ORACLE 10g命令大全



ORACLE 10g命令大全

构件与体系结构

 常用的环境变量

ORACLE_HOME:将要安装oracle软件的目录,指向oracle二进制文件应该安装到的位置。

ORACLE_BASE:主机服务器上用于oracle软件的顶级目录

ORACLE_SID:定义一个unix用户会话应该连接到服务器上的那个实例,不能多于8个字符。

ORACLE_OWNER

ORACLE_TERM

DISPLAY

SHLIB_PATH

LD_LIBRARY_PATH:指定oracle共享对象库的位置.unix系统上,这个变量通常指向$ORACLE_HOME/lib或者是$ORACLE_HOME/lib32目录

ORA_NLS33

NLS_LANG

PATH:告诉操作系统在unix那些目录中查找可执行文件

TMPDIR

TNS_ADMIN:保存oracle net配置文件的位置

DBCA_RAW_CONFIG

TERM

CLASSPATH

TWO_TASK:指定一个将要用在unix系统上的默认oracle net连接串如果用户没有指定任何连接串

OFA模型

用于unix文件系统和安装点的命名约定

用于目录路径的命名约定

用于数据文件的命名约定

用于oracle相关文件的标准位置

Oracle企业管理框架

网格控制

必须管理许多的数据库、应用服务器、web服务器和其他构件的企业可以采用em grid control

Em grid control是一个基于web的用户界面,它与oracle企业内所有构件进行通讯并集中管理这些构件。

Dba可以从一个统一的位置使用em grid control来监视和管理整个计算环境,其中包括主机、数据库、监听器、应用服务器、http服务器和web应用软件。

 

oracle管理服务器

是一个基于javaweb构件,该构件是dba用来监视和控制oracle企业框架内各个受管理目标的实际界面

oracle储存库

已收集到并与受管理目标有关的配置和监视信息被存储到一个oracle管理储存库中。Oracle管理储存库由oracle的两个表空间组成,这两个表空间含有与em内所管理的管理员、目标和应用软件有关的信息。

Oracle 管理代理程序与oracle 管理服务进行通信,以便将数据放入到oracle 管理存储库中。Oracle管理储存库经过精心组织,以便让oracle 管理服务内的检索和显示变得更为容易。

受管理目标

包括数据库、应用服务器、web服务器、应用软件以及像oraclenet监听器和connection manager连接管理器之类的oracle 代理程序。

oracle数据库控制

em db consoleoracle企业管理框架内的一个构件,它基于web并用来管理oracledb 10g release,em 数据库控制允许dba监视和管理单个oracle数据库实例或单个rac环境。

应用服务器控制

em的一个构件,它基于web并用来监视oracle application server10g,应用服务器控制允许dba监视和管理单个oracleapplication server实例,一组oracle application server实例和oracle application server集群。

创建数据库

用户帐户:

1.   Sys用户拥有构成该数据目录的所有内部oracle表。

2.   System 是一个含有辅助管理表和视图的辅助支持用户。

3.   Dbsnmp是由em工具用来监视和收集数据库性能统计数据的一个数据库账号

4.   Sysman em工具来说,sysman 等价与sys,不仅能够创建和修改其它em管理员账号,还能够管理数据库实例本身。

ASM存储器

自动存储管理

Oracle 10g引进的一种新型存储机制。它依靠oracle来维护企业的数据库存储器,被设计用来解除磁盘和存储器管理的负担,可以使用ASM来定义用于文件管理的磁盘组。

磁盘组类似于某些操作系统中卷组的概念。

Oracleasm专门用来跟踪磁盘组分配的一个辅助数据内管理数据库的存储器定义。

Dbca数据库模板

数据库模板是用xml文件格式保存在本地磁盘上的数据库配置的定义。

Dbca能够使用两种类型的模板:种子模板非种子模板

种子模板指含有定义信息和实际的数据文件与重做日志文件的模板定义。

种子模板的优点是dbca生成定义文件中所包含的数据文件和重做日志文件的一个副本。这些预建的数据库文件含有所有模式信息,而这些有助于一个较快速的数据库创建过程。种子模板带有一个.dbc扩展名。相关联的预定义重做日志文件和数据文件存储为带有一个.djf扩展名的文件。当使用一个种子模板时,读者可以修改数据库名称、数据文件位置、控制文件和重做日志文件的数量以及初始化参数。

模板将含有关源数据库中指定的结构信息及物理数据文件。使用这种模板创建的数据库和源数据库相同。用户定义的方案及数据将是模板的一部分。

      非种子模板含有自定义的数据库定义。和种子模板不同的是,非种子模板不含有预配置的数据文件和重做日志。非种子模板还有一个.dbt扩展名。该模板将含有关源数据库的结构信息,其中包括源数据库中的数据库选项,表空间,数据文件以及指定的初始化参数。用户定义的方案及其数据不作为已创建模板的一部分。

常用的数据库模板包括:

1.   Data warehouse

2.   General purpose

3.   Transaction processing

模板定义的细节:

部分

描述

Common Options(常见选项)

显示那些选项将会得到创建

Initalization Parameters(初始化参数)

显示常用的初始化参数和他们的设置

Character sets 字符集

要用到的字符集

Control files控制文件

控制文件的名称和位置

Tablespaces表空间

表空间的名称和类型

Datafile数据文件

每个表空间的数据文件名和他们的大小

Redo log groups重做日志组

组成员与大小

 

字符集

数据库字符集

字符集是在计算机屏幕上显示字符时所使用的编码方案。所选的字符集确定了可以在数据库中表示的语言。而且还会影响:

创建数据库方案的方式

开发用于处理字符数据的应用程序的方式

数据库与操作系统一起工作的方式

性能

存储字符数据所需的存储空间

Oracle 数据库对以下项使用数据库字符集:

  CHAR 数据类型 (CHARVARCHAR2CLOB LONG) 存储的数据

  标识符,如表名、列名和PL/SQL 变量 输入并存储 SQL PL/SQL 程序源代码

 下表说明了可以在此页选择的字符集选项:

选项

说明

 使用默认值

如果对于所有数据库用户和数据库应用程序只需要支持操作系统当前使用的语言,请选择此选项。

 使用 Unicode (AL32UTF8)

如果对于数据库用户和数据库应用程序需要支持多种语言,请选择此选项。有关通过 Unicode 支持多语种数据库的信息,请参阅 Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide

 从字符集列表中选择

如果希望 Oracle 数据库使用除操作系统使用的默认字符集以外的其它字符集,请选择此选项。

有关下拉列表所列的字符集的说明,请参阅 Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide

国家字符集

国家字符集是一个备用字符集,利用此字符集可以在没有Unicode 数据库字符集的数据库中存储Unicode 字符。

选择国家字符集的其它原因如下:

        对于频繁的字符处理操作,不同的字符编码方案可能更为理想

使用国家字符集时编程更容易 您对国家字符集的选择不会影响您的数据库字符集。

有关选择国家字符集的详细信息,请参阅 Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide

默认语言

默认语言设置可以确定数据库如何支持与区域设置相关的信息,例如: 日和月份的名称及其缩写 A.M.P.M.A.D. B.C. 的等价表示方法的符号 指定 ORDER BY SQL 子句时字符数据的默认排序方式 书写方向 (从左向右或从右向左) 肯定答复和否定答复字符串(例如,YES NO) 从下拉菜单中选择默认语言。

默认日期格式

有关 Oracle 数据库中支持的语言的完整列表,以及与区域设置相关的信息细节,请参阅 Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide默认日期格式 小时、日、月和年的显示方式有很多种,您可以选择符合本国习惯的方式。例如,英国使用 DD-MON-YYYY 格式显示日期,而日本通常使用YYYY-MM-DD 格式来显示日期。 从下拉菜单中选择默认日期格式。 注:还可以配置 Oracle 数据库,使其支持各种时区和夏时制。有关详细信息,请参阅 Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide

管理命令

Emctl start agent

TZ set to PRC

Oracle EnterpriseManager 10g DatabaseControl Release 10.2.0.1.0 

Copyright (c) 1996,2005 Oracle Corporation.  All rightsreserved.

Starting agent ...started.

Emctl stop agent

TZ set to PRC

Oracle EnterpriseManager 10g DatabaseControl Release 10.2.0.1.0 

Copyright (c) 1996,2005 Oracle Corporation.  All rightsreserved.

Stopping agent ...stopped.

emctl start dbconsole

启动主机服务器上的em进程。

Oracle Enterprise Manager 10gDatabase Control Release 10.2.0.1.0

Copyright (c) 1996, 2005 Oracle Corporation.  All rights reserved.

http://linux:1158/em/console/aboutApplication

Starting Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Database Control ...OracleDBConsolehndss

服务正在启动 ..........................

OracleDBConsolehndss 服务已经启动成功。

emctl stop dbconsole

TZ set to PRC

Oracle EnterpriseManager 10g DatabaseControl Release 10.2.0.1.0 

Copyright (c) 1996,2005 Oracle Corporation.  All rightsreserved.

http://hnint:1158/em/console/aboutApplication

Stopping OracleEnterprise Manager 10g DatabaseControl ...

 ... Stopped.

emctl status dbconsole

TZ set to PRC

Oracle EnterpriseManager 10g DatabaseControl Release 10.2.0.1.0 

Copyright (c) 1996,2005 Oracle Corporation.  All rightsreserved.

http://hnint:1158/em/console/aboutApplication

Oracle EnterpriseManager 10g isrunning.

------------------------------------------------------------------

Logs are generatedin directory /usr/local/oracle/app/hnint_hnbak/sysman/log

isqlplusctl start

iSQL*Plus 10.2.0.1.0

Copyright (c) 2003,2005, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

iSQL*Plus instanceon port 5560 is already running ...

isqlplusctl stop

iSQL*Plus 10.2.0.1.0

Copyright (c) 2003, 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Stopping iSQL*Plus ...

iSQL*Plus stopped.

 

Oradim

输入以下命令之一:

通过指定以下选项创建实例:

     -NEW -SID sid | -SRVC srvc |-ASMSID sid | -ASMSRVC srvc [-SYSPWD pass]

 [-STARTMODE auto|manual][-SRVCSTART system|demand] [-PFILE file | -SPFILE]

 [-SHUTMODEnormal|immediate|abort] [-TIMEOUT secs] [-RUNAS osusr/ospass]

通过指定以下选项编辑实例:

     -EDIT -SID sid | -ASMSID sid[-SYSPWD pass]

 [-STARTMODE auto|manual][-SRVCSTART system|demand] [-PFILE file | -SPFILE]

 [-SHUTMODEnormal|immediate|abort] [-SHUTTYPE srvc|inst] [-RUNAS osusr/ospass]

通过指定以下选项删除实例:

     -DELETE -SID sid | -ASMSIDsid | -SRVC srvc | -ASMSRVC srvc

通过指定以下选项启动服务和实例:

     -STARTUP -SID sid | -ASMSIDsid [-SYSPWD pass]

 [-STARTTYPE srvc|inst|srvc,inst][-PFILE filename | -SPFILE]

通过指定以下选项关闭服务和实例:

     -SHUTDOWN -SID sid | -ASMSIDsid [-SYSPWD pass]

 [-SHUTTYPE srvc|inst|srvc,inst][-SHUTMODE normal|immediate|abort]

 通过指定以下参数查询帮助: -? | -h | -help

Orapwd

ORAPWDFILE=<FILENAME> PASSWORD =<PASSWORD> ENTRIES=<MAX_USERS> force=<y/n>

 

各命令参数的含义为:

---- FILENAME:密码文件名;

---- PASSWORD:设置INTERNALSYS帐号的口令;

---- MAX_USERS:密码文件中可以存放的最大用户数,对应于允许以SYSDBASYSOPER权限登录数据库的最大用户数。由于在以后的维护中,若用户数超出了此限制,则需要重建密码文件,所以此参数可以根据需要设置得大一些。

force=<y/n>是否覆盖原来的文件

Shutdown

Normal

1.       shutdown normal命令发布起, 禁止建立任何新的oracle连接

2.       数据库将等到所有用户都被断开后再继续关闭过程。

等待当前所有已连接的用户断开与数据库的连接

Transactional

1.       shutdown transactional命令发布起, 禁止建立任何新的oracle连接

2.       shutdown transactional命令发布起,禁止启动任何新的事务。

3.       一旦数据库上所有的活动事务执行完毕, 所有的客户连接将被断开。

完成事务处理后断开所有已连接的用户

Immediate

1.       shutdown immediate命令发布起,禁止建立任何新的oracle连接

2.     未提交的事务被回退。因此,处于一个事务中间的用户将失去所有未提交的劳动成果。

3.       oracle不等待客户断开连接。任何未完成的事务均被回退,而且他们的数据库连接被终止

 

