javax.validation的基本使用

背景:

         一般系统对表单的提交都会提供一定的校验,分为前台校验和后台校验,前台校验主要为了减轻服务器的负担,后台校验增加系统安全性。在公司项目里看到validation的使用,再此做个简单学习记录。

例子学习:

        创建一个maven项目,pom.xml 如下: (这个文件还报“web.xml is missing and <failOnMissingWebXml> is set to true”的错,不过不影响使用)

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
  <groupId>com.test</groupId>
  <artifactId>validationTest</artifactId>
  <version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
  <packaging>war</packaging>
  <dependencies>
  	<dependency>
   		<groupId>javax.el</groupId>
   		<artifactId>javax.el-api</artifactId>
   		<version>2.2.4</version>
	</dependency>
	
  <dependency>
	    <groupId>org.hibernate</groupId>
	    <artifactId>hibernate-validator</artifactId>
	    <version>5.1.3.Final</version>
	</dependency>
  
  </dependencies>
</project>

创建一个实体类StudentInfo

public class StudentInfo {
        
        @NotBlank(message="用户名不能为空")
        private String userName;
        
        @NotBlank(message="年龄不能为空")
        @Pattern(regexp="^[0-9]{1,2}$",message="年龄是整数")
        private String age;
        
        /**
         * @Pattern的意思是,如果是空,则不校验,如果不为空,则校验
         */
        @Pattern(regexp="^[0-9]{4}-[0-9]{2}-[0-9]{2}$",message="出生日期格式不正确")
        private String birthday;
        
        @NotBlank(message="学校不能为空")
        private String school;
     
        public String getUserName() {
            return userName;
        }
     
        public void setUserName(String userName) {
            this.userName = userName;
        }
     
        public String getAge() {
            return age;
        }
     
        public void setAge(String age) {
            this.age = age;
        }
     
        public String getBirthday() {
            return birthday;
        }
     
        public void setBirthday(String birthday) {
            this.birthday = birthday;
        }
     
        public String getSchool() {
            return school;
        }
     
        public void setSchool(String school) {
            this.school = school;
        }
    }

创建校验工具ValidatorUtil.java(这里写成工具类的形式便于使用)

public class ValidatorUtil{
    //创建静态校验工厂
    private static Validator validator = Validation.buildDefaultValidatorFactory()
            .getValidator();
    
    public static <T> Map<String,StringBuffer> validate(T obj){
        //校验过程
        Set<ConstraintViolation<T>> set = validator.validate(obj,Default.class);
        //校验结果输出,可以自定义
        Map<String,StringBuffer> errorMap = null;
        if(set != null && set.size() >0 ){
            errorMap = new HashMap<String,StringBuffer>();
            String property = null;
            for(ConstraintViolation<T> cv : set){
                //这里循环获取错误信息,可以自定义格式
                property = cv.getPropertyPath().toString();
                if(errorMap.get(property) != null){
                    errorMap.get(property).append("," + cv.getMessage());
                }else{
                    StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer();
                    sb.append(cv.getMessage());
                    errorMap.put(property, sb);
                }
            }
        }
        return errorMap;
    }
}

最后写个测试类ValidatorTest.java

public class ValidatorTest { 
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        StudentInfo s = new StudentInfo();
        long startTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
        print(ValidatorUtil.validate(s));
        System.out.println("===============耗时(毫秒)=" + (System.currentTimeMillis() - startTime));
        
        s.setUserName("chenwb");
        s.setAge("a10");
        s.setBirthday("2016-9-1");
        startTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
        print(ValidatorUtil.validate(s));
        System.out.println("===============耗时(毫秒)=" + (System.currentTimeMillis() - startTime));
    }
    private static void print(Map<String,StringBuffer> errorMap){
        if(errorMap != null){
            for(Map.Entry<String, StringBuffer> m : errorMap.entrySet()){
                System.out.println(m.getKey() + ":" + m.getValue().toString());
            }
        }
    }
}

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
测试结果:
school:学校不能为空
userName:用户名不能为空
age:年龄不能为空
===============耗时(毫秒)=298
birthday:出生日期格式不正确
school:学校不能为空
age:年龄是整数
===============耗时(毫秒)=4

总结: 

对于这个例子相信主要的问题是在这个工具类上,目前已知的是校验过程在

        //校验过程
        Set<ConstraintViolation<T>> set = validator.validate(obj,Default.class);这句话中,validate()是Validator类的方法,返回的是Set<ConstraintViolation<T>>集合。

