英语基础语法汇总

目录

学习笔记:... 2

英语的五种基本句式... 2

be 动词... 2

代词... 3

反身代词... 4

实意动词... 5

用疑问词提问和回答... 6

名词... 7

动词... 8

形容词... 9

助动词... 9

副词... 10

不定量表达法... 10

There be 句型... 13

一般将来时态... 15

完成时态... 16

情态动词... 16

Had better/would rather. 17

Used to/ would 过去常常... 18

情态动词的疑问和否定。... 18

情态动词+一般完成时... 19

被动语态... 20

被动语态的一般疑问句... 20

被动语态的特殊疑问句:... 21

非谓语动词... 22

形式主语/宾语... 22

To do不定式表目的... 23

常见不定式和动名词... 23

动词的现在分词  Ving. 24

使役动词... 25

感官动词... 26

一般现在时的假设... 26

与现在事实相反的虚拟语气... 26

定语从句... 28

宾语从句:... 29 

比较级和最高级... 30                                                                                          

 

 

学习笔记:

英语的五种基本句式

Sv           (主谓)

Svp     (主系表)

Svo           (主谓宾)

SvoO        (主谓宾宾)

Svoc         (主谓宾补)

 

be 动词

1.    be动词的形式

be, is, am, are, was, were, being, been

ex:

      the man is back.

      The man was back.

      He was back.

      They have been back.

2.    Be 动词的用法

      后面接名词,形容词地点副词或短语,作为补足语

      1、The  man is a teacher .

2、Mary’s  new dress are colorful.

3.    Be 动词的否定

      The man is not back.

      I am not back.

4.    Be 动词的提问和回答

Ex:

Is he a teacher?    Yes he is/no he isn’t

Are you a teacher?  Yes I am /no I am not

Were they in the classroomyesterday?  回答同上

 

代词

主格:I , you, he, she, it, we, they

宾格:me, you, her, him, it, us, them

Ex: they known him.

形容词性物主代词: your, my, her, his, it’s, one’s, our, their

      Ex: this is my book.

      名词性物主代词:mine, yours, his/hers/it’s, one’s, ours, yours, theirs.

      Ex:

the book is ours.

      The apple is hers.

     

主格

宾格

形容词性代词

名词性代词

I

Me

My

Mine

You

You

Your

Your

She

Her

Her

Hers

He

Him

His

His

It

It

It’s

It’s

We

Our

Our

Ours

They

Them

Their

Their’s

 

反身代词

单数:Yourself, myself, herself, himself,itself.

复数:yourselves, ourselves, themselves.

Ex:

      1、Please help yourself to some fish.

      2、We enjoyed ourselves last night.

      3、The thing itself is not important.

   4、Take good care of yourself.

 

实意动词

动词有数量和时态上的变化

Come,  read, go, watch,  play

Ex: he comes from Shanghai.

 

实意动词的否定、疑问(使用助动词进行否定)

助动词:

1、      am,is, are, was, were(帮助变为进行时态、被动语态)

2、      do,does, did(帮助句子变为疑问,否定,和强调)

3、      has,have(变为现在完成时态)

4、      had(帮助变过去完成时态和虚拟语气的倒装)

5、      will, shall(帮助变为一般将来时态)

6、      would,should(帮助变为过去将来时态)

7、      begoing to(帮助句子变为一般将来时态)

 

ex:

      they have already left

      they have already been repaired

      I don’t go to school by bus.

      He didn’t swim last night.

使用助动词对含有实意动词的句子提问和回答

Ps:助动词提前构成疑问句,动词还原。

Ex:

      He often plays golf.

Does he often play golf?

      Yes he dose/no he doesn’t

 

用疑问词提问和回答

疑问词: when ,  where,  what, how,  who

Ex:

1.    he bought three books last night.

2.    Who bought three books last night.

3.    What did he buy last night.

4.    When did he buy three books.

 

疑问词:  how long,  how far, how often, why

Ex:

They have been China for three years.

How long they have been in China.

They come to visit me once a week.

How often do they come to visit me.

She comes late, because she missed bus.

Why did she come late.

 

How long have they learned English.

How often do you watch movies.

How far is it from your house to your school.    

 

名词

分为可数名词和不可数名词

可数名词变复数的规则:

1、一般情况:在结尾加s   ex: friend->friends

2、以s, z, x, ch, sh.结尾的词,在该次的结尾上后缀-es

      Ex: bus->buses.

3、以辅音字符加y结尾的单词改y为i 再加上-es

      Ex: candy->candies

 

指示代词和不定代词

1、      指示代词:标识人或物的代词用来替代前面已经出现过的词。This(these),  that(those)

Ex:this is his book

2、      不定代词:指定不确定的人或事物,常用指示代词:one, the other, some, any,something, nothing.

Ex:

no one knows where he is.

This teacher is from china.