回退活动事务处理并断开所有已连接的用户

 

Abort

中止数据库实例, 立即关闭

异常关闭是最主动的关闭类型,并且有如下这些特征:

1.       shutdown abort命令发布起,禁止建立任何新的oracle连接

2.       当前正在运行的sql语句被终止,无论他们处于什么状态。

3.       未提交的工作被回退

4.       oracleshutdown abort命令发布时刻立即断开所有客户连接。

 

Startup

Nomount

启动实例但不安装数据库,当数据库以这个模式启动时,参数文件被读取,后台进程和内存结构被启动,但他们不被附加或与数据库的磁盘结构进行通信。这种模式下,数据库是不可使用的。

可以执行的任务是:运行一个创建基础数据库的脚本和重建控制文件。

nomount启动模式下,只能访问到那些与sga区相关的数据词典视图,包括:

V$sgaV$parameterV$optionV$processv$instancev$versionv$session

这些视图中的信息都是从sga中获得,与数据库无关。

Mount

执行nomount的所有工作,另外附加数据结构并与这些数据结构进行交互。这时,oracle从控制文件中获得信息。

可以执行的任务是:

1.       执行数据库的完全恢复操作

2.       重命名数据文件

3.       改变数据库的归档状态。

4.       添加、删除或重命名重做日志

mount启动模式下,只能访问到那些与控制文件相关的数据字典视图,包括v$databasev$threadv$datafilev$logfilev$controlfile等,这些信息都是从控制文件中获得。

 

Open

这个选项把数据库变成对所有用户都是可用的。

Force

Restrict

启动数据库并把它置于open模式,直给拥有restrictedsession权限的用户赋予访问权。

Alter systemdisable restricted session;

 

另外,启动时,oracle会首先搜索$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/spfile$ORACLE_SID.ora,如果不存在,再搜索$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/spfile.ora,如果不存在,再搜索$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/init$ORACLE_SID.ora,如果还不存在,则开始报错,提示找不到参数文件。

 

http://127.0.0.1:1158/em

 

主目录

一般信息

状态  启动

开始运行时间  2005-11-9下午013142 CST

实例名  hndss

版本  10.2.0.1.0

主机  linux

监听程序 LISTENER_linux

主机 CPU
活动会话数
SQL 响应时间
诊断概要
空间概要
高可用性
预警
相关预警
作业活动

 

oracle enterprise manager grid control可以用来管理每个oracle数据库,

也可以使用oracle enterprise manager database control可以管理本地数据库。

 

 

 

Expdp/impdp

建立逻辑路径

createor replace directory dumpdir as 'c:\';
grant read,write on directory dumpdir to scott;

倒入/

expdp newdr/123456@hncrm directory=test dumpfile=test_score1.dmplogfile=tes

t.log parallel=2 schemas=newdr

 

错误

ORA-00054

resourcebusy and acquire with NOWAIT specified

         资源正忙,要求指定NOWAIT

ORA-00600

internalerror code,arguments:[num],[?],[?],[?],[?]

产生原因:这种错误通常为ORACLE的内部错误,只对OSSORACLE开发有用。ORA-600的错误经常伴随跟踪文件的状态转储(系统状态和进程状态),系统状态存储将包括ORACLE RDBMS持有的当前对象的信息,进程状态转储则将显示特殊进程持有的对象,当进程符合了某错误条件时,经常是由于一些信息取自它持有的一个块,如果我们知道这些错误进程持有的块,就容易跟踪问题的来源。

解决方法:一般来说出现这个错误我们本身是无法解决的,只有从提高系统本身各方面来解决这个内部问题,如增加硬件设备,调整系统性能,使用OPS(当然OPS从某种意义上说并不是一种好的解决方式)等。ORA-600错误的第一个变量用于标记代码中错误的位置(代码中的每个部分的第一变量都不一样),从第二个到第五个变量显示附加信息,告诉OSS代码在哪里出现了错误。

一个报错例子如下:

       ORA-00600:internal error code, arguments: [1237], [], [], [], [], [], [], []

       相应的英文如下:

       Cause:Thisis a catchall(包罗万象的) internal error message for Oracle program exceptions.Itindicates that a process has met a low-level,unexpected condition.Variouscauses of this message include:

       Time-outs(超时)

       Filecorruption(文件太老)

       Faileddata checks in memory(内存检索失败)

       Hardware,memory,orI/O errors(硬件、内存或者磁盘错误)

       Incorrectlyrestored files(错误的重建文件)

 

Ora-600 Base

Functionality

Description

1

Service Layer

The service layer has within it a variety of service related components which are associated with in memory related activities in the SGA such as, for example : the management of Enqueues, System Parameters, System state objects (these objects track the use of structures in the SGA by Oracle server processes), etc.. In the main, this layer provides support to allow process communication and provides support for locking and the management of structures to support multiple user processes connecting and interacting within the SGA. 

Note : vos  - Virtual Operating System provides features to support the functionality above.  As the name suggests it provides base functionality in much the same way as is provided by an Operating System.
 

Ora-600 Base

Functionality

Description

1

vos

Component notifier 

100

vos

Debug

300

vos

Error

500

vos

Lock

700

vos

Memory

900

vos

System Parameters 

1100

vos

System State object 

1110

vos

Generic Linked List management 

1140

vos

Enqueue

1180

vos

Instance Locks 

1200

vos

User State object 

1400

vos

Async Msgs 

1700

vos

license Key 

1800

vos

Instance Registration 

1850

vos

I/O Services components

2000

Cache Layer

Where errors are generated in this area, it is advisable to check whether the error is repeatable and whether the error is perhaps associated with recovery or undo type operations; where this is the case and the error is repeatable, this may suggest some kind of hardware or physical issue with a data file, control file or log file. The Cache layer is responsible for making the changes to the underlying files and well as managing the related memory structures in the SGA. 

Note : rcv indicates recovery. It is important to remember that the Oracle cache layer is effectively going through the same code paths as used by the recovery mechanism.
 

Ora-600 Base

Functionality

Description

2000

server/rcv

Cache Op

2100

server/rcv

Control File mgmt 

2200

server/rcv

Misc (SCN etc.) 

2400

server/rcv

Buffer Instance Hash Table 

2600

server/rcv

Redo file component 

2800

server/rcv

Db file 

3000

server/rcv

Redo Application 

3200

server/cache

Buffer manager 

3400

server/rcv

Archival & media recovery component 

3600

server/rcv

recovery component

3700

server/rcv

Thread component 

3800

server/rcv

Compatibility segment

It is important  to consider when the error occurred and the context in which the error was generated. If the error does not reproduce, it may be an in memory issue.
 

4000

Transaction Layer

Primarily the transaction layer is involved with maintaining structures associated with the management of transactions.  As with the cache layer , problems encountered in this layer may indicate some kind of issue at a physical level. Thus it is important to try and repeat the same steps to see if the problem recurs. 
 

Ora-600 Base

Functionality

Description

4000

server/txn

Transaction Undo 

4100

server/txn

Transaction Undo 

4210

server/txn

Transaction Parallel 

4250

server/txn

Transaction List 

4300

space/spcmgmt

Transaction Segment 

4400

txn/lcltx

Transaction Control 

4450

txn/lcltx

distributed transaction control

4500

txn/lcltx

Transaction Block 

4600

space/spcmgmt

Transaction Table 

4800

dict/rowcache

Query Row Cache 

4900

space/spcmgmt

Transaction Monitor 

5000

space/spcmgmt

Transaction Extent 

It is important to try and determine what the object involved in any reproducible problem is. Then use the analyze command. For more information, please refer to the analyze command as detailed in the context of  <<Note:28814.1>; in addition, it may be worth using the dbverify as discussed in <<Note:35512.1>.
 

6000

Data Layer

The data layer is responsible for maintaining and managing the data in the database tables and indexes. Issues in this area may indicate some kind of physical issue at the object level and therefore, it is important to try and isolate the object and then perform an anlayze on the object to validate its structure. 
 

Ora-600 Base

Functionality

Description

6000

ram/data
ram/analyze
ram/index

data, analyze command and index related activity

7000

ram/object

lob related errors

8000

ram/data

general data access

8110

ram/index

index related

8150

ram/object

general data access

Again, it is important to try and determine what the object involved in any reproducible problem is. Then use the analyze command. For more information, please refer to the analyze command as detailed in the context of  <<Note:28814.1>; in addition, it may be worth using the dbverify as discussed in <<Note:35512.1>.
 

12000

User/Oracle Interface & SQL Layer Components

This layer governs the user interface with the Oracle server. Problems generated by this layer usually indicate : some kind of presentation or format error in the data received by the server, i.e. the client may have sent incomplete information; or there is some kind of issue which indicates that the data is received out of sequence
 

Ora-600 Base

Functionality

Description

12200

progint/kpo
progint/opi

lob related
errors at interface level on server side, xa , etc.

12300

progint/if

OCI interface to coordinating global transactions 

12400

sqlexec/rowsrc

table row source access

12600

space/spcmgmt

operations associated with tablespace : alter / create / drop operations ; operations associated with create table / cluster

12700

sqlexec/rowsrc 

bad rowid

13000

dict/if

dictionary access routines associated with kernel compilation

13080

ram/index

kernel Index creation

13080

sqllang/integ

constraint mechanism

13100

progint/opi

archival and Media Recovery component

13200

dict/sqlddl

alter table mechanism

13250

security/audit

audit statement processing

13300

objsupp/objdata

support for handling of object generation and object access

14000

dict/sqlddl

sequence generation

15000

progint/kpo

logon to Oracle

16000

tools/sqlldr

sql loader related

You should try and repeat the issue and with the use of sql trace , try and isolate where exactly the issue may be occurring within the application.

14000

System Dependent Component internal error values

This layer manages interaction with the OS. Effectively it acts as the glue which allows the Oracle server to interact with the OS. The types of operation which this layer manages are indicated as follows.
 

Ora-600 Base

Functionality

Description

14000

osds

File access

14100

osds

Concurrency management; 

14200

osds

Process management;

14300

Osds

Exception-handler or signal handler management

14500

Osds

Memory allocation

15000

security/dac,
security/logon
security/ldap

local user access validation; challenge / response activity for remote access validation; auditing operation; any activities associated with granting and revoking of privileges; validation of password with external password file

15100

dict/sqlddl

this component manages operations associated with creating, compiling (altering), renaming, invalidating, and dropping  procedures, functions, and packages.

15160

optim/cbo

cost based optimizer layer is used to determine optimal path to the data based on statistical information available on the relevant tables and indexes.

15190

optim/cbo

cost based optimizer layer. Used in the generation of a new index to determine how the index should be created. Should it be constructed from the table data or from another index.

15200

dict/shrdcurs

used to in creating sharable context area associated with shared cursors

15230

dict/sqlddl

manages the compilation of triggers

15260

dict/dictlkup
dict/libcache

dictionary lookup and library cache access

15400

server/drv

manages alter system and alter session operations

15410

progint/if

manages compilation of pl/sql packages and procedures

15500

dict/dictlkup

performs dictionary lookup to ensure semantics are correct

15550

sqlexec/execsvc
sqlexec/rowsrc

hash join execution management; 
parallel row source management

15600

sqlexec/pq

component provides support for Parallel Query operation

15620

repl/snapshots

manages the creation of snapshot or materialized views as well as related snapshot / MV operations

15640

repl/defrdrpc

layer containing various functions for examining the deferred transaction queue and retrieving information

15660

jobqs/jobq

manages the operation of the Job queue background processes

15670

sqlexec/pq

component provides support for Parallel Query operation

15700

sqlexec/pq

component provides support for Parallel Query operation; specifically mechanism for starting up and shutting down query slaves

15800

sqlexec/pq

component provides support for Parallel Query operation

15810

sqlexec/pq

component provides support for Parallel Query operation; specifically functions for creating mechanisms through which Query co-ordinator can communicate with PQ slaves;

15820

sqlexec/pq

component provides support for Parallel Query operation

15850

sqlexec/execsvc

component provides support for the execution of SQL statements

15860

sqlexec/pq

component provides support for Parallel Query operation

16000

loader

sql Loader direct load operation;

16150

loader

this layer is used for 'C' level call outs to direct loader operation;

16200

dict/libcache

this is part of library Cache operation. Amongst other things it manages the dependency of SQL objects and tracks who is permitted to access these objects;

16230

dict/libcache

this component is responsible for managing access to remote objects as part of library Cache operation;

16300

mts/mts

this component relates to MTS (Multi Threaded Server) operation

16400

dict/sqlddl

this layer contains functionality which allows tables to be loaded / truncated and their definitions to be modified. This is part of dictionary operation;

16450

dict/libcache

this layer layer provides support for multi-instance access to the library cache; this functionality is applicable therefore to OPS environments;

16500

dict/rowcache

this layer provides support to load / cache Oracle's dictionary in memory in the library cache;

16550

sqlexec/fixedtab

this component maps data structures maintained in the Oracle code to fixed tables such that they can be queried using the SQL layer;

16600

dict/libcache

this layer performs management of data structures within the library cache;

16651

dict/libcache

this layer performs management of dictionary related information within library Cache;

16701

dict/libcache

this layer provides library Cache support to support database creation and forms part of the bootstrap process;

17000

dict/libcache

this is the main library Cache manager. This Layer maintains the in memory representation of cached sql statements together will all the necessary support that this demands;

17090

generic/vos

this layer implementations error management operations: signalling errors, catching  errors, recovering from errors, setting error frames, etc.;

17100

generic/vos

Heap manager. The Heap manager manages the storage of internal data in an orderly and consistent manner. There can be many heaps serving various purposes; and heaps within heaps. Common examples are the SGA heap, UGA heap and the PGA heap. Within a Heap there are consistency markers which aim to ensure that the Heap is always in a consistent state. Heaps are use extensively and are in memory structures - not on disk. 