看一下这个接口的注释:(Validates all constraints on {@code object})

	/**
	 * Validates all constraints on {@code object}.
	 *
	 * @param object object to validate
	 * @param groups the group or list of groups targeted for validation (defaults to
	 *        {@link Default})
	 * @return constraint violations or an empty set if none
	 * @throws IllegalArgumentException if object is {@code null}
	 *         or if {@code null} is passed to the varargs groups
	 * @throws ValidationException if a non recoverable error happens
	 *         during the validation process
	 */
	<T> Set<ConstraintViolation<T>> validate(T object, Class<?>... groups);

 ConstraintViolation类源码:

public interface ConstraintViolation<T> {

	/**
	 * @return the interpolated error message for this constraint violation
	 */
	String getMessage();

	/**
	 * @return the non-interpolated error message for this constraint violation
	 */
	String getMessageTemplate();

	/**
	 * Returns the root bean being validated. For method validation, returns
	 * the object the method is executed on.
	 * <p/>
	 * Returns {@code null} when:
	 * <ul>
	 *     <li>the {@code ConstraintViolation} is returned after calling
	 *     {@link Validator#validateValue(Class, String, Object, Class[])}</li>
	 *     <li>the {@code ConstraintViolation} is returned after validating a
	 *     constructor.</li>
	 * </ul>
	 *
	 * @return the validated object, the object hosting the validated element or {@code null}
	 */
	T getRootBean();

	/**
	 * Returns the class of the root bean being validated.
	 * For method validation, this is the object class the
	 * method is executed on.
	 * For constructor validation, this is the class the constructor
	 * is declared on.
	 *
	 * @return the class of the root bean or of the object hosting the validated element
	 */
	Class<T> getRootBeanClass();

	/**
	 * Returns:
	 * <ul>
	 *     <li>the bean instance the constraint is applied on if it is
	 *     a bean constraint</li>
	 *     <li>the bean instance hosting the property the constraint
	 *     is applied on if it is a property constraint</li>
	 *     <li>{@code null} when the {@code ConstraintViolation} is returned
	 *     after calling {@link Validator#validateValue(Class, String, Object, Class[])}
	 *     </li>
	 *     <li>the object the method is executed on if it is
	 *     a method parameter, cross-parameter or return value constraint</li>
	 *     <li>{@code null} if it is a constructor parameter or
	 *     cross-parameter constraint</li>
	 *     <li>the object the constructor has created if it is a
	 *     constructor return value constraint</li>
	 * </ul>
	 *
	 * @return the leaf bean
	 */
	Object getLeafBean();

	/**
	 * Returns an {@code Object[]} representing the constructor or method invocation
	 * arguments if the {@code ConstraintViolation} is returned after validating the
	 * method or constructor parameters.
	 * Returns {@code null} otherwise.
	 *
	 * @return parameters of the method or constructor invocation or {@code null}
	 *
	 * @since 1.1
	 */
	Object[] getExecutableParameters();

	/**
	 * Returns the return value of the constructor or method invocation
	 * if the {@code ConstraintViolation} is returned after validating the method
	 * or constructor return value.
	 * <p/>
	 * Returns {@code null} if the method has no return value.
	 * Returns {@code null} otherwise.
	 *
	 * @return the method or constructor return value or {@code null}
	 *
	 * @since 1.1
	 */
	Object getExecutableReturnValue();

	/**
	 * @return the property path to the value from {@code rootBean}
	 */
	Path getPropertyPath();

	/**
	 * Returns the value failing to pass the constraint.
	 * For cross-parameter constraints, an {@code Object[]} representing
	 * the method invocation arguments is returned.
	 *
	 * @return the value failing to pass the constraint
	 */
	Object getInvalidValue();

	/**
	 * Returns the constraint metadata reported to fail.
	 * The returned instance is immutable.
	 *
	 * @return constraint metadata
	 */
	ConstraintDescriptor<?> getConstraintDescriptor();

	/**
	 * Returns an instance of the specified type allowing access to
	 * provider-specific APIs. If the Bean Validation provider
	 * implementation does not support the specified class,
	 * {@link ValidationException} is thrown.
	 *
	 * @param type the class of the object to be returned
	 * @return an instance of the specified class
	 * @throws ValidationException if the provider does not support the call
	 *
	 * @since 1.1
	 */
	<U> U unwrap(Class<U> type);
}

 例子中主要用到了getMessage()和getPropertyPath()

 

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