概述和HTTP请求与响应处理

1、概述

  爬虫,应该称为网络爬虫,也叫网页蜘蛛人,网络蚂蚁等

  搜索引擎,就是网络爬虫的应用者

2、爬虫分类

  通用爬虫:

    常见就是搜索引擎,无差别的收集数据,存储,提交关键字,构建索引库,给用户提供搜索接口

    爬取一般流程:

      1、初始一批URL,将这些URL放到待爬的队列

      2、从队列取出这些URL,通过DNS 解析IP ,对IP 对应的站点下载HTML页面,保存到本地服务器中,爬取完URL放到已经爬取的队列中

      3、分析这些网页内筒,找出网页里面的其他关心的URL连接,继续执行第二步,直到爬取条件结束。

    搜索引擎如何获取一个新网站的URL

      • 新网站主动提交给搜索引擎
      • 通过其他网站页面的外连接
      • 搜索引擎和DNS 服务商合作,获取最新收录的网站。

  聚焦爬虫:

    有针对性的编写特定领域数据的爬虫程序,针对某些 类别的数据采集的爬虫,是面向主体的爬虫

3、Robots 协议:

  指定一个robots.txt 文件,告诉爬虫引擎什么可以爬,什么不可以爬

  /  表示网站根目录, 表示网站的所有目录

  Allow:允许, Disallow:不允许

  可以使用通配符

  例如:淘宝:http://www.taobao.com/robots.txt    

User-agent:  Baiduspider
Allow:  /article
Allow:  /oshtml
Allow:  /ershou
Allow: /$
Disallow:  /product/
Disallow:  /

User-Agent:  Googlebot
Allow:  /article
Allow:  /oshtml
Allow:  /product
Allow:  /spu
Allow:  /dianpu
Allow:  /oversea
Allow:  /list
Allow:  /ershou
Allow: /$
Disallow:  /

User-agent:  Bingbot
Allow:  /article
Allow:  /oshtml
Allow:  /product
Allow:  /spu
Allow:  /dianpu
Allow:  /oversea
Allow:  /list
Allow:  /ershou
Allow: /$
Disallow:  /

User-Agent:  360Spider
Allow:  /article
Allow:  /oshtml
Allow:  /ershou
Disallow:  /

User-Agent:  Yisouspider
Allow:  /article
Allow:  /oshtml
Allow:  /ershou
Disallow:  /

User-Agent:  Sogouspider
Allow:  /article
Allow:  /oshtml
Allow:  /product
Allow:  /ershou
Disallow:  /

User-Agent:  Yahoo!  Slurp
Allow:  /product
Allow:  /spu
Allow:  /dianpu
Allow:  /oversea
Allow:  /list
Allow:  /ershou
Allow: /$
Disallow:  /

User-Agent:  *
Disallow:  /
View Code

 

  这是一个君子协定,爬亦有道

  这个协议为了让搜索引擎更有效率的搜索自己内容,提供了如Sitemap 这样的文件

  Sitemap 往往死一个XML 文件,提供了网站想让大家爬取的内容的更新信息

  这个文件禁止爬取的往往又是我们可能感兴趣的内容,它反而泄露了这些地址。

4、HTTP请求和响应的处理

  其实爬取网页就是通过HTTP 协议访问网页, 不过通过浏览器访问往往是认为行为,把这种行为变成程序来访问。

  urllib包:

    urllib 是标准库,它一个工具包模块,包含下面的模块处理 url

      • urllib.request 用于打开和读写url
      • urllib.error 包含了有urllib.request引起的异常。
      • urllib.parse 用于解析url
      • urllib.robotparser 分析robots.txt 文件