17200

dict/libcache

this component deals with loading remote library objects into the local library cache with information from the remote database.

17250

dict/libcache

more library cache errors ; functionality for handling pipe operation associated with dbms_pipe

17270

dict/instmgmt

this component manages instantiations of procedures, functions, packages, and cursors in a session. This provides a means to keep track of what has been loaded in the event of process death; 

17300

generic/vos

manages certain types of memory allocation structure.  This functionality is an extension of the Heap manager.

17500

generic/vos

relates to various I/O operations. These relate to async i/o operation,  direct i/o operation and the management of writing buffers from the buffer cache by potentially a number of database writer processes;

17625

dict/libcache

additional library Cache supporting functions

17990

plsql

plsql 'standard' package related issues

18000

txn/lcltx

transaction and savepoint management operations 

19000

optim/cbo

cost based optimizer related operations

20000

ram/index

bitmap index and index related errors.

20400

ram/partnmap

operations on partition related objects

20500

server/rcv

server recovery related operation

21000

repl/defrdrpc, 
repl/snapshot,
repl/trigger

replication related features

23000

oltp/qs

AQ related errors.

24000

dict/libcache

operations associated with managing stored outlines

25000

server/rcv

tablespace management operations

 

Internal Errors Categorised by mnemonic

The following table details mnemonics error stems which are possible. Ifyou have encountered : ora-600[kkjsrj:1] for example,  you should lookdown the Error Mnemonic column (errors in alphabetical order) until you findthe matching stem. In this case, kkj indicates that something unexpectedhas occurred in job queue operation.
 
 

Error Mnemonic(s)

Functionality

Description

ain ainp 

ram/index

ain - alter index; ainp -  alter index partition management operation

apacb 

optim/rbo

used by optimizer in connect by processing

atb atbi atbo ctc ctci cvw 

dict/sqlddl

alter table , create table (IOT) or cluster operations as well as create view related operations (with constraint handling functionality)

dbsdrv

sqllang/parse

alter / create database operation

ddfnet 

progint/distrib

various distributed operations on remote dictionary

delexe 

sqlexec/dmldrv

manages the delete statement operation

dix 

ram/index

manages drop index or validate index operation 

dtb 

dict/sqlddl

manages drop table operation

evaa2g evah2p evaa2g 

dbproc/sqlfunc

various functions involves in evaluating operand outcomes such as : addition , average, OR operator, bites AND , bites OR, concatenation, as well as Oracle related functions : count(), dump() , etc. The list is extensive.

expcmo expgon 

dbproc/expreval

handles expression evaluation with respect to two operands being equivalent

gra 

security/dac

manages the granting and revoking of privilege rights to a user

gslcsq 

plsldap

support for operations with an LDAP server

insexe 

sqlexec/dmldrv

handles the insert statement operation

jox 

progint/opi

functionality associated with the Java compiler and with the Java runtime environment within the Server

k2c k2d 

progint/distrib

support for database to database operation in distributed environements as well as providing, with respect to the 2-phase commit protocol, a globally unique Database id

k2g k2l

txn/disttx

support for the 2 phase commit protocol protocol and the coordination of the various states in managing the distributed transaction

k2r k2s k2sp 

progint/distrib

k2r - user interface for managing distributed transactions and combining distributed results ; k2s - handles logging on, starting a transaction, ending a transaction and recovering a transaction; k2sp - management of savepoints in a distributed environment.

k2v 

txn/disttx

handles distributed recovery operation

kad 

cartserv/picklercs

handles OCIAnyData implementation 

kau 

ram/data

manages the modification of indexes for inserts, updates and delete operations for IOTs as well as modification of indexes for IOTs

kcb kcbb kcbk kcbl kcbs kcbt kcbw kcbz 

cache

manages Oracle's buffer cache operation as well as operations used by capabilities such as direct load, has clusters , etc.

kcc kcf 

rcv

manages and coordinates operations on the control file(s)

kcit 

context/trigger

internal trigger functionality 

kck 

rcv

compatibility related checks associated with the compatible parameter

kcl 

cache

background lck process which manages locking in a RAC or parallel server multiple instance environment

kco kcq kcra kcrf kcrfr kcrfw kcrp kcrr kcs kct kcv 

rcv

various buffer cache operation such as quiesce operation , managing fast start IO target, parallel recovery operation , etc. 

kd 

ram/data

support for row level dependency checking and some log miner operations

kda 

ram/analyze

manages the analyze command and collection of statistics

kdbl kdc kdd 

ram/data

support for direct load operation, cluster space management and deleting rows

kdg 

ram/analyze

gathers information about the underlying data and is used by the analyze command

kdi kdibc3 kdibco kdibh kdibl kdibo kdibq kdibr kdic kdici kdii kdil kdir kdis kdiss kdit kdk 

ram/index

support of the creation of indexes on tables an IOTs and index look up 

kdl kdlt 

ram/object

lob and temporary lob management

kdo 

ram/data

operations on data such as inserting a row piece or deleting a row piece 

kdrp 

ram/analyze

underlying support for operations provided by the dbms_repair package

kds kdt kdu 

ram/data

operations on data such as retrieving a row and updating existing row data

kdv kdx 

ram/index

functionality for dumping index and managing index blocks

kfh kfp kft 

rcv

support for writing to file header and transportable tablespace operations

kgaj kgam kgan kgas kgat kgav kgaz 

argusdbg/argusdbg

support for Java Debug Wire Protocol (JDWP) and debugging facilites

kgbt kgg kgh kghs kghx kgkp

vos

kgbt - support for BTree operations; kgg - generic lists processing; kgh - Heap Manager : managing the internal structures withing the SGA / UGA / PGA and ensures their integrity; kghs - Heap manager with Stream support; kghx - fixed sized shared memory manager; kgkp - generic services scheduling policies

kgl kgl2 kgl3 kgla kglp kglr kgls 

dict/libcache

generic library cache operation 

kgm kgmt 

ilms

support for inter language method services - or calling one language from another

kgrq kgsk kgski kgsn kgss 

vos

support for priority queue and scheduling; capabilities for Numa support;  Service State object manager

kgupa kgupb kgupd0 kgupf kgupg kgupi kgupl kgupm kgupp kgupt kgupx kguq2 kguu 

vos

Service related activities activities associated with for Process monitor (PMON); spawning or creating of background processes; debugging; managing process address space;  managing the background processes; etc.

kgxp 

vos

inter process communication related functions

kjak kjat kjb kjbl kjbm kjbr kjcc kjcs kjctc kjcts kjcv kjdd kjdm kjdr kjdx kjfc kjfm kjfs kjfz kjg kji kjl kjm kjp kjr kjs kjt kju kjx 

ccl/dlm

dlm related functionality ; associated with RAC or parallel server operation

kjxgf kjxgg kjxgm kjxgn kjxgna kjxgr 

ccl/cgs

provides communication & synchronisation associated with GMS or OPS related functionality as well as name service and OPS Instance Membership Recovery Facility

kjxt 

ccl/dlm

DLM request message management

kjzc kjzd kjzf kjzg kjzm 

ccl/diag

support for diagnosibility amongst OPS related services

kkb 

dict/sqlddl

support for operatoins which load/change table definitions

kkbl kkbn kkbo 

objsupp/objddl

support for tables with lobs , nested tables and varrays as well as columns with objects

kkdc kkdl kkdo 

dict/dictlkup

support for constraints, dictionary lookup and dictionary support for objects

kke 

optim/cbo

query engine cost engine; provides support functions that provide cost estimates for queries under a number of different circumstances

kkfd 

sqlexec/pq

support for performing parallel query operation

kkfi 

optim/cbo

optimizer support for matching of expressions against functional ndexes

kkfr kkfs 

sqlexec/pq

support for rowid range handling as well as for building parallel query query operations

kkj 

jobqs/jobq

job queue operation

kkkd kkki 

dict/dbsched

resource manager related support. Additionally, provides underlying functions provided by dbms_resource_manager and dbms_resource_manager_privs packages

kklr 

dict/sqlddl

provides functions used to manipulate LOGGING and/or RECOVERABLE attributes of an object (non-partitioned table or index or  partitions of a partitioned table or index)

kkm kkmi 

dict/dictlkup

provides various semantic checking functions 

kkn 

ram/analyze

support for the analyze command

kko kkocri 

optim/cbo

Cost based Optimizer operation : generates alternative execution plans in order to find the optimal / quickest access to the data.  Also , support to determine cost and applicability of  scanning a given index in trying to create or rebuild an index or a partition thereof

kkpam kkpap 

ram/partnmap

support for mapping predicate keys expressions to equivalent partitions

kkpo kkpoc kkpod 

dict/partn

support for creation and modification of partitioned objects

kkqg kkqs kkqs1 kkqs2 kkqs3 kkqu kkqv kkqw 

optim/vwsubq

query rewrite operation 

kks kksa kksh kksl kksm 

dict/shrdcurs

support for managing shared cursors/ shared sql

kkt 

dict/sqlddl

support for creating, altering and dropping trigger definitions as well as handling the trigger operation

kkxa 

repl/defrdrpc

underlying support for dbms_defer_query package operations

kkxb 

dict/sqlddl

library cache interface for external tables 

kkxl 

dict/plsicds

underlying support for the dbms_lob package

kkxm 

progint/opi

support for inter language method services

kkxs 

dict/plsicds

underlying support for the dbms_sys_sql package 

kkxt 

repl/trigger

support for replication internal trigger operation

kkxwtp 

progint/opi

entry point into the plsql compiler

kky 

drv

support for alter system/session commands

kkz kkzd kkzf kkzg kkzi kkzj kkzl kkzo kkzp kkzq kkzr kkzu kkzv 

repl/snapshot

support for snapshots or Materialized View validation and operation

kla klc klcli klx 

tools/sqlldr

support for direct path sql loader operation

kmc kmcp kmd kmm kmr 

mts/mts

support for Multi Threaded server operation (MTS) : manange and operate the virtual circuit mechanism, handle the dispatching of massages, administer shared servers and for collecting and maintaining statistics associated with MTS

knac knafh knaha knahc knahf knahs 

repl/apply

replication apply operation associated with Oracle streams

kncc 

repl/repcache

support for replication related information stored and maintained in library cache

kncd knce 

repl/defrdrpc

replication related enqueue and dequeue of transction data as well as other queue related operations 

kncog 

repl/repcache

support for loading replicaiton object group information into library cache

kni 

repl/trigger

support for replication internal trigger operation

knip knip2 knipi knipl knipr knipu knipu2 knipx 

repl/intpkg

support for replication internal package operation. 

kno 

repl/repobj

support for replication objects 

knp knpc knpcb knpcd knpqc knps 

repl/defrdrpc

operations assocaied with propagating transactions to a remote node and coordination of this activity.

knst 

repl/stats

replication statistics collection

knt kntg kntx 

repl/trigger

support for replication internal trigger operation

koc 

objmgmt/objcache

support for managing ADTs objects in the OOCI heap

kod 

objmgmt/datamgr

support for persistent storage for objects : for read/write objects, to manage object IDs, and to manage object concurrency and recovery. 

koh 

objmgmt/objcache

object heap manager provides memory allocation services for objects

koi 

objmgmt/objmgr

support for object types

koka 

objsupp/objdata

support for reading images, inserting images, updating images, and deleting images based on object references (REFs).

