c库打印函数

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函数

#include<stdio.h>
int printf(const char *format, ... );/* [until c99]写结果到stdout */
int printf(const char *restrict format, ... );/* [since c99] */
int fprintf(FILE *stream, const char *format, ... );/* [until c99]写结果到文件流stream */
int fprintf(FILE *restrict stream, const char *restrict format, ... );
int sprintf(char *dest, const char *format, ... );/* [until c99]写结果至dest */
int sprintf(char *restrict dest, const char *restrict format, ... );
int snprintf(char *restrict dest, size_t bufsz, const char *restrict format, ... );/* [since c99]写结果至dest,至多写bufsz-1个字符。产生的字符串会以空字符终止,除非bufsz为0。若bufsz为0,则不写入任何内容,且dest可以是空指针,然而依旧计算返回值(会写入的字符数,不包含空终止符)并返回。 */
int vprintf(const char *format, va_list ap);
int vprintf(const char *restrict format, va_list ap);
int vfprintf(FILE *stream, const char *format, va_list ap);
int vfprintf(FILE *restrict stream, const char *restrict format, va_list ap);
int vsprintf(char *dest, const char *format, va_list ap);
int vsprintf(char *restrict dest, const char *restrict format, va_list ap);
int vsnprintf(char *restrict dest, size_t bufsz, const char *restrict format, va_list ap);

参数

stream -- 要写入的输出文件流
bufsz  -- 最多写入bufsz-1个字符,再加上空终止符
format -- 指向指定数据转译方式的空终止多字节字符串的指针

在这里插入图片描述

Example

#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
	/* String test */
	char *str = "hello";
	printf("str = .%s.\r\n", str);
	printf("str = .%-10s.\r\n", str);
	printf("str = .%10s.\r\n", str);
	printf("str = .%-*s.\r\n", 10, str);
	printf("str = .%*s.\r\n", 10, str);
	printf("str = .%*.*s.\r\n", 10, 5, str);
	printf("str = .%*.*s.\r\n", 10, 2, str);
	printf("str = .%10.5s.\r\n", str);
	printf("str = .%10.2s.\r\n", str);
	/* Integer test */
	printf("dec = .%d.\r\n", 555);
	printf("dec = .%10d.\r\n", 555);
	printf("dec = .%10.5d.\r\n", 555);
	printf("dec = .%-10.5d.\r\n", 555);
	printf("dec = .%*.*d.\r\n", 10, 5, 555);
	printf("dec = .%*.*d.\r\n", 10, 2, 555);
	printf("hex = .%x.\r\n", 555);
	printf("hex = .%X.\r\n", 555);
	printf("hex = .%#x.\r\n", 555);
	printf("hex = .%10x.\r\n", 555);
	printf("hex = .%10.5x.\r\n", 555);
	printf("hex = .%-10.5x.\r\n", 555);
	printf("hex = .%*.*x.\r\n", 10, 5, 555);
	printf("hex = .%*.*x.\r\n", 10, 2, 555);
	printf("oct = .%o.\r\n", 555);
	printf("oct = .%#o.\r\n", 555);
	printf("oct = .%10o.\r\n", 555);
	printf("oct = .%10.5o.\r\n", 555);
	printf("oct = .%-10.5o.\r\n", 555);
	printf("oct = .%*.*o.\r\n", 10, 5, 555);
	printf("oct = .%*.*o.\r\n", 10, 2, 555);
	/* Float test */
	printf("flt = .%f.\r\n", 3.1415);
	printf("flt = .%lf.\r\n", 3.1415);
	printf("flt = .%10f.\r\n", 3.1415);
	printf("flt = .%10.5f.\r\n", 3.1415);
	printf("flt = .%-10.5f.\r\n", 3.1415);
	printf("flt = .%*.*f.\r\n", 10, 5, 3.1415);
	printf("flt = .%*.*f.\r\n", 10, 2, 3.1415);
	return 0;
}
/* 运行结果 */
str = .hello.
str = .hello     .
str = .     hello.
str = .hello     .
str = .     hello.
str = .     hello.
str = .        he.
str = .     hello.
str = .        he.
dec = .555.
dec = .       555.
dec = .     00555.
dec = .00555     .
dec = .     00555.
dec = .       555.
hex = .22b.
hex = .22B.
hex = .0x22b.
hex = .       22b.
hex = .     0022b.
hex = .0022b     .
hex = .     0022b.
hex = .       22b.
oct = .1053.
oct = .01053.
oct = .      1053.
oct = .     01053.
oct = .01053     .
oct = .     01053.
oct = .      1053.
flt = .3.141500.
flt = .3.141500.
flt = .  3.141500.
flt = .   3.14150.
flt = .3.14150   .
flt = .   3.14150.
flt = .      3.14.
/* snprintf实现strlen功能 */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
int main()
{
	char *str = "helloworld";
	int slen = snprintf(NULL, 0, "%s", str);
	printf("%d - %ld\r\n",slen, strlen(str));
	return 0;
}
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <time.h>
 
void debug_log(const char *fmt, ...)
{
    struct timespec ts;
    timespec_get(&ts, TIME_UTC);
    char time_buf[100];
    size_t rc = strftime(time_buf, sizeof time_buf, "%D %T", gmtime(&ts.tv_sec));
    snprintf(time_buf + rc, sizeof time_buf - rc, ".%06ld UTC", ts.tv_nsec / 1000);
 
    va_list args1;
    va_start(args1, fmt);
    va_list args2;
    va_copy(args2, args1);
    char buf[1+vsnprintf(NULL, 0, fmt, args1)];
    va_end(args1);
    vsnprintf(buf, sizeof buf, fmt, args2);
    va_end(args2);
 
    printf("%s [debug]: %s\n", time_buf, buf);
}
 
int main(void)
{
    debug_log("Logging, %d, %d, %d", 1, 2, 3);
}
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