    Python2 中提供了urlib 和urllib2 ,前者 提供了较为底层的接口,urllib2 对urllib 进行了进一步的封装,P樱桃红3中将urllib合并到饿了urllib中,并更名为标准库urllib包

  urllib.request模块

    模块定义了在基本和摘要式身份验证,重定向,cookies等应用中打开url(主要是HTTP)的函数和类

    urlopen方法:

      urlopen(url,data=None)

      url 是链接地址字符串,或请求类的实例

      data提交的数据,如果data为None,发起的是GET请求,否则发起POST请求,

      见 urllib.request.Requset.get_method返回 http.client.HTTPResponse类的响应对象,这是一个类文件对象    

 1 from urllib.request import urlopen
 2 from urllib import request
 3 
 4 
 5 # 打开一个url返回一个响应对象,类文件对象
 6 # 下面的链接,会301 跳转
 7 response = urlopen('https://www.bing.com') #GET 方法
 8 print(response)-----类文件对象
 9 with response:
10     print(1, type(response))
11     print(2, response.status, response.reason)
12     print(3, response.geturl)
13     print(4, response.info())
14     print(5, response.read())
15 
16 print(response.closed)

 

 1 D:\python3.7\python.exe E:/code_pycharm/test_in_class/tt19.py
 2 <http.client.HTTPResponse object at 0x0000000002DCD4E0>
 3 1 <class 'http.client.HTTPResponse'>
 4 2 200 OK
 5 3 <bound method HTTPResponse.geturl of <http.client.HTTPResponse object at 0x0000000002DCD4E0>>
 6 4 Cache-Control: private, max-age=0
 7 Transfer-Encoding: chunked
 8 Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8
 9 Vary: Accept-Encoding
10 P3P: CP="NON UNI COM NAV STA LOC CURa DEVa PSAa PSDa OUR IND"
11 Set-Cookie: SRCHD=AF=NOFORM; domain=.bing.com; expires=Fri, 04-Dec-2020 12:59:39 GMT; path=/
12 Set-Cookie: SRCHUID=V=2&GUID=18F036EFF74943F7A729B77F9292EA26&dmnchg=1; domain=.bing.com; expires=Fri, 04-Dec-2020 12:59:39 GMT; path=/
13 Set-Cookie: SRCHUSR=DOB=20181204; domain=.bing.com; expires=Fri, 04-Dec-2020 12:59:39 GMT; path=/
14 Set-Cookie: _SS=SID=1CAABF2F3CC260CB0D3FB3943DEC61B1; domain=.bing.com; path=/
15 Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains; preload
16 X-MSEdge-Ref: Ref A: 71C4D068FF3B4A6889EDBC6F385C8E3C Ref B: BJ1EDGE0317 Ref C: 2018-12-04T12:59:39Z
17 Set-Cookie: _EDGE_S=F=1&SID=1CAABF2F3CC260CB0D3FB3943DEC61B1; path=/; httponly; domain=bing.com
18 Set-Cookie: _EDGE_V=1; path=/; httponly; expires=Sun, 29-Dec-2019 12:59:39 GMT; domain=bing.com
19 Set-Cookie: MUID=25F943F4BC816BBC33B44F4FBDAF6AAF; path=/; expires=Sun, 29-Dec-2019 12:59:39 GMT; domain=bing.com
20 Set-Cookie: MUIDB=25F943F4BC816BBC33B44F4FBDAF6AAF; path=/; httponly; expires=Sun, 29-Dec-2019 12:59:39 GMT
21 Date: Tue, 04 Dec 2018 12:59:39 GMT
22 Connection: close
23 
24 
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i=n.classList;i?i.remove(t):n.className=n.className.replace(t,"")}}function ur(n,t){if(n!=null){var i=n.classList;i?i.add(t):fr(n,t)||(n.className+=" "+t)}}function fr(n,t){var i=n.classList;return i?i.contains(t):(" "+n.className+" ").indexOf(" "+t+" ")>=0}function li(n){if(typeof n!="string"||!n)return null;if(JSON&&JSON.parse)try{return JSON.parse(n)}catch(t){return null}}function gt(n){if(lt&&o){var t=parseInt(o.innerHTML)>=0?parseInt(o.innerHTML):0;o.innerHTML=(t+1).toString()}ai();ai(n)}function er(){var f;o||(o=sj_ce("div","sh_shc"),a.insertBefore(o,a.firstChild));var n=sj_gx(),e=ti+b,t=sj_gx(),s=ti+"s_"+b,i=0,r=!1,u=!1;t.open("GET",s,!0);sj_be(t,"readystatechange",function(){if(t.readyState==4&&t.status==200){var n=li(t.responseText);n!=null&&(i+=n.count,r=!0)}});t.send(null);n.open("GET",e,!0);sj_be(n,"readystatechange",function(){if(n.readyState==4&&n.status==200){var 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26 True
27 
28 Process finished with exit code 0
打印结果