kokb kokb2 

objsupp/objsql

support for nested table objects

kokc 

objmgmt/objcache

support for pinning , unpinning and freeing objects

kokd 

objsupp/datadrv

driver on the server side for managing objects

koke koke2 koki 

objsupp/objsql

support for managing objects

kokl 

objsupp/objdata

lob access

kokl2 

objsupp/objsql

lob DML and programmatic interface support

kokl3 

objsupp/objdata

object temporary LOB support

kokle kokm 

objsupp/objsql

object SQL evaluation functions

kokn 

objsupp/objname

naming support for objects

koko 

objsupp/objsup

support functions to allow oci/rpi to communicate with Object Management Subsystem (OMS).

kokq koks koks2 koks3 koksr 

objsupp/objsql

query optimisation for objects , semantic checking and semantic rewrite operations

kokt kokt2 kokt3 

objsupp/objddl

object compilation type manager

koku kokv 

objsupp/objsql

support for unparse object operators and object view support

kol kolb kole kolf kolo 

objmgmt/objmgr

support for object Lob buffering , object lob evaluation and object Language/runtime functions for Opaque types

kope2 kopi2 kopo kopp2 kopu koputil kopz

objmgmt/pickler

8.1 engine implementation,  implementation of image ops for 8.1+ image format together with various pickler related support functions

kos 

objsupp/objsup

object Stream interfaces for images/objects

kot kot2 kotg 

objmgmt/typemgr

support for dynamic type operations to create, delete, and  update types.

koxs koxx 

objmgmt/objmgt

object generic image Stream routines and miscellaneous generic object functions

kpcp kpcxlt 

progint/kpc

Kernel programmatic connection pooling and kernel programmatic common type XLT translation routines

kpki 

progint/kpki

kernel programatic interface support

kpls 

cartserv/corecs

support for string formatting operations

kpn 

progint/kpn

support for server to server communication 

kpoal8 kpoaq kpob kpodny kpodp kpods kpokgt kpolob kpolon kpon 

progint/kpo

support for programmatic operations 

kpor 

progint/opi

support for streaming protocol used by replication

kposc 

progint/kpo

support for scrollable cursors

kpotc 

progint/opi

oracle side support functions for setting up trusted external procedure callbacks

kpotx kpov 

progint/kpo

support for managing local and distributed transaction coordination.

kpp2 kpp3 

sqllang/parse

kpp2 - parse routines for dimensions;
kpp3 - parse support for create/alter/drop summary  statements

kprb kprc 

progint/rpi

support for executing sql efficiently on the Oracle server side as well as for copying data types during rpi operations

kptsc 

progint/twotask

callback functions provided to all streaming operation as part of replication functionality 

kpu kpuc kpucp 

progint/kpu

Oracle kernel side programmatic user interface,  cursor management functions and client side connection pooling support

kqan kqap kqas 

argusdbg/argusdbg

server-side notifiers and callbacks for debug operations. 

kql kqld kqlp 

dict/libcache

SQL Library Cache manager - manages the sharing of sql statements in the shared pool

kqr 

dict/rowcache

row cache management. The row cache consists of a set of facilities to provide fast access to table definitions and locking capabilities.

krbi krbx krby krcr krd krpi 

rcv

Backup and recovery related operations :
krbi - dbms_backup_restore package underlying support.; krbx -  proxy copy controller; krby - image copy; krcr - Recovery Controlfile Redo; krd - Recover Datafiles (Media & Standby Recovery);  krpi - support for the package : dbms_pitr

krvg krvt 

rcv/vwr

krvg - support for generation of redo associated with DDL; krvt - support for redo log miner viewer (also known as log miner)

ksa ksdp ksdx kse ksfd ksfh ksfq ksfv ksi ksim ksk ksl ksm ksmd ksmg ksn ksp kspt ksq ksr kss ksst ksu ksut 

vos

support for various kernel associated capabilities

ksx

sqlexec/execsvc

support for query execution associated with temporary tables

ksxa ksxp ksxr 

vos

support for various kernel associated capabilities in relation to OPS or RAC operation

kta 

space/spcmgmt

support for DML locks and temporary tables associated with table access

ktb ktbt ktc 

txn/lcltx

transaction control operations at the block level : locking block, allocating space within the block , freeing up space, etc.

ktec ktef ktehw ktein ktel kteop kteu 

space/spcmgmt

support for extent management operations :
ktec - extent concurrency operations; ktef - extent format; ktehw - extent high water mark operations; ktein - extent  information operations; ktel - extent support for sql loader; kteop - extent operations : add extent to segment, delete extent, resize extent, etc. kteu - redo support for operations changing segment header / extent map

ktf 

txn/lcltx

flashback support

ktfb ktfd ktft ktm 

space/spcmgmt

ktfb - support for bitmapped space manipulation of files/tablespaces;  ktfd - dictionary-based extent management; ktft - support for temporary file manipulation; ktm - SMON operation

ktp ktpr ktr ktri 

txn/lcltx

ktp - support for parallel transaction operation; ktpr - support for parallel transaction recovery; ktr - kernel transaction read consistency; 
ktri - support for dbms_resumable package

ktsa ktsap ktsau ktsb ktscbr ktsf ktsfx ktsi ktsm ktsp ktss ktst ktsx ktt kttm 

space/spcmgmt

support for checking and verifying space usage

ktu ktuc ktur ktusm 

txn/lcltx

internal management of undo and rollback segments

kwqa kwqi kwqic kwqid kwqie kwqit kwqj kwqm kwqn kwqo kwqp kwqs kwqu kwqx 

oltp/qs

support for advanced queuing :
kwqa - advanced queue administration; kwqi - support for AQ PL/SQL trusted callouts; kwqic - common AQ support functions; kwqid - AQ dequeue support; kwqie - AQ enqueu support ; kwqit - time management operation ; kwqj - job queue scheduler for propagation; kwqm - Multiconsumer queue IOT support; kwqn - queue notifier; kwqo - AQ support for checking instType checking options; kwqp - queueing propagation; kwqs - statistics handling; kwqu - handles lob data. ; kwqx - support for handling transformations

kwrc kwre 

oltp/re

rules engine evaluation

kxcc kxcd kxcs 

sqllang/integ

constraint processing

kxdr

sqlexec/dmldrv

DML driver entrypoint 

kxfp kxfpb kxfq kxfr kxfx 

sqlexec/pq

parallel query support

kxhf kxib 

sqlexec/execsvc

khhf- support for hash join file and memory management; kxib - index buffering operations

kxs 

dict/instmgmt

support for executing shared cursors

kxti kxto kxtr 

dbproc/trigger

support for trigger operation

kxtt 

ram/partnmap

support for temporary table operations

kxwph 

ram/data

support for managing attributes of the segment of a table / cluster / table-partition

kza 

security/audit

support for auditing operations 

kzar 

security/dac

support for application auditing

kzck 

security/crypto

encryption support

kzd 

security/dac

support for dictionary access by security related functions 

kzec 

security/dbencryption

support inserting and retrieving encrypted objects into and out of the database

kzfa kzft 

security/audit

support for fine grained auditing

kzia 

security/logon

identification and authentication operations

kzp kzra kzrt kzs kzu kzup 

security/dac

security related operations associated with privileges 

msqima msqimb 

sqlexec/sqlgen

support for generating sql statments

ncodef npi npil npixfr 

progint/npi

support for managing remote network connection from  within the server itself

oba 

sqllang/outbufal

operator buffer allocate for various types of operators : concatenate, decode, NVL, etc.  the list is extensive.

ocik 

progint/oci

OCI oracle server functions

opiaba opidrv opidsa opidsc opidsi opiexe opifch opiino opilng opipar opipls opirip opitsk opix 

progint/opi

OPI Oracle server functions - these are at the top of the server stack and are called indirectly by ythe client in order to server the client request.

orlr 

objmgmt/objmgr

support for  C langauge interfaces to user-defined types (UDTs) 

orp 

objmgmt/pickler

oracle's external pickler / opaque type interfaces

pesblt pfri pfrsqc 

plsql/cox

pesblt - pl/sql built in interpreter; pfri - pl/sql runtime; pfrsqc - pl/sql callbacks for array sql and dml with returning

piht 

plsql/gen/utl

support for pl/sql implementation of utl_http package

pirg 

plsql/cli/utl_raw

support for pl/sql implementation of utl_raw package

pism 

plsql/cli/utl_smtp

support for pl/sql implementation of utl_smtp package

pitcb 

plsql/cli/utl_tcp

support for pl/sql implementation of utl_tcp package

piur 

plsql/gen/utl_url

support for pl/sql implementation of utl_url package

plio 

plsql/pkg

pl/sql object instantiation 

plslm 

plsql/cox

support for NCOMP processing

plsm pmuc pmuo pmux 

objmgmt/pol

support for pl/sql handling of collections

prifold priold 

plsql/cox

support to allow rpc forwarding to an older release 

prm 

sqllang/param

parameter handling associated with sql layer

prsa prsc prssz 

sqllang/parse

prsa - parser for alter cluster command; prsc - parser for create database command; prssz - support for parse context to be saved

psdbnd psdevn 

progint/dbpsd

psdbnd - support for managing bind variables; psdevn - support for pl/sql debugger

psdicd 

progint/plsicds

small number of ICD to allow pl/sql to call into 'C' source

psdmsc psdpgi 

progint/dbpsd

psdmsc - pl/sql system dependent miscellaneous functions ; psdpgi - support for opening and closing cursors in pl/sql

psf 

plsql/pls

pl/sql service related functions for instantiating called pl/sql unit in library cache

qbadrv qbaopn 

sqllang/qrybufal

provides allocation of buffer and control structures in query execution 

qcdl qcdo 

dict/dictlkup

qcdl - query compile semantic analysis; qcdo - query compile dictionary support for objects

qci 

dict/shrdcurs

support for SQL language parser and semantic analyser

qcop qcpi qcpi3 qcpi4 qcpi5 

sqllang/parse

support for query compilation parse phase

qcs qcs2 qcs3 qcsji qcso 

dict/dictlkup

support for semantic analysis by SQL compiler

qct qcto 

sqllang/typeconv

qct - query compile type check operations; qcto -  query compile type check operators

qcu 

sqllang/parse

various utilities provided for sql compilation

qecdrv 

sqllang/qryedchk

driver performing high level checks on sql language query capabilities

qerae qerba qerbc qerbi qerbm qerbo qerbt qerbu qerbx qercb qercbi qerco qerdl qerep qerff qerfi qerfl qerfu qerfx qergi qergr qergs qerhc qerhj qeril qerim qerix qerjm qerjo qerle qerli qerlt qerns qeroc qeroi qerpa qerpf qerpx qerrm qerse qerso qersq qerst qertb qertq qerua qerup qerus qervw qerwn qerxt 

sqlexec/rowsrc

row source operators :
qerae - row source (And-Equal) implementation; qerba - Bitmap Index AND row source; qerbc - bitmap index compaction row source; qerbi - bitmap index creation row source; qerbm - QERB Minus row source; qerbo  - Bitmap Index OR row source; qerbt - bitmap convert row source; qerbu - Bitmap Index Unlimited-OR row source; qerbx - bitmap index access row source; qercb - row source: connect by; qercbi - support for connect by; qerco - count row source; qerdl - row source delete; qerep - explosion row source; qerff - row source fifo buffer; qerfi  - first row row source; qerfl  - filter row source definition; qerfu - row source: for update; qerfx - fixed table row source; qergi - granule iterator row source; qergr - group by rollup row source; qergs - group by sort row source; qerhc - row sources hash clusters; qerhj - row source Hash Join;  qeril  - In-list row source; qerim - Index Maintenance row source; qerix - Index row source; qerjo - row source: join; qerle - linear execution row source implementation; qerli - parallel create index; qerlt - row source populate Table;  qerns  - group by No Sort row source; qeroc - object collection iterator row source; qeroi - extensible indexing query component; qerpa - partition row sources; qerpf - query execution row source: prefetch; qerpx - row source: parallelizer; qerrm - remote row source; qerse - row source: set implementation; qerso - sort row source; qersq - row source for sequence number; qerst  - query execution row sources: statistics; qertb - table row source; qertq  - table queue row source; qerua - row source : union-All;
qerup - update row source; qerus - upsert row source ; qervw - view row source; qerwn - WINDOW row source; qerxt - external table fetch row source

qes3t qesa qesji qesl qesmm qesmmc 

sqlexec/execsvc

run time support for sql execution

qkacon qkadrv qkajoi qkatab qke qkk qkn qkna qkne 

sqlexec/rwsalloc

SQL query dynamic structure allocation routines

qks3t 

sqlexec/execsvc

query execution service associated with temp table transformation

qksmm qksmms qksop 

sqllang/compsvc

qksmm -  memory management services for the SQL compiler; qksmms - memory management simulation services for the SQL compiler; qksop - query compilation service for operand processing

qkswc 

sqlexec/execsvc

support for temp table transformation associated for with clause.

