, 10)
 90 [82993665] (4, 3, 5) (5, 3, 4)
 91 [78212442] (1, 7, 10) (7, 5, 9) (9, 5, 7)
 92 [75497463] (9, 3, 8)
 93 [69273666] (7, 5, 1)
 94 [67108863] (4, 7, 1) (5, 9, 9)
 95 [67108862] (7, 3, 2)
 96 [67084290] (9, 5, 10)
 97 [66584449] (9, 3, 10)
 98 [66059784] (4, 5, 9) (9, 5, 4)
 99 [65536191] (2, 1, 5) (5, 1, 2)
100 [65011681] (6, 1, 1)
101 [62914530] (1, 7, 2) (2, 7, 1)
102 [58260615] (2, 9, 3) (3, 9, 2)
103 [57252195] (3, 5, 4) (4, 5, 3)
104 [56884380] (1, 1, 5) (5, 1, 1)
105 [55050135] (3, 1, 9) (9, 1, 3)
106 [47439707] (1, 5, 8) (8, 5, 1)
107 [44739242] (8, 5, 7)
108 [42105595] (1, 9, 8) (8, 9, 1)
109 [41287365] (5, 9, 6)
110 [34636833] (1, 3, 6) (1, 5, 7) (6, 3, 1)
111 [33554430] (3, 3, 8) (8, 3, 3)
112 [33554416] (6, 5, 3)
113 [30593745] (6, 7, 7) (7, 7, 6)
114 [23194290] (7, 3, 6)
115 [22282155] (1, 3, 2) (2, 3, 1)
116 [19473111] (1, 1, 4) (4, 1, 1)
117 [19168695] (1, 1, 8) (8, 1, 1)
118 [17284575] (5, 7, 8) (8, 7, 5)
119 [16777215] (1, 3, 3) (3, 3, 1) (5, 3, 9) (9, 3, 5)
120 [16777208] (3, 5, 6)
121 [16129169] (5, 1, 7) (7, 1, 5)
122 [14351946] (3, 7, 7)
123 [11597145] (6, 3, 7)
124 [11184810] (2, 7, 5) (5, 7, 2)
125 [11180715] (3, 7, 4) (4, 7, 3)
126 [9266985] (3, 3, 7) (7, 3, 3)
127 [8382465] (1, 1, 10)
128 [8257473] (6, 9, 5)
129 [7798308] (5, 5, 6)
130 [7427385] (4, 9, 9)
131 [7339976] (8, 1, 9) (9, 1, 8)
132 [5963685] (4, 9, 5) (5, 9, 4)
133 [5832615] (7, 1, 10)
134 [5592405] (2, 1, 3) (3, 1, 2)
135 [5374005] (5, 1, 9) (9, 1, 5)
136 [5332341] (7, 3, 1)
137 [5158440] (2, 1, 9)
138 [4783982] (7, 7, 3)
139 [3997791] (1, 9, 9)
140 [2936010] (5, 1, 10)
141 [2790571] (2, 9, 7) (7, 9, 2)
142 [2579220] (9, 1, 2)
143 [2162622] (3, 3, 5)
144 [2149602] (2, 1, 7) (7, 1, 2)
145 [1179612] (5, 5, 8) (8, 5, 5)
146 [1081311] (5, 3, 3)
147 [1048575] (1, 3, 9) (1, 5, 6) (6, 5, 1) (9, 3, 1)
148 [1043970] (8, 5, 3)
149 [1016379] (7, 9, 10)
150 [1003935] (6, 1, 9) (9, 1, 6)
151 [573405] (2, 7, 3) (3, 7, 2)
152 [557039] (1, 1, 7) (7, 1, 1)
153 [522753] (3, 3, 4) (4, 3, 3)
154 [521985] (3, 5, 8)
155 [458724] (7, 3, 8) (8, 3, 7)