    上面,通过urllib.requset.urlopen 方法,发起一个HTTP的GET请求,web 服务器返回了网页内容,响应的数据被封装到类文件对象中,可以通过read方法,readline方法,readlines方法,获取数据,status,和reason属性表示状态码, info方法表示返回header信息等

 

  User-Agent问题

    上例的代码非常精简,即可以获得网站的响应数据,但是目前urlopen方法通过url 字符串和data发起HTTP请求

    如果想修改HTTP头,例如:useragent 就得借助其他方式

    原码中构造的useragent 如下:    

 1 class OpenerDirector:
 2     def __init__(self):
 3         client_version = "Python-urllib/%s" % __version__
 4         self.addheaders = [('User-agent', client_version)]
 5         # self.handlers is retained only for backward compatibility
 6         self.handlers = []
 7         # manage the individual handlers
 8         self.handle_open = {}
 9         self.handle_error = {}
10         self.process_response = {}
11         self.process_request = {}

 

    当前显示为 Python-urllib/3.7

    有些网站是反爬虫的,所以要把爬虫伪装成浏览器,随便打开一个浏览器,复制浏览器的UA(useragent) 值,用来伪装。

  Request类

    Request(url, data=None, headers={} )

    初始化方法,构造一个请求对象,可添加一个header的字典

    data 参数决定是GET 还是POST 请求(data 为None是GET,有数据,就是POST)

    add_header(key, val) 为header总增加一个键值对。    

 1 from urllib.request import Request, urlopen
 2 
 3 # 打开一个url 返回一个Requset 请求对象
 4 # url = 'http://movie.douban.com/' 注意尾部的斜杆一定要有
 5 url = 'http://www.bing.com/'
 6 
 7 ua = 'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/69.0.3486.0 Safari/537.36'
 8 
 9 # 构造一个请求对象
10 request = Request(url)
11 request.add_header('User-Agent',ua)
12 
13 print(type(request),'=============')
14 print(5,request.get_header('User-Agent'))
15 # 构建响应对象
16 response = urlopen(request, timeout=20) # requset对象或者url 都可以
17 
18 print(type(response))
19 
20 
21 with response:
22     # getcode本质上返回的就是 status
23     print(1, response.status, response.getcode(),response.reason)
24     # 返回数据的url,如果重定向,这个url和原始url不一样
25     print(2, response.geturl())
26     # 返回响应头信息
27     print(3, response.info())
28     # 读取返回的内容
29     print(4, response.read())
30 
31 print(5,request.get_header('User-Agent'))
32 print(6,'user-agent'.capitalize())

 