qmf 

xmlsupp/util

support for ftp server; implements processing of ftp commands

qmr qmrb qmrs 

xmlsupp/resolver

support hierarchical resolver 

qms 

xmlsupp/data

support for storage and retrieval of XOBs

qmurs 

xmlsupp/uri

support for handling URIs

qmx qmxsax 

xmlsupp/data

qmx - xml support; qmxsax - support for handling sax processing

qmxtc 

xmlsupp/sqlsupp

support for ddl  and other operators related to the sql XML support

qmxtgx 

xmlsupp

support for transformation : ADT -> XML

qmxtsk 

xmlsupp/sqlsupp

XMLType support functions 

qsme 

summgmt/dict

summary management expression processing

qsmka qsmkz 

dict/dictlkup

qsmka - support to analyze request in order to determine whether a summary could be created that would be useful; qsmkz - support for create/alter summary semantic analysis 

qsmp qsmq qsmqcsm qsmqutl 

summgmt/dict

qsmp - summary management partition processing; qsmq - summary management dictionary access; qsmqcsm - support for create / drop / alter summary and related dimension operations; qsmqutl - support for summaries 

qsms 

summgmt/advsvr

summary management advisor

qxdid 

objsupp/objddl

support for domain index ddl operations

qxidm 

objsupp/objsql

support for extensible index dml operations

qxidp 

objsupp/objddl

support for domain index ddl partition operations

qxim 

objsupp/objsql

extensible indexing support for objects

qxitex qxopc qxope 

objsupp/objddl

qxitex - support for create / drop indextype; qxope - execution time support for operator  callbacks; qxope - execution time support for operator DDL

qxopq qxuag qxxm 

objsupp/objsql

qxopq - support for queries with user-defined operators; qxuag - support for user defined aggregate processing; qxxm - queries involving external tables 

rfmon rfra rfrdb rfrla rfrm rfrxpt 

drs

implements 9i data guard broker monitor 

rnm 

dict/sqlddl

manages rename statement operation

rpi 

progint/rpi

recursive procedure interface which handles the the environment setup where multiple recursize statements are executed from one top level statement

rwoima 

sqlexec/rwoprnds

row operand operations

rwsima 

sqlexec/rowsrc

row source implementation/retrieval according to the defining query

sdbima 

sqlexec/sort

manages and performs sort operation

selexe 

sqlexec/dmldrv

handles the operation of select statement execution

skgm 

osds

platform specific memory management rountines interfacing with O.S. allocation functions

smbima sor 

sqlexec/sort

manages and performs sort operation

sqn 

dict/sqlddl

support for parsing references to sequences

srdima srsima stsima 

sqlexec/sort

manages and performs sort operation

tbsdrv 

space/spcmgmt

operations for executing create / alter / drop tablespace and related supporting functions

ttcclr ttcdrv ttcdty ttcrxh ttcx2y 

progint/twotask

two task common layer which provides high level interaction and negotiation functions for Oracle client when communicating with the server.  It also provides important function of converting client side data / data types into equivalent on the server and vice versa

uixexe ujiexe updexe upsexe 

sqlexec/dmldrv

support for : index maintenance operations, the execution of the update statement and associated actions connected with update as well as the upsert command which combines the operations of update and insert

vop 

optim/vwsubq

view optimisation related functionality

xct 

txn/lcltx

support for the management of transactions and savepoint operations

xpl 

sqlexec/expplan

support for the explain plan command

xty 

sqllang/typeconv

type checking functions

zlke 

security/ols/intext

label security error handling component

 

ttcgcshnd-1

 Quote:

When using pre-9i Jdbc-Thin to talk to a 9i (or post-9i) database, youwill see an ORA-600 exception on almosteverything you do. eg: ORA-600[ttcgcshnd-1 ].

Workaround:  Set  event="10841 trace name contextforever"in the init.ora file

Quote:

PURPOSE:

This article discusses the internal error "ORA-600[ttcgcshnd-1]", what it means and possible actions. The information hereis only applicable to the versions listed and is provided only for guidance.ERROR:   ORA-600 [ttcgcshnd-1] [a]  VERSIONS:  versions 9.0 to 9.2

DESCRIPTION:

Oracle is checking that the local character set id is valid aspart   of the process to do characterdata conversions between different   character sets. This error is raised when the local character set id isfound to   be invalid.

ARGUMENTS:

Arg [a] Local character set id FUNCTIONALITY:

Two Task Common Convert type x to type y   client/server connect using JCBC Thin Driver

IMPACT:

PROCESS FAILURE   NON CORRUPTIVE- No underlying data corruption.

SUGGESTIONS:

Known Issues:    Bug# 1725012

See [NOTE:1725012.8]       OERI:ttcgcshnd-1using JDBC thin pre-9i to 9iimk database      Fixed: 8.1.7.2, 9.0.1.0

 

今天检查数据库告警日志,发现ora600错误,一身虚汗,经查证,这是Oracle9i的一个和JDBC Thin Driver有关的BUG,写出来给自己一个警示。通过如下设置:

event='10841 trace name context forever'

可以屏蔽这个ORA-00600错误.

SQL>show parameter event

NAME TYPE VALUE
------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
event string 10841 trace name context forever

4400

Errors in file /oracle/OraHome1/admin/hnstat/udump/hnstat_ora_4434.trc:

ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments: [4400], [48], [], [], [],[], [], []

6193

ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments:[6193], [4], [114], [12168], [28260],

 [], [],[]

错误原因:

1Direct path exportof a compressed table or partition

can fail with internal errors such as ORA-600[6193].

Workaround:

  Do NOTspecify DIRECT=Y on Export command line

  (ie:use conventional path)

2ORA-600 [6191] /ORA-600 [6193] can occur on DIRECT mode

EXPORT of a long row.

3Direct export of atable containing columns of type ROWID may

fail with ORA-600 [6193]

6191

ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments:[6191], [3], [12049], [28260], [], []

, [], []

Export Of Oracle Applications Release 11iDatabase Fails With ORA-600 [6191]

Problem Description:

Exporting the content of the database using theRDBMS export utility terminates prematurely with the following error:

EXP-8: ORACLE error 600 encountered

ORA-600: internal error code, arguments: [6191],[...], ...

The ORA-00600 error with the [6191] argumentcan also be observed in the tracefile, which also contains:

O/S info: user: oracle, term: , ospid:<OS-pid>, machine: <machine-name>

             program: exp@<TNS connect string) (TNS <version>

    lastwait for 'direct path read' blocking sess=... seq=... wait_time=...

               file number=..., first dba=..., block cnt=...

 

This shows the process was performing a DirectPath Export.

SolutionDescription

This is a fix available for customers runningRDBMS 8.1.7.3 on Solaris which can

requested from Support. For all otherconfigurations, there is no fix available

yet.

Workaround

Do not perform a Direct Path Export (using thedirect=y parameter).

12333

Errors in file /oracle/OraHome1/admin/hndw/udump/hndw_ora_17941.trc:

ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments: [12333], [10], [60], [57],[], [], []

, []

12333一般都是跟网络有关,跟数据库影响不大。也就是说一般不会影响数据库性能。

造成ORA-00600 [12333]的主要原因:
1、网络故障。
2、在低级别的传输中出现了丢包和接受的包错误的情况。
3、用户cancel
4、用户提交了错误的数据(这条可以基本否定,软件开发应当考虑了容错性)

我觉得应该检查一下你的网络

DocID:
Note:35928.1
Subject:ORA-600 [12333] "Fatal Two-Task Protocol Violation"
Type:REFERENCE
Status:PUBLISHED
ContentType: TEXT/PLAIN
CreationDate: 22-MAR-1996
LastRevision Date: 29-OCT-2002

Note:For additional ORA-600 related information please read [NOTE:146580.1]

PURPOSE:
Thisarticle discusses the internal error "ORA-600 [12333]", what
itmeans and possible actions. The information here is only applicable
tothe versions listed and is provided only for guidance.

ERROR:
ORA-600[12333][a][b][c][d][e]

VERSIONS:
Versions7.3.X to 9.X

DESCRIPTION:

Thereare now two basic usages of OERI(12333):

i.Usage with 3 additional numeric values

ii.Usage with 4 additional values ... new since 8.0.X

ORA-600[12333]is reported with three additional numeric values when a
requestis being received from a network packet and the request code in
thepacket is not recognized. The three additional values report the
invalidrequest values received.

Theerror may have a number of different root causes. For example, a
networkerror may have caused bad data to be received, or the client
applicationmay have sent wrong data, or the data in the network buffer
mayhave been overwritten. Since there are many potential causes of this
error,it is essential to have a reproducible testcase to correctly
diagnosethe underlying cause. If operating system network logs are
available,it is advisable to check them for evidence of network failures
whichmay indicate network transmission problems.

Thesecond form of the error is "ORA-600[12333][PTI][b][c][d]", which
maybe reported when parsing storage options on alter/create of various
databaseobjects. The b, c, d arguments identify a specific statement
typebeing parsed.

Thisform of the error indicates a problem in the sql parser. As common
functionsare used to parse the storage options of different database
objects,this error code is used as a semantic check that the parser has
notpassed options that are invalid for the statement being parsed.

Thereis no data corruption as a result of this error. The error results
ina process failure.

ARGUMENTS:
i.
Arg[a] TTI Layer Function code received
Arg[b] Function code
Arg[c] Sequence
ii.
Arg[a] PTI
Arg[b] prspo_proc_opts
Arg[c] statement type
Arg[d] check identification, e.g., INDEX

FUNCTIONALITY:
USER/ORACLEINTERFACE LAYER

IMPACT:
PROCESSFAILURE
NODATA CORRUPTION

SUGGESTIONS:
Checknetworking connections and NLS settings: [NOTE:77442.1].
Pleaseensure that the issue is reproducible before pursuing
withOracle Support Services.

KnownIssues:
Bug953506: CLIENTS EXPECTING ORA-1405/1406 MAY GET ORA-3106 OR OERI:12333
fixedin 8.0.6.2
Bug1273347: OERI:12333 CAN OCCUR
fixedin 8.1.6.2 and 8.1.7.0 releases
Bug709582: OERI:12333 DURING SHUTDOWM IMMEDIATE WHEN USING RMAN
fixedin 8.1.5.1 and 8.1.6.0 releases.

REFERENCES:
Note:77442.1ORA_NLS (ORA_NLS32, ORA_NLS33) Environment Variables.

字符集

看看字符集是否一致,我以前遇到过字符集不一致报这样的错

改了NLS_LANG和数据库字符集一致,今早还是报ORA-600错误,请高手帮忙分析一下,多谢各位了。
trace文件。

17069

Errors in file /oracle/OraHome1/admin/hndw/udump/hndw_ora_18079.trc:

ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments: [17069],[0xC00000027BDCF708], [], []

, [], [], [], []

17113

Errors in file /oracle/OraHome1/admin/hncrm/udump/hncrm_ora_24470.trc:

ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments: [17113], [0x000000000], [],[], [], [

], [], []

hp的人说是三方工具pl/sql developoracle版本不兼容,造成连接进程使用服务器内存有问题.

ORA-00942

 表或视图不存在

       原因:1.表或视图真的不存在 2.用户没有访问该表的权限。

ORA-01078: 处理系统参数失败

ORA-01438: value larger thanspecified precision allows for this column

ORA-01441: cannot decrease columnlength because some value is too big

ORA-01536: space quota exceeded fortablespace 'ODS'

ORA-01555: snapshot too old:rollback segment number 1 with name "_SYSSMU1$" too small

       ORA-01555的精彩解释

       1、在1点钟,有个用户A发出了select * fromtable1;此时不管将来table1怎么变化,正确的结果

        应该是用户A会看到在1点钟这个时刻的内容。这个是没有疑问的。

       2、在130分,有个用户B执行了update命令,更新了table1表中的第4000万行的这条记录,这时,

          用户A的全表扫描还没有到达第4000万条。毫无疑问,这个时候,第4000万行的这条记录是被写

          到了回滚段里去了的,我假设是回滚段RBS1,如果用户A的全表扫描到达了第4000万行,是应该

          会正确的从回滚段RBS1中读取出1点钟时刻的内容的。

       3、这时,用户B将他刚才做的操作commit了,但是这时,系统仍然可以给用户A提供正确的数据,

          因为那第4000万行记录的内容仍然还在回滚段RBS1里,系统可以根据SCN来到回滚段里找到正确的

          数据,但是大家注意到,这时记录在RBS1里的第4000万行记录已经发生了一点重大的改变:就是

          这个第4000万行的在回滚段RBS1里的数据有可能随时被覆盖掉,因为这条记录已经被提交了!!!