156 [390915] (4, 5, 7) (7, 5, 4)
157 [278511] (6, 5, 5)
158 [131070] (1, 4, 7) (1, 8, 9) (1, 10, 10) (2, 4, 9) (2, 5, 6) (2, 7, 4) (2, 7, 8) (2, 7, 10) (2, 8, 7) (4, 6, 7) (4, 7, 2) (4, 9, 4) (5, 2, 9) (5, 4, 7) (5, 6, 8) (5, 8, 7) (5, 8, 10) (6, 5, 2) (6, 8, 7) (7, 4, 1) (7, 4, 5) (7, 6, 4) (7, 8, 2) (7, 8, 5) (7, 8, 6) (8, 6, 5) (8, 7, 2) (8, 7, 10) (9, 2, 5) (9, 4, 2)
159 [129794] (2, 5, 4) (2, 9, 8) (3, 5, 3) (4, 5, 2) (4, 5, 6) (5, 8, 9) (6, 5, 4) (8, 9, 2)
160 [128961] (7, 5, 10)
161 [126914] (6, 3, 10) (7, 6, 9) (7, 10, 9) (8, 6, 9) (9, 6, 7) (9, 6, 8)
162 [114674] (1, 2, 7) (1, 2, 9) (3, 4, 10) (5, 10, 7) (7, 2, 1) (7, 2, 8) (7, 10, 5) (8, 2, 7) (9, 2, 1)
163 [110670] (3, 2, 5) (5, 2, 3)
164 [98301] (4, 7, 7) (7, 7, 4)
165 [95046] (4, 4, 7) (5, 2, 2) (5, 6, 10) (7, 4, 4)
166 [85974] (2, 4, 7) (6, 6, 1) (7, 4, 2)
167 [65535] (2, 10, 4) (4, 10, 2) (5, 7, 10)
168 [65534] (1, 3, 1) (1, 6, 5) (3, 4, 9) (3, 10, 5) (4, 7, 4) (5, 6, 1) (5, 6, 7) (5, 10, 3) (6, 3, 8) (7, 6, 5) (8, 3, 6) (9, 4, 3)
169 [65532] (4, 10, 3)
170 [65528] (1, 2, 3) (4, 5, 10) (7, 4, 9) (9, 4, 7)
171 [64770] (1, 4, 9) (9, 4, 1)
172 [63240] (3, 4, 4) (4, 4, 3) (8, 2, 9) (9, 2, 8)
173 [61410] (2, 2, 7) (7, 2, 2)
174 [61320] (9, 2, 10)
175 [57316] (2, 3, 2) (6, 5, 8) (8, 5, 6)
176 [57288] (3, 8, 7) (7, 8, 3)
177 [55335] (4, 2, 6) (6, 2, 4) (8, 7, 9)
178 [55118] (3, 8, 8) (8, 8, 3)
179 [49146] (1, 8, 7) (2, 3, 8) (3, 4, 5) (5, 4, 3) (7, 8, 1) (8, 3, 2)
180 [47523] (2, 2, 8) (8, 2, 2)
181 [47244] (4, 7, 6) (6, 7, 4) (6, 10, 9)
182 [43690] (1, 2, 5) (1, 10, 3) (3, 10, 1) (3, 10, 7) (5, 2, 1) (5, 4, 6) (6, 4, 5) (7, 2, 9) (7, 8, 8) (7, 10, 3) (8, 8, 7) (9, 2, 7) (9, 4, 10)
183 [42966] (1, 8, 3) (2, 8, 5) (3, 8, 1) (3, 8, 5) (5, 8, 2) (5, 8, 3) (6, 7, 10)
184 [40955] (3, 9, 8) (8, 9, 3)
185 [39370] (5, 2, 6) (6, 2, 5)
186 [32767] (2, 2, 6) (6, 2, 2)
187 [32766] (2, 3, 6) (2, 9, 10) (2, 10, 9) (3, 2, 9) (3, 8, 6) (3, 10, 4) (3, 10, 10) (4, 4, 5) (4, 7, 10) (4, 9, 10) (5, 4, 4) (6, 3, 2) (6, 8, 3) (9, 2, 3)
188 [32764] (3, 2, 1)