 1 D:\python3.7\python.exe E:/code_pycharm/test_in_class/tt20.py
 2 <class 'urllib.request.Request'> =============
 3 5 None
 4 <class 'http.client.HTTPResponse'>
 5 1 200 200 OK
 6 2 https://cn.bing.com:443/?toHttps=1&redig=7160C2E65E264A9C8CCFDAD768C17E32
 7 3 Cache-Control: private, max-age=0
 8 Transfer-Encoding: chunked
 9 Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8
10 Vary: Accept-Encoding
11 P3P: CP="NON UNI COM NAV STA LOC CURa DEVa PSAa PSDa OUR IND"
12 Set-Cookie: SRCHD=AF=NOFORM; domain=.bing.com; expires=Fri, 04-Dec-2020 13:37:20 GMT; path=/
13 Set-Cookie: SRCHUID=V=2&GUID=9E428E4496034C6CAE93A7E9DF19029D&dmnchg=1; domain=.bing.com; expires=Fri, 04-Dec-2020 13:37:20 GMT; path=/
14 Set-Cookie: SRCHUSR=DOB=20181204; domain=.bing.com; expires=Fri, 04-Dec-2020 13:37:20 GMT; path=/
15 Set-Cookie: _SS=SID=02E966BCAB1D62D915616A07AA33637F; domain=.bing.com; path=/
16 Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains; preload
17 Report-To: {"group":"network-errors","max_age":604800,"endpoints":[{"url":"https://nel.bingparachute.com/api/report?cat=binghp"}]}
18 NEL: {"report_to":"network-errors","max_age":604800,"success_fraction":0.01,"failure_fraction":1.0}
19 X-MSEdge-Ref: Ref A: 4F1778082A73483C92E63C3A57073507 Ref B: BJ1EDGE0307 Ref C: 2018-12-04T13:37:20Z
20 Set-Cookie: _EDGE_S=F=1&SID=02E966BCAB1D62D915616A07AA33637F; path=/; httponly; domain=bing.com
21 Set-Cookie: _EDGE_V=1; path=/; httponly; expires=Sun, 29-Dec-2019 13:37:20 GMT; domain=bing.com
22 Set-Cookie: MUID=2D11AA748A1B6E903439A6CF8B356FA7; path=/; expires=Sun, 29-Dec-2019 13:37:20 GMT; domain=bing.com
23 Set-Cookie: MUIDB=2D11AA748A1B6E903439A6CF8B356FA7; path=/; httponly; expires=Sun, 29-Dec-2019 13:37:20 GMT
24 Date: Tue, 04 Dec 2018 13:37:19 GMT
25 Connection: close
26 
27 
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29 5 None
30 6 User-agent
31 
32 Process finished with exit code 0
打印结果

 

   urllib.parse 模块

   该模块可以完成对url的编解码

     编码:urlencode函数第一个参数要求是一个字典或者二元组序列

1 from urllib import parse
2 
3 u = parse.urlencode({
4     'url':'http://www.magedu.com/python',
5     'p_url':'http:www.magedu.com/python?id=1&name=张三'
6 })
7 print(u)

 

 

url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.magedu.com%2Fpython&p_url=http%3Awww.magedu.com%2Fpython%3Fid%3D1%26name%3D%E5%BC%A0%E4%B8%89

 

   从运行结果来看冒号。斜杆 & 等号,问号都被编码,%之后实际上是单字节十六进制表示的值

  一般来说,url中的地址部分,一般不需要使用中文路径,但是参数部分,不管 GET 还是post 方法,提交的数据中,可能有斜杆等符号,这样的字符表示数据,不表示元字符,如果直接发送给服务器端,就会导致接收方无法判断谁是元字符,谁是数据,为了安全,一般会将数据部分的字符串做url 编码,这样就不会有歧义了

,后来可以传送中文,同样会做编码,一般先按照字符集的encoding要求转化成字节序列,每一个字节对应的十六进制字符串前加上百分号即可。

 1 '''
 2 网页使用utf-8 编码
 3 https://www.baidu.com/s?wd=中
 4 上面的url编码后,如下:
 5 https://www.baidu.com/s?wd=%E4%B8%AD
 6 '''
 7 from urllib import parse
 8 
 9 u = parse.urlencode({'wd':''}) # 编码
10 print(u)
11 
12 url = 'https://www.baidu.com/s?{}'.format(u)
13 print(url)
14 
15 print(''.encode('utf-8'))
16 # 解码
17 print(parse.unquote(u))
18 print(parse.unquote(url))

 

   打印结果:

1 D:\python3.7\python.exe E:/code_pycharm/test_in_class/tt21.py
2 wd=%E4%B8%AD
3 https://www.baidu.com/s?wd=%E4%B8%AD
4 b'\xe4\xb8\xad'
5 wd=6 https://www.baidu.com/s?wd=7 
8 Process finished with exit code 0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/JerryZao/p/10066969.html

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