       4、由于用户A的查询时间漫长,而业务在一直不断的进行,RBS1回滚段在被多个不同的tracnsaction

          使用着,这个回滚段里的extent循环到了第4000万行数据所在的extent,由于这条记录已经被标记

          提交了,所以这个extent是可以被其他transaction覆盖掉的!

       5、到了140分,用户A的查询终于到了第4000万行,而这时已经出现了第4条说的情况,需要到回滚

          RBS1去找数据,但是已经被覆盖掉了,于是01555就出现了。

       以上只是我当初在看OCP书的时候,对这个01555的一个简单的理解,并同时可以理解书上说的解决

       ora-01555的问题的办法,当然可能还有其他的情况导致,我只举个例子。

ORA-08180: no snapshot found basedon specified time

ORA-27101: shared memory realm doesnot exist

       解决方法

              修改注册表中的键值LocalMechine\software\oracle\home0\ORACLE_SID为你的SID

              ID                                       0

              MSHELP_TOOLS                    D:\oracle\ora90\MSHELP

              NLS_LANG                            SIMPLIFIEDCHINESE_CHINA.ZHS16GBK

              ORA_HNDSS_AUTOSTART       TRUE

              ORA_HNDSS_PFILE                D:\oracle\ora90\database\initHNDSS.ora

              ORA_HNDSS_SHUTDOWN       TRUE

              ORA_HNDSS_SHUTDOWN_TIMEOUT      30

              ORA_HNDSS_SHUTDOWNTYPE       i

              ORACLE_BASE  D:\oracle

              ORACLE_BUNDLE_NAME  Enterprise

              ORACLE_GROUP_NAME          Oracle - OraHome90

              ORACLE_HOME              D:\oracle\ora90

              ORACLE_HOME_KEY       Software\ORACLE\HOME0

              ORACLE_HOME_NAME            OraHome90

              ORACLE_SID                         hndss

              RDBMS_ARCHIVE                   D:\oracle\ora90\DATABASE\ARCHIVE

              RDBMS_CONTROL                  D:\oracle\ora90\DATABASE

              SQLPATH                             D:\oracle\ora90\db

       描述

              刚在professionall装了9i,在sql*plussystem/manager连接能正常使用。

              过了一会儿再用就报错如下:

              SQL*Plus:Release 9.0.1.0.1 - Production on 星期三 2 18 08:32:40 2004            

              (c)Copyright 2001 Oracle Corporation.??All rights reserved.              

              ERROR

              ORA-01034:ORACLE not available

              ORA-27101:shared memory realm does not exist             

              记得当时重启后系统提示虚拟页面不足,重新分配了cd盘的虚拟页面,难道这也有问题???

              原因:

              原因是在同一个服务器上,使用了不同的ORACLE_HOME

              首先检查文件initSID.oralistener.ora等,看ORACLE_SIDORACLE_HOME设置的正确与否,ORACLE8.1.7是否用该参数值启动并运行。在UNIX环境中,字母大小写的意义是不一样的,这一点应当注意。如果ORACLE_HOME指向8.1.7版,而数据库是用8.1.6版或8.1.5版建立的,也可能出现该种错误信息。

              WINDOWS系统中,如果修改了机器名或IP地址,ORACLE8.1.7启动时使用的机器名或IP地址就不是真正的机器名或IP地址,就会出现该种错误。可以查看目录database下的文件oradim.log,根据内容确定原因     

ORA-01567

删除日志4时将在线索1中保留少于两个日志文件

ORA-01650

Unable to extend rollback segment

原因:没有足够的撤销空间用来处理所有活动事务

ORA-01555

Snapshot too old

原因:没有足够的撤销空间满足读一致性而需要撤销信息的长查询

ORA-07445

exception encountered: core dump [kqrprl()+136][SIGSEGV] [unknown co

de] [0x3D02B79CF23] [] []

 

07445, 00000, "exception encountered: coredump [%s] [%s] [%s] [%s] [%s] [%s]"

// *Cause: An OS exception occurred whichshould result in the creation of a

//        core file.  This is an internalerror.

// *Action: Contact your customer supportrepresentative.

ORA-27102

 out of memory HP-UX Error: 12: Not enoughspace           

ORA-30019: Illegal rollback Segmentoperation in Automatic Undo mode

ORA-30036: unable to extend segmentby 1024 in undotablespace 'UNDOTBS1'

TNS-12500

 

....系统资源耗竭,意味着系统分配给oracle的内存用尽了。虽然我们有4G的物理内存,但正常情况下系统只能给oracle分配2G的内存,这2G的内存中,包括了SGAPGAoracle需要使用的全部内存。在独占模式下,每一个session将单独分配2M左右的内存。在本例中,SGA分配了约600M,按每一个用户分配2M内存计算,连接数达到750个时,总分配内存已达到2G,将不能再增加新的连接数。如果要解决这个问题,在不做大的调整的前提下,要么减小SGA大小,要么减小为每一个会话分配的内存大小,以能连接更多的用户。

解决过程:

重置init.ora参数文件,调小以下四个参数的值:

....short_area_size
....hash_area_size
....bitmap_merge_area_size
....create_bitmap_area_seze
....open_cursone

调小SGA的大小

减小oracle Job队列数量(job_queue_processes)和并发队列数(parallel_max_servers)

重置并减小会话/线程使用的堆栈大小

oracle改为mts模式

6 使用intelESMA硬件支持,即使用大内存

..1) intel系统上使用 /3G开关

..2) 使用PSE36内存

 

1  TNS-12154 Error ORA-12154

特征:SQL*NET没有找到连接串或别名

原因1:(1)没有找到TNSNAMES.ORA文件,该文件的缺省路径为:

Windows 95/98 client

SQL*Net 2.x - ORAWIN95NETWORKADMIN

Net8 - ORAWIN95NET80admin

Net8i - ORACLEORA81NETWORKADMIN

 

Windows NT client

 

SQL*Net 2.x - ORANTNETWORKADMIN

Net8 - ORANTNET80ADMIN

Net8i - ORACLEORA81NETWORKADMIN

 

 

UNIX Client

 

$ORACLE_HOME/NETWORK/ADMIN

or          /etc

or          /var/opt/oracle

 

 

 . 在客户端设置TNS_ADMIN 

 

 

在注册表 HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESoftwareOracle 设置TNS_ADMIN.  TNS_ADMIN 指向TNSNAMES.ORA文件的位置

 

 

措施:按上述说明检查文件位置

 

 

 

原因2:(2TNSNAMES.ORA文件中内容格式不对

 

 

措施:检查文件格式,标准格式如下:

 

 

DEV1.WORLD =

         (DESCRIPTION =(ADDRESS_LIST =

 

 

               (ADDRESS =(PROTOCOL = TCP) (Host = 145.45.78.56) (Port = 1521) ) )

          (CONNECT_DATA = (SID =ORCL) ) )

 

 

原因3 (3) TNSNAMES.ORASQLNET.ORA不一致

 

 

措施: SQLNET.ORA格式如下:

 

 

TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT = OFF

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES = (NONE)

NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH = (TNSNAMES)

AUTOMATIC_IPC = OFF

 

 

因为没有NAMES.DEFAULT_DOMAIN=world,所以DEV1.WORLD连接串不能连接,可以在TNSNAMES.ORA中增加

 

 

DEV1 =

         (DESCRIPTION =(ADDRESS_LIST =

 

 

               (ADDRESS =(PROTOCOL = TCP) (Host = 145.45.78.56) (Port = 1521) ) )

          (CONNECT_DATA = (SID =ORCL) ) )

 

 

       此时可连接。

2       NL-00462 Error ORA-00462

 

 

特征:监听器无法启动

 

 

原因:LISTENER.ORA文件内容错误,例如,括号不匹配、参数名错误等、多余的空格等。

 

 

措施:重新编辑文件

 

 

3       NL-00405 Error ORA-00405

 

 

特征:LISTENER.ORA文件不可读或找不到

 

 

原因:LISTENER.ORA文件内容错误,例如,括号不匹配、参数名错误等、多余的空格等。

 

 

措施:确保文件位置在缺省目录下$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin,或设置环境变量TNS_ADMIN指向这个文件所在位置。

 

 

4       TNS-01155 Error ORA-01155

 

 

特征:LISTENER.ORA文件中SID_LIST_LISTENER变量赋值不对

 

 

原因:LISTENER.ORA文件内容错误,SID_LIST_LISTENER变量赋值不对。

 

 

措施:确保文件中赋值正确,$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/samples目录下有样例文件,可供参考。

 

5       TNS-12537 TNS-12560TNS-00507 Error

 

 

特征:LISTENER.ORA文件中引用了一个无效的协议适配程序

 

 

原因:LISTENER.ORA文件中PROCOTOL变量赋值不对。

 

 

措施:确保文件中赋值正确,一般用TCP协议,$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/samples目录下有样例文件,可供参考。用adapters tnslsnr检查协议程序

6       TNS-12203 Error

特征:不能与目标连接

原因:监听器是否启动;别名是否配置

措施:检查监听器是否启动,例如lsnrctl status;检查TNSNAMES.ORA的别名配置

7       TNS-12533 Error

特征:不能与目标连接

原因:非法的address参数,

措施:检查TNSNAMES.ORAADDRESS参数

1       ORA-12571ORA-03113ORA-03114ORA-01041

 

 

特征:客户端(代理或应用服务器)有时报这类断连错误

 

 

原因:如果偶尔出现一次,则可能为网络原因或用户异常中止,如果经常出现则为客户端与服务端的字符集不一致。

 

 

措施:如果偶尔出现,可在服务端的协议配置文件PROTOCOL.ORA中增加一行

 

 

TCP.NODELAY=YES

 

 

如果经常出现,则为客户端与服务端字符集不一致或网络原因。

 

 

客户端的字符集在注册表里定义:       HKEY__LOCAL__MACHINE/SOFTWARE/ORACLE/NLS__LANG

 

 

在客户端注册表中的TCP参数项中设置                                                                                  TCPMAXDATARETRANSMITIONS=20      

 

2       ORA-01000

 

 

特征:达到会话允许的最大游标数

 

 

原因:达到会话允许的最大游标数

 

 

措施:有两种解决方法:

 

 

1       在初始化文件INIT<SID>.ORA文件中增加OPEN_CURSORS的数量,一般要求大于200

 

 

2       在应用级,与开发工具有关,例如设置MAXOPEN_CURSORS等。

 

 

3       ORA-01545

 

 

特征:某个回滚段不可用

 

 

原因:(1)当使回滚段ONLINE时,但回滚段不可用,例如回滚段所在表空间OFFLINE;

 

 

     2 当使回滚段ONLINE时,但回滚段已ONLINE,例如回滚段被使用两次,典型的案例如OPS方式时,回滚段不能公有;

 

 

     3)删除回滚段时,回滚段中有活动的事务;

 

 

措施:(1)确保回滚段可

 

 

2)从 初始化文件INIT<SID>.ORA的参数ROLLBACK)SEGMENTS中删除指定的回滚段。

 

 

3       可以将回滚段所在表空间删除,取消UNDO事务

 

 

4       ORA-0165x

 

 

特征:表空间没有足够的空间供分配

 

 

原因:表空间已满;存储参数不合理,NEXT太小;没有连续的区间

 

 

措施:如果表空间已满,则需为表空间增加文件;如果存储参数不合理,则需增加INITIALNEXT;如果没有连续的区间,需要合并空闲的表空间。

 

 

      查看空间碎片用DBA_FREE_SPACE

 

 

5       ORA-01555

 

 

特征:当前会话无法读到以前版本的数据

 

 

原因:原因很多,主要原因有下列:回滚段太小、太少;回滚段冲突;交叉提交(FETCH_ACROSS)

 

 

措施:增加回滚段数量;

 

 

 

 

 

 

6       ORA-04031

 

 

特征:共享池内存区内存不够,或产生内存碎片

 

 

原因:当试图装载一个大包时或执行一个较大的存储过程时,而共享池没有连续的内存空间。

 

 

措施:如果是内存不够,则增加SHARE)POOL_SIZE

 

 

      如果是内存碎片,执行alter system flushshare_pool

 

 

7       ORA-04091

 

 

特征:触发器工作不正常

 

 

原因:一个行触发读取或修改变化的表(正在修改、插入)时,产生这种错误。

 

 

措施:检查触发器脚本,保证引用完整性

 