189 [32752] (2, 6, 7) (4, 8, 5) (5, 8, 4) (7, 6, 2)
190 [31682] (2, 2, 5)
191 [31248] (6, 6, 5)
192 [30660] (3, 7, 3)
193 [28658] (1, 6, 6) (5, 4, 8) (8, 4, 5) (8, 10, 6)
194 [28644] (3, 2, 10)
195 [26670] (2, 10, 3) (3, 10, 2) (5, 10, 8) (8, 10, 5)
196 [26214] (2, 2, 9) (2, 9, 4) (4, 9, 2) (9, 2, 2)
197 [26040] (2, 8, 3)
198 [24573] (2, 6, 10)
199 [24528] (2, 5, 10) (5, 3, 5)
200 [23622] (7, 6, 1)
201 [22134] (3, 8, 4) (4, 8, 3)
202 [21844] (3, 2, 4) (4, 2, 3)
203 [21590] (3, 10, 9)
204 [21483] (4, 6, 6) (6, 6, 4)
205 [21420] (5, 2, 8) (8, 2, 5)
206 [21336] (1, 10, 9)
207 [20470] (7, 10, 10) (8, 10, 9)
208 [20460] (7, 8, 9)
209 [16383] (4, 6, 10) (4, 10, 10)
210 [16002] (5, 10, 6) (6, 10, 5)
211 [15810] (3, 5, 10)
212 [15748] (1, 6, 7)
213 [15624] (5, 6, 6)
214 [15330] (1, 4, 10) (3, 10, 6) (4, 9, 6) (6, 9, 4) (6, 10, 3)
215 [14329] (6, 10, 8)
216 [14322] (2, 10, 10) (3, 6, 10) (4, 3, 6) (4, 6, 9) (6, 3, 4) (9, 6, 4) (9, 6, 10)
217 [14280] (8, 6, 10)
218 [13020] (3, 8, 2)
219 [10922] (2, 4, 5) (5, 4, 2)
220 [10710] (6, 6, 7) (7, 6, 6)
221 [10668] (2, 10, 8)
222 [10416] (4, 3, 4)
223 [10230] (1, 5, 1)
224 [9362] (1, 4, 6) (2, 3, 4) (3, 6, 7) (3, 10, 8) (4, 3, 2) (6, 4, 1) (6, 9, 8) (7, 6, 3) (8, 9, 6) (8, 10, 3)
225 [9198] (3, 2, 6) (4, 10, 7) (6, 2, 3) (7, 10, 4)
226 [9052] (2, 8, 9)
227 [8190] (1, 6, 10) (1, 10, 6) (2, 6, 9) (4, 3, 10) (5, 4, 10) (5, 8, 6) (6, 4, 7) (6, 8, 5) (6, 10, 1) (6, 10, 7) (7, 2, 10) (7, 4, 6) (7, 10, 6) (9, 6, 2)
228 [8184] (4, 2, 5) (5, 4, 9) (7, 6, 7) (9, 4, 5)
229 [7905] (8, 6, 2)
230 [7710] (2, 10, 7) (7, 10, 2)
231 [7140] (6, 2, 9) (9, 2, 6)
232 [7112] (5, 8, 1)
233 [6510] (6, 10, 10)
234 [5460] (3, 8, 10)
235 [5334] (1, 10, 5) (5, 10, 1) (6, 8, 9)
236 [5208] (3, 2, 7)
237 [4774] (1, 2, 10)
238 [4526] (4, 10, 6)
239 [4284] (8, 3, 10)
240 [4095] (6, 2, 10) (7, 2, 7)
241 [4094] (2, 2, 10)
242 [4092] (3, 2, 8) (5, 2, 4) (7, 10, 7) (8, 2, 3)
243 [4088] (8, 8, 9)
244 [3906] (4, 10, 9)
245 [3810] (3, 6, 8) (8, 6, 3)
246 [3556] (2, 5, 2) (9, 2, 9)
247 [3472] (2, 6, 3) (3, 6, 2)
248 [3276] (1, 4, 3) (3, 4, 1)
249 [3069] (3, 10, 3) (5, 6, 5)
250 [3066] (7, 8, 10)
251 [2920] (2, 5, 8) (8, 5, 2)
252 [2730] (1, 8, 10) (5, 2, 7) (6, 10, 2) (7, 2, 5) (7, 6, 10)
253 [2570] (4, 8, 9)
254 [2520] (4, 8, 7) (7, 8, 4)
255 [2286] (1, 6, 9) (9, 6, 1)
256 [2263] (6, 10, 4)
257 [2142] (1, 10, 7) (2, 4, 3) (3, 4, 2) (7, 10, 1)
258 [2114] (3, 4, 7) (7, 4, 3)
259 [2044] (6, 5, 10)
260 [1953] (3, 6, 3) (3, 9, 3) (6, 6, 8) (6, 9, 6) (8, 6, 6)
261 [1778] (1, 8, 5)
262 [1533] (3, 9, 9) (6, 6, 10) (9, 6, 3)
263 [1530] (3, 4, 6) (5, 2, 10) (6, 4, 3)
264 [1524] (2, 2, 3) (3, 2, 2) (7, 10, 8)
265 [1365] (1, 10, 1) (2, 10, 6) (5, 2, 5)
266 [1302] (3, 6, 5) (5, 6, 3) (7, 2, 3) (8, 2, 6)
267 [1190] (2, 6, 4) (4, 6, 2)
268 [1116] (5, 10, 9)
269 [1068] (3, 4, 8) (8, 4, 3)
270 [1023] (3, 3, 6) (6, 3, 3)
271 [1022] (8, 2, 10)
272 [1020] (4, 4, 9) (4, 10, 5) (5, 8, 8) (5, 10, 4) (6, 2, 7) (7, 2, 6) (8, 8, 5) (9, 4, 4)
273 [1008] (1, 2, 6) (6, 2, 1)
274 [930] (3, 6, 4) (4, 2, 7) (4, 6, 3) (7, 2, 4)
275 [889] (8, 10, 2)
276 [868] (1, 6, 2) (1, 10, 4) (2, 6, 1) (4, 2, 9) (4, 10, 1) (9, 2, 4)
277 [840] (8, 6, 7)
278 [762] (1, 4, 5) (5, 4, 1) (8, 10, 7)
279 [682] (7, 4, 10)
280 [630] (1, 6, 3) (2, 3, 10) (3, 6, 1) (5, 6, 9) (6, 4, 9) (9, 4, 6) (9, 6, 5)
281 [511] (3, 6, 9)
282 [510] (2, 6, 5) (2, 6, 8) (2, 8, 10) (2, 9, 6) (3, 8, 9) (4, 6, 5) (5, 6, 2) (5, 6, 4) (6, 9, 2)
283 [508] (1, 2, 2) (1, 10, 8) (2, 2, 1) (4, 3, 8) (4, 9, 8) (6, 7, 8) (6, 9, 9) (8, 3, 4) (8, 7, 6) (8, 9, 4) (8, 10, 1) (9, 3, 9)
284 [496] (1, 2, 8) (8, 2, 1)
285 [476] (2, 7, 6) (6, 7, 2)
286 [434] (6, 2, 8)
287 [420] (7, 6, 8)
288 [315] (8, 10, 10)
289 [280] (8, 5, 10)
290 [255] (4, 4, 8) (8, 4, 4)
291 [254] (3, 8, 3) (4, 4, 10) (4, 6, 4) (4, 10, 8) (6, 8, 10) (8, 10, 4)
292 [252] (1, 7, 1) (1, 10, 2) (2, 7, 2) (2, 10, 1) (4, 8, 10) (6, 4, 10) (7, 3, 7) (8, 8, 10) (8, 9, 10)
293 [248] (4, 6, 8) (6, 6, 9) (9, 6, 6)
294 [240] (1, 2, 4) (4, 2, 1)
295 [234] (4, 5, 8) (8, 5, 4)
296 [210] (1, 8, 6) (2, 6, 6) (6, 6, 2) (6, 8, 1)
297 [186] (2, 8, 6) (2, 10, 2) (5, 4, 5) (6, 8, 2)
298 [170] (3, 3, 9)