 

8       ORA-01242ORA-01113

 

 

特征:介质故障导致数据库宕机

 

 

原因:介质故障。

 

 

措施:检查硬件故障;修改dbshut脚本,将其中的STARTUP命令修改为:

 

 

              Startup openrecover

 

 

              Alter database open

 

并发性访问

insert into TEST values(5);

row exclusive锁,和row share相同,但也禁止用share方式加锁。

Create index idx_test on test(col1);

share锁,容许并发查询但禁止更新锁定的表

drop table test;

exclusive锁,

 

undo_retention参数表示数据在回滚段中保持的时间,默认为900,应该不会有问题的
还有在任何时间内,一个INSTANCE只能使用一个UNDO表空间,你建了其它的UNDO表空间,用到的只有一个

undo_retention作用的前提是undotablespace 足够大,否则已经提交的事务所占有的空间还是会被重用。这有可能导致ORA-01555错误和闪回查询的失败。

有一点提醒,无论参数怎么设置ORACLE都不会重用处于激活状态的undo空间(就是未提交事务占用的)。
你报UNDO空间不够,那么应该扩大undotablespace,或考虑你是不是有长时间未提交的事务

db_flashback_retention_target 参数是设定闪回数据的最长保存时间,单位是分钟,默认值是144060*24),即1天;

Undo_retention参数是设定前映像数据在undo表空间的最长保存时间,单位是秒,默认值是108003600*3),即3小时。

 

v$rollstat

v$undostat

v$transaction

dba_undo_extents

 

FAQ

如何限定特定IP访问数据库

可以利用登录触发器、cmgw或者是在$OREACLE_HOME/network/admin下新增一个protocol.ora文件(有些os可能是. protocol.ora),9i可以直接修改sqlnet.ora

  增加如下内容:

  tcp.validnode_checking=yes

  #允许访问的ip

  tcp.inited_nodes=(ip1,ip2,……)

  #不允许访问的ip

tcp.excluded_nodes=(ip1,ip2,……)

利用触发器限定IP

create table logcontrol

(IPDET VARCHAR2(15)

)

/

create table limitip

(

 IPDET VARCHAR2(15),

 NOTE  VARCHAR2(50)

)

/

create table yclogin

(

IPDET VARCHAR2(15),

attempdate date default sysdate

)

/

insert into logcontrol values('130.76.1.135');

insert into limitip values('130.76.1.135','接口数据库');

/

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER log_control                                            

AFTER logon ON DATABASE                                                          

declare                                                                          

  oname number(2);                                                               

  pragma autonomous_transaction;                                                 

begin                                                                            

if SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','IP_ADDRESS') is not null                               

then                                                                              

select count(*) into oname from logcontrol                                       

where trim(IPDET)=SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','IP_ADDRESS');                                 

  if oname<1 then                                                                 

  insert into ycloginvalues(SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','IP_ADDRESS'));               

  commit;                                                                        

   Raise_application_error(-20999,'ip访问限定,有需要请及时向系统管理员书面申请!!!');

   EXECUTE IMMEDIATE'DISCONNECT';                                               

  end if;                                                                        

end if;                                                                          

end;                      

 

如何穿过防火墙连接数据库

这个问题只会在WIN平台出现,UNIX平台会自动解决。

  解决方法:

  在服务器端的SQLNET.ORA应类似

  SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES= (NTS)

  NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH= (TNSNAMES, ONAMES, HOSTNAME)

  TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT = 16

  注册表的HOME0[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE]

  USE_SHARED_SOCKET=TRUE

如何利用hostname方式连接数据库

host name方式只支持tcp/ip协议的小局域网

  修改listener.ora中的如下信息

  (SID_DESC =

  (GLOBAL_DBNAME = ur_hostname) --你的机器名

  (ORACLE_HOME = E:\oracle\ora92) --oracle home

  (SID_NAME = orcl) --sid name

  )

  然后在客户端

  的sqlnet.ora中,确保有

  NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH= (HOSTNAME)

  你就可以利用数据库服务器的名称访问数据库了

dbms_repcat_admin能带来什么安全隐患

如果一个用户能执行dbms_repcat_admin包,将获得极大的系统权限。

  以下情况可能获得该包的执行权限:

  1、在sysgrant execute on dbms_repcat_admin to public[|user_name]

  2、用户拥有execute any procedure特权(仅限于9i以下,9i必须显示授权)

  如果用户通过执行如下语句:

  exec sys.dbms_repcat_admin.grant_admin_any_schema('user_name');

  该用户将获得极大的系统特权

可以从user_sys_privs中获得详细信息

 

在不知道用户密码的时候,怎么样跳转到另外一个用户执行操作后并不影响该用户?

我们通过如下的方法,可以安全使用该用户,然后再跳转回来,在某些时候比较有用

  需要Alter user权限或DBA权限:

  SQL> select password from dba_users where username='SCOTT';

  PASSWORD

  -----------------------------

  F894844C34402B67

  SQL> alter user scott identified by lion;

  User altered.

  SQL> connect scott/lion

  Connected.

  REM Do whatever you like...

  SQL> connect system/manager

  Connected.

  SQL> alter user scott identified by values 'F894844C34402B67';

  User altered.

  SQL> connect scott/tiger

  Connected.

如何加固你的数据库

要注意以下方面

  1. 修改sys, system的口令。

  2. Lock,修改,删除默认用户: dbsnmp,ctxsys等。

  3. REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT改成False,防止远程机器直接登陆。

  4. O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY改成False

  5. 把一些权限从PUBLIC Role取消掉。

  6. 检查数据库的数据文件的安全性。不要设置成666之类的。检查其他dba 用户。

  7. 把一些不需要的服务(比如ftp, nfs等关闭掉)

  8. 限制数据库主机上面的用户数量。

  9. 定期检查Metalink/OTN上面的security Alert。比如:http://otn.oracle.com/deploy/security/alerts.htm

  10. 把你的数据库与应用放在一个单独的子网中,要不然你的用户密码很容易被sniffer去。或者采用advance security,对用户登录加密。

  11. 限止只有某些ip才能访问你的数据库。

  12. lsnrctl 要加密码,要不然别人很容易从外面关掉你的listener

13. 如果可能,不要使用默认1521端口

如何检查用户是否用了默认密码

如果使用默认密码,很可能就对你的数据库造成一定的安全隐患,那么可以使用如下的查询获得那些用户使用默认密码

  select username "User(s) with Default Password!"

  from dba_users

  where password in

  ('E066D214D5421CCC', -- dbsnmp

  '24ABAB8B06281B4C',-- ctxsys

  '72979A94BAD2AF80',-- mdsys

  'C252E8FA117AF049', -- odm

  'A7A32CD03D3CE8D5',-- odm_mtr

  '88A2B2C183431F00', -- ordplugins

  '7EFA02EC7EA6B86F',-- ordsys

  '4A3BA55E08595C81', -- outln

  'F894844C34402B67',-- scott

  '3F9FBD883D787341',-- wk_proxy

  '79DF7A1BD138CF11',-- wk_sys

  '7C9BA362F8314299', -- wmsys

  '88D8364765FCE6AF', -- xdb

  'F9DA8977092B7B81', -- tracesvr

  '9300C0977D7DC75E',-- oas_public

  'A97282CE3D94E29E', -- websys

  'AC9700FD3F1410EB', --lbacsys

  'E7B5D92911C831E1',-- rman

  'AC98877DE1297365', -- perfstat

  '66F4EF5650C20355', -- exfsys

  '84B8CBCA4D477FA3', -- si_informtn_schema

  'D4C5016086B2DC6A', -- sys

  'D4DF7931AB130E37') -- system

/

如何修改默认的XDB监听端口

Oracle9i默认的XML DBHTTP的默认端口设为8080,这是一个太常用的端口了,很多别的WebServer都会使用这个端口,

  如果我们安装了它,最好修改一下,避免冲突,如果不使用呢,就最好不要安装

  提供三种修改的方法

  1.dbca,选择你的数据库,然后Standard Database Features->Customize->OracleXML DB option,进入这个画面你应该就知道怎么改了。

  2.OEM console,在XML Database 的配置里面修改

  3.oracle提供的包:

  -- HTTP/WEBDAV端口从8080改到8081

  SQL> call dbms_xdb.cfg_update(updateXML(dbms_xdb.cfg_get(),

  '/xdbconfig/sysconfig/protocolconfig/httpconfig/http-port/text()',8081))

  /

  -- FTP端口从2100改到2111

  SQL> call dbms_xdb.cfg_update(updateXML(dbms_xdb.cfg_get(),

  '/xdbconfig/sysconfig/protocolconfig/ftpconfig/ftp-port/text()',2111))

  /

  SQL> commit;

  SQL> exec dbms_xdb.cfg_refresh;

  -- 检查修改是否已经成功

SQL> selectdbms_xdb.cfg_get from dual;

怎么捕获用户登录信息,如SIDIP地址等

可以利用登录触发器,如

  CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER tr_login_record

  AFTER logon ON DATABASE

  DECLARE

  miUserSid NUMBER;

  mtSession v$session%ROWTYPE;

  CURSOR cSession(iiUserSid IN NUMBER) IS

  SELECT * FROM v$session

  WHERE sid=iiUserSid;

  BEGIN

  SELECT sid INTO miUserSid FROM v$mystat WHERE rownum<=1;

  OPEN cSession(miUserSid);

  FETCH cSession INTO mtSession;

  --if user exists then insert data

  IF cSession%FOUND THEN

  INSERT INTOlog$information(login_user,login_time,ip_adress,ausid,terminal,

  osuser,machine,program,sid,serial#)

  VALUES(ora_login_user,SYSDATE,SYS_CONTEXT ('USERENV','IP_ADDRESS'),

  userenv('SESSIONID'),

  mtSession.Terminal,mtSession.Osuser,

  mtSession.Machine,mtSession.Program,

  mtSession.Sid,mtSession.Serial#);

  ELSE

  --if user don't exists then return error

  sp_write_log('Session Information Error:'||SQLERRM);

  CLOSE cSession;

  raise_application_error(-20099,'Login Exception',FALSE);

  END IF;

  CLOSE cSession;

  EXCEPTION

  WHEN OTHERS THEN

  sp_write_log('Login Trigger Error:'||SQLERRM);

  END tr_login_record;

  在以上触发器中需要注意以下几点

  1、该用户有v_$sessionv_$mystat的对象查询权限,可以在sys下对该拥护显式授权。

  2sp_write_log原本是一个写日志的过程,可以置换为自己的需要,如null跳过。

  3、必须在创建该触发器之前创建一个log$information的表记录登录信息。

  

  [Q]怎么捕获整个数据库的DDL语句或者是说对象结构变化与修改

  [A]可以采用DDL触发器,如

  CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER tr_trace_ddl

  AFTER DDL ON DATABASE

  DECLARE

  sql_text ora_name_list_t;

  state_sql ddl$trace.ddl_sql%TYPE;

  BEGIN

  FOR i IN 1..ora_sql_txt(sql_text) LOOP

  state_sql := state_sql||sql_text(i);

  END LOOP;

  INSERT INTO ddl$trace(login_user,ddl_time,ip_address,audsid,

  schema_user,schema_object,ddl_sql)

  VALUES(ora_login_user,SYSDATE,userenv('SESSIONID'),

  sys_context('USERENV','IP_ADDRESS'),

  ora_dict_obj_owner,ora_dict_obj_name,state_sql);

  EXCEPTION

  WHEN OTHERS THEN

  sp_write_log('Capture DDL Excption:'||SQLERRM);

  END tr_trace_ddl;

  在创建以上触发器时要注意几点

  1、必须创建一个ddl$trace的表,用来记录ddl的记录

2sp_write_log原本是一个写日志的过程,可以置换为自己的需要,如null跳过。

怎么捕获表上的DML语句(不包括select)语句)

可以采用dml触发器,如

  CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER tr_capt_sql

  BEFORE DELETE OR INSERT OR UPDATE

  ON manager.test

  DECLARE

  sql_text ora_name_list_t;

  state_sql capt$sql.sql_text%TYPE;

  BEGIN

  FOR i IN 1..ora_sql_txt(sql_text) LOOP

  state_sql := state_sql || sql_text(i);

  END LOOP;

  INSERT INTOcapt$sql(login_user,capt_time,ip_address,audsid,owner,table_name,sql_text)

  VALUES(ora_login_user,sysdate,sys_context('USERENV','IP_ADDRESS'),

  userenv('SESSIONID'),'MANAGER','TEST',state_sql);

  EXCEPTION

  WHEN OTHERS THEN

  sp_write_log('Capture DML Exception:'||SQLERRM);

  END tr_capt_sql;

  在创建以上触发器时要注意几点

  1、必须创建一个capt$sql的表,用来记录ddl的记录

2sp_write_log原本是一个写日志的过程,可以置换为自己的需要,如null跳过。

限制一个用户空闲时间

alter system set resource_limit = true;

create profile idletime limit idle_time 3;

alter user outln profile idletime;

 

SQL> alter system set resource_limit = true;

系统已更改。

SQL> conn sys/sunsdl as sysdba

已连接。

SQL> create profile idletime limit idle_time 1;

配置文件已创建

SQL> alter user outln profile idletime;

用户已更改

 

SQL> conn outln/outln

已连接。

SQL>

SQL> set time on

15:14:26 SQL> ... 等待1分多钟

15:17:51 SQL> select sysdate from dual;

select sysdate from dual

*

ERROR 位于第 1 :

ORA-02396: 超出最大空闲时间,请重新连接

 

程序中没有关闭打开的数据连接。而且重复打开连接。inactive说明当前没有操作,不表示当前无连接。

我们知道,Oracle数据库中,可以通过kill session的方式来终止一个进程,其基本语法结构为:

alter system kill session 'sid,serial#';

inactive session是正常的,每个session不可能都是active

只是那些已异常退出的、但没有disconnect客户端,需要启动DCD,将其清除,往sqlnet.ora文件中添加sqlnet.timeout=xMin,重启listener即可

 

如何回收空间?

ALTERTABLE 名称 DEALLOCATE UNUSED [KEEP 4[M|K]]

1、当空间分配过大时,可以使用本命令
2
、如果没有加KEEP,回收到水线
3
、如果水线《MINEXTENTS的大小回收到MINEXTENTS所指定的大小

 

水线的定义?

1、水线定义了表的数据在一个BLOCK中所达到的最高的位置。
2
、当有新的记录插入,水线增高
3
、当删除记录时,水线不回落
4
、减少查询量

Sysdbasysoper的区别?

Sysdba是一个允许读者执行任何数据库任务的全能特权。Sysoper是一个威力次之的特权,它赋予了启动和关闭能力,但限制其他管理性任务

 

服务器的结构

当用户处理能够连接到数据库服务器的连接数量而又不增加物理资源时使用

Oracle sharedserver

影响共享服务器性能的因素

数据集合的大小

网络的速度

数据库服务器的速度

应用软件必须并发地支持的客户进程数量

调度程序进程负责服务客户请求,这些进程能够处理来自许多客户的请求。

共享服务器(oracle shared server)

 

配置一个Oracle共享服务器进程环境需要哪两项参数?

SHARED_SERVERSDISPATCHERS

 

PROTOCOL(proprot)

调度程序要监听的网络协议。这是唯一必需的属性

ADDRESS(ADD或者ADDR)

        指定调度程序正在上面作监听的那个端点的网络协议地址

CONNECTIONS(CON或者CONN)

        每个调度程序能负担的最大网络连接数量。默认值随操作系统而变化。

DESCRIPTION(DES或者DESC)

        调度程序正在上面作监听的那个端点的网络描述,其中包括正被监听的协议。

DISPATCHERS(DIS或者DISP)

        在实例启动时要启动的调度程序数量。默认值是1

LISTENER(LISLIST):

        PMON把连接信息发送到的那个监听器的地址。

SESSIONS(SERSERV)

        这个调度程序的最大容许网络会话数量,流行的默认值是16k.

SERVICE(SERSERV)

         调度程序向监听器注册的ORACLE net servicename。如果这个服务名被供给,调度程序把它注册给

 

service_names初始化参数中所列举的各个服务。

 

 

 

最大调度程序数:

    这是一个静态参数,即当改变该参数后需要关闭系统才能生效。 如果配置了调度程序,则默认值为下列两个数值中的较大者:5 或配置的调度程序数。

服务器进程数:

    这是一个动态参数。可以使用 ALTER SYSTEM 命令进行更改而无需关闭数据库。

     该参数指定启动例程时要创建的服务器进程数。实际的服务器进程数随时都在变化,并且在该值和指定的“最大服务器进程数”之间动态调整。任何时刻服务器进程数都不会低于该值,即使在负荷很低的情况下也是如此。

最大服务器进程数:     

     这是一个静态参数,即当改变该参数后需要关闭系统才能生效。 默认值为下列两个数值中的较大者:20 MAX_SERVERS 值的 2 倍。

MTS

MTS的组件包括:

processes on the system

communication software

the shared global section (SGA).

 

             SQL*Net                 SGA               SGA
 ----------          --------------       -----------       ----------
 | Client |<-------->| Dispatcher |<----->| Circuit |<----->| Shared |
 ----------          --------------       -----------       | Server |
                                               |            ----------
  'JSMITH'          'ORA_<sid>_D000'           |         'ORA_<sid>_S000'
                                          +---------+
                                          | Session |
                                          +---------+

 

复杂版本:

          SQL*Net(监听器)             SGA               SGA
 ----------          --------------       -----------       ----------
 | Client |<-------->| Dispatcher |<----->| Circuit |<----->| Shared |
 ----------          --------------       -----------       | Server |
                                               |            ----------
  'JSMITH'          'ORA_<sid>_D000'           |         'ORA_<sid>_S000'
                                          +---------+
                                          | Session |
                                          +---------+

 

Some views containing MTS information include:

V$CIRCUIT

控制为一个输入和输出网络会话所预测的虚拟电路的总数量。

V$SHARED_SERVER

 

V$DISPATCHER

V$MTS

V$QUEUE

V$SESSION

 

Dispatcher的数量从mts_dispatchers(init.ora)MTS_MAX_DISPATCHERS

共享服务器监控

1、  观察sga的使用情况

select * from v$sgastat wherepool=’large pool’;

2、  观察调度程序是否充足:

首先看每个调度程序的忙闲:

selectname,(busy*100)/(busy+idle) from v$dispatcher,如果高于50%则应该增加调度程度的个数。

然后观察整个对列中等待调度程序的等待时间:

select decode(sum(totalq),0,'Noresponse',sum(wait)/sum(totalq)) as "average wait time"

from V$QUEUE q,v$dispatcher d

where q.type='DISPATCHER'

  and q.paddr=d.paddr

3、  确定是否有足够的共享服务器

--selectpaddr,type,queued,wait,totalq,decode(totalq,0,0,(wait/totalq)) "AVGWAIT" from v$queue;

selectdecode(wait,0,'No Request',totalq)"Wait Time",round(Wait/totalq,4)||' hundredths of seconds' from v$queue WHERE type='COMMON'

       

数据库安全

Oracle的审计机制是用来监视用户对ORACLE数据库所做的各种操作。

在缺省情况下,系统的审计功能是关闭的。可以在INIT.ORA参数文件中将参数AUDIT_TRAIL设置为正整数来激活。

审计功能激活后,任何拥有表或视图的用户就可以进行如下审计操作:

 ·使用SQL语句来挑选审计选择项;

 ·审计对该用户所拥有的表或视图的成功或不成功的存取企图;

 ·有选择的审计各种类型的SQL操作(SELECTUPDATEINSERTDELETE);

 ·控制审计的程度(是以SESSION还是ACCESS为单位)。

 

8i

我想对某个用户的dml语句进行审计,

步骤如下:

1,在init文件中添加 AUDIT_TRAIL = DB或者audit_trail=db_extended

2audit delete table,insert table,update table by zx;

提示 :审计已成功

3SELECT * FROM DBA_STMT_AUDIT_OPTS;能看到有记录

4,重启数据库服务,以test用户登陆,操作数据

5,查看sys.aud$

 

create table agile.t(t number);

begin

dbms_fga.add_policy(

object_schema=>'AGILE',

object_name=>'T',

policy_name=>'T_INSERT',

audit_column=>'T',

statement_types=>'INSERT'

);

end;

SQL> insert i44o agile.t values(1);

1 row inserted

SQL> select * from dba_fga_audit_trail;

 

 

一次完整的审计
一。启动审计
    1. alter system set audit_trail=db scope=spfile;
    2. shutdown
    3. startup
二。设定审计
    audit update,insert
    on dqsi.ac01
    by access;
三。修改数据:
    update ac01 set aac003='
赵庆辉' where aac003='张三'
    commit;
   
换了另一台机器:
    update ac01 set aac003='
王五' whereaac003='赵庆辉'
    commit;
四。查看审计结果:
    SQL> select * from dba_audit_trail;

     OS_USERNAME                           
     -----------------------------------
     zhaoqh                               
     Administrator  

 

审计不成功的登陆、创建表、删除表、修改表、drop表,及其授权操作。

noaudit all;

noaudit all privileges;

audit session whenever not successful;

audit create any table, delete any table, drop any table, alter anytable by access ;

audit table by access ;

audit create user, alter user, drop user by access ;

audit grant table, grant procedure by access;

 

撤销所有审计:

noaudit all;

noaudit all privileges;

 

其它的看oracle的随机文档吧!我就不帮你查了!

 

审计的格式

audit table;

audit table by xxx(username);

audit table by xxx(username) whenever not successful;

系统表:

DBA_STMT_AUDIT_OPTS

stmt_audit_option_map

aud$

audit$

AUDIT_ACTIONS

dba_priv_audit_opts

有哪些审计项?

 

ACTION

NAME

0

UNKNOWN

1

CREATE TABLE

2

INSERT

3

SELECT

4

CREATE CLUSTER

5

ALTER CLUSTER

6

UPDATE

7

DELETE

8

DROP CLUSTER

9

CREATE INDEX

10

DROP INDEX

11

ALTER INDEX

12

DROP TABLE

13

CREATE SEQUENCE

14

ALTER SEQUENCE

15

ALTER TABLE

16

DROP SEQUENCE

17

GRANT OBJECT

18

REVOKE OBJECT

19

CREATE SYNONYM

20

DROP SYNONYM

21

CREATE VIEW

22

DROP VIEW

23

VALIDATE INDEX

24

CREATE PROCEDURE

25

ALTER PROCEDURE

26

LOCK

27

NO-OP

28

RENAME

29

COMMENT

30

AUDIT OBJECT

31

NOAUDIT OBJECT

32

CREATE DATABASE LINK

33

DROP DATABASE LINK

34

CREATE DATABASE

35

ALTER DATABASE

36

CREATE ROLLBACK SEG

37

ALTER ROLLBACK SEG

38

DROP ROLLBACK SEG

39

CREATE TABLESPACE

40

ALTER TABLESPACE

41

DROP TABLESPACE

42

ALTER SESSION

43

ALTER USER

44

COMMIT

45

ROLLBACK

46

SAVEPOINT

47

PL/SQL EXECUTE

48

SET TRANSACTION

49

ALTER SYSTEM

50

EXPLAIN

51

CREATE USER

52

CREATE ROLE

53

DROP USER

54

DROP ROLE

55

SET ROLE

56

CREATE SCHEMA

57

CREATE CONTROL FILE

59

CREATE TRIGGER

60

ALTER TRIGGER

61

DROP TRIGGER

62

ANALYZE TABLE

63

ANALYZE INDEX

64

ANALYZE CLUSTER

65

CREATE PROFILE

66

DROP PROFILE

67

ALTER PROFILE

68

DROP PROCEDURE

70

ALTER RESOURCE COST

71

CREATE SNAPSHOT LOG

72

ALTER SNAPSHOT LOG

73

DROP SNAPSHOT LOG

74

CREATE SNAPSHOT

75

ALTER SNAPSHOT

76

DROP SNAPSHOT

77

CREATE TYPE

78

DROP TYPE

79

ALTER ROLE

80

ALTER TYPE

81

CREATE TYPE BODY

82

ALTER TYPE BODY

83

DROP TYPE BODY

84

DROP LIBRARY

85

TRUNCATE TABLE

86

TRUNCATE CLUSTER

91

CREATE FUNCTION

92

ALTER FUNCTION

93

DROP FUNCTION

94

CREATE PACKAGE

95

ALTER PACKAGE

96

DROP PACKAGE

97

CREATE PACKAGE BODY

98

ALTER PACKAGE BODY

99

DROP PACKAGE BODY

100

LOGON

101

LOGOFF

102

LOGOFF BY CLEANUP

103

SESSION REC

104

SYSTEM AUDIT

105

SYSTEM NOAUDIT

106

AUDIT DEFAULT

107

NOAUDIT DEFAULT

108

SYSTEM GRANT

109

SYSTEM REVOKE

110

CREATE PUBLIC SYNONYM

111

DROP PUBLIC SYNONYM

112

CREATE PUBLIC DATABASE LINK

113

DROP PUBLIC DATABASE LINK

114