299 [146] (3, 6, 6) (6, 6, 3)
300 [127] (6, 9, 3)
301 [126] (6, 4, 8) (7, 4, 7) (7, 4, 8) (8, 4, 6) (8, 4, 7)
302 [124] (8, 6, 4)
303 [120] (1, 4, 8) (1, 6, 4) (1, 6, 8) (4, 6, 1) (5, 7, 5) (5, 9, 5) (6, 5, 6) (6, 7, 6) (8, 4, 1) (8, 6, 1) (9, 6, 9)
304 [105] (5, 10, 10)
305 [102] (4, 8, 6) (6, 8, 4) (6, 8, 8) (6, 9, 10) (8, 8, 6)
306 [93] (1, 6, 1) (3, 2, 3) (6, 3, 6)
307 [85] (4, 2, 10) (9, 3, 3)
308 [84] (2, 4, 6) (2, 6, 2) (2, 10, 5) (3, 4, 3) (5, 10, 2) (6, 4, 2) (8, 4, 10)
309 [63] (6, 4, 6)
310 [60] (2, 4, 4) (2, 4, 8) (4, 4, 2) (4, 10, 4) (5, 8, 5) (8, 4, 2)
311 [56] (1, 4, 4) (4, 4, 1)
312 [51] (6, 3, 9) (9, 3, 6)
313 [48] (4, 4, 6) (4, 7, 8) (6, 4, 4) (8, 7, 4)
314 [42] (2, 4, 10) (5, 5, 10)
315 [35] (5, 5, 5)
316 [32] (1, 1, 1) (1, 4, 2) (1, 8, 2) (1, 8, 4) (1, 9, 1) (2, 1, 2) (2, 1, 4) (2, 1, 6) (2, 1, 8) (2, 1, 10) (2, 4, 1) (2, 8, 1) (2, 9, 2) (3, 1, 3) (4, 1, 2) (4, 1, 4) (4, 1, 6) (4, 1, 8) (4, 1, 10) (4, 5, 4) (4, 8, 1) (5, 1, 5) (6, 1, 2) (6, 1, 4) (6, 1, 6) (6, 1, 8) (6, 1, 10) (7, 1, 7) (7, 5, 7) (7, 9, 7) (8, 1, 2) (8, 1, 4) (8, 1, 6) (8, 1, 8) (8, 1, 10) (8, 3, 8) (8, 4, 9) (8, 5, 8) (9, 1, 9) (9, 4, 8) (9, 5, 9)
317 [31] (1, 2, 1) (3, 3, 3) (7, 7, 7)
318 [30] (6, 8, 6)
319 [24] (2, 8, 8)
320 [21] (2, 2, 4) (4, 2, 2)
321 [16] (1, 4, 1) (1, 8, 1) (1, 8, 8) (2, 2, 2) (4, 2, 8) (6, 2, 6) (6, 10, 6) (8, 2, 4) (8, 2, 8) (8, 8, 1) (9, 4, 9)
322 [15] (2, 4, 2)
323 [14] (6, 6, 6)
324 [12] (4, 8, 8) (8, 8, 2) (8, 8, 4)
325 [8] (2, 8, 2) (2, 8, 4) (4, 2, 4) (4, 4, 4) (4, 8, 2) (7, 8, 7) (8, 4, 8) (8, 6, 8) (8, 9, 8) (8, 10, 8)
326 [7] (4, 8, 4) (5, 10, 5)
327 [5] (3, 9, 6)
328 [4] (8, 7, 8)
329 [2] (8, 8, 8)
......5min timeout

可以看到,排在第一的恰巧是(1,3,10)周期为4294967295,正好是 232 - 1

一排多组,表示周期相等。

问题,为什么要有两次左移和一次右移呢?其实只一次左移加异或就能达到随机的效果。

猜测,之所以这样,大概是因为,第一次左移,是为了让高位多1,右移,是为了让低位多1,这样,高位低位都参与进来,增加随机性,第二次左移,便是真正的随机了。

 

行文至此结束。

 

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转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/aniao/p/aniao_exchanger.html

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