I know nothing about this person

动词

1.     动词的过去式与过去分词

动词的过去式是一个动词,单独作谓语。不能与助动词、情态动词连用。它的词性与动词的第三人称单数一样。 
而动词的过去分词是动词动词的过去式是一个动词,单独作谓语。不能与助动词、情态动词连用。它的词性与动词的第三人称单数一样。 
而动词的过去分词是动词的一种非谓语形式,也叫非限定性动词。不能独立作谓语,只能与助动词一起构成谓语。
如:“have/has/had +过去分词”构成完成时态;“be+过去分词”构成被动语态等。
它相当于一个形容词或副词,在句中起一个形容词或副词的作用,可作表语、定语、补语等。
它的作用与现在分词doing类似。过去分词表的意义是被动或完成。 
而过去式和过去分词最主要的区别是:过去式是一个动词,而过去分词是一个动词的非谓语形式,相当于一个形容词或副词的一种非谓语形式,也叫非限定性动词。
不能独立作谓语,只能与助动词一起构成谓语。如:“have/has/had +过去分词”构成完成时态;“be+过去分词”构成被动语态等。
它相当于一个形容词或副词,在句中起一个形容词或副词的作用,可作表语、定语、补语等。它的作用与现在分词doing类似。
过去分词表的意义是被动或完成。 而过去式和过去分词最主要的区别是:过去式是一个动词,而过去分词是一个动词的非谓语形式,相当于一个形容词或副词。
 

2.    动词的用法

四类:系动词,实意动词,情态动词,助动词

      动词有数量时态的变化:分过去现在将来三大时态。

Ex:

      He goes to school every day.。

 

 

形容词

形容词位于名词前 be 动词后

The+形容词=复数名词 表示一类人

Old->theold 

Young->theyoung

Ex : The old need more care than the young

The rich sometimes complain their empty life

 

 

助动词

1、      am,is, are, was, were(帮助变为进行时态,被动语态)

2、      do,does, did(帮助句子变疑问句,否定,强调)

3、      has,have(帮助句子变为现在完成时态)

4、      had(帮助句子变成过去完成时态)

5、      will,shall (帮助变为一般将来时)

6、      would,should(帮助句子变为过去将来时)

7、      be going to(帮助句子变为一般将来时态)

副词

修饰动词,形容词,副词等其他成分

Ex:

      He runs fast.

      She is very beautiful.

      They work very hard.

副词放在助动词后,多个助动词副词一般放在第一个助动词后

Ex:

They have already been repaired

 

常用的频度副词:always, usually, often, sometimes, never.一般放置在动词前,be动词后。助动词和实意动词之间。

 

不定量表达法

1、      Some、any,  most, every, all

Some 主要用于肯定(名词可数用复数,不可数用单数)   any 主要用在疑问句中

           Some 大部分 +可/不可数名词

           Every 每一个接单数

           All 接可数名词复数 和 不可数名词

Ex;

      All the cars are parked in the parking lot

      All the coffee is served on time

2、      both, either,neither.

Both his eyes were severely burned

Neither answer is correct

3、      much 接不可数名词,many 接可数名词。A lot of 都可以修饰。

ex:

many books much water.

boththe hands are washed.

Xiaoming drink much coffee last night.

4、a few 几个肯定 few否定 翻译为“没几个”+可数名词复数形式

      A few books are put into the box

      Few books are put into the box

5、a little 肯定一点儿 Litter否定 没多点

Ex;

      There is a little water in the bottle

      There is little water in the bottle.

6、none, 可以接of短语动词可用单复数, no one动词只能是单数,都翻译为一点也不

No one knows the answer.

None of us have(has) arrived

 

 

一般现在时和现在进行时

1、一般现在时态(谓语动词有三单变化)

EX:

They often get up at 7:00

He often gets up at 7:00

3、      动词的三单变化

A.    直接加s  EX:paly->palys

B.     一字母s, x, ch,或o 结尾的动词加-es   EX:guess->guesses

C.    以辅音字母加y结尾的动词,先变y为i再加-es

Ex:study->studies

一般现在时的否定用do does帮助构成

      Ex:

      He doesn’t like this car.

      Does he like the car?

      Yes he does/no he doesn’t

2、现在进行时 be +doing

      Ex:

      Thy are watching TV

      He is watching TV

      现在分词的变化

      Work->working, take->taking,cut->cutting(重度闭音节结尾)

 

      现在进行时变否定和疑问句式,将be 动词否定和提前.

They aren’t  watching TV

Are they watching TV?

 

Ex:

He works very late every day.

Do you study English yourself.

 

There be 句型

1.    There be 记性表示某处存在某人或某物。

 

There is + 单数名词/不可数名词+地点状语

There are +复数名词+地点状语

There 是引导词不充当任何成分,翻译时不译,其be动词跟谁某人或某物的变化而变化,主语是两个或者两个以上的名词时,谓语动词要与它最近的那个名词一致。(就近原则)

Ex: there is a bird in the tree.

      There is a teacher and many students in our classroom

      There are two boys and a girl under the tree.

 

2.    There be /have 的区别

都表示有的含义;

Have 表示某人拥有某物、某人

Ex:

      He has two sons.

      There are two men in the office.

一般过去时和过去进行时。

1.    动词的一般过去时态的变化。(动词过去式)

      Ex: play-> played  直接加ed

      Like->liked 以e结尾直接加d

      Supply->supplies 以辅音字母加+y结尾的动词改y为i再加es

      Plan->planed 以重读闭音节(辅音音节)双写最后一个辅音字母再加ed

      格式: 主语+动词过去式+其他

Ex:  he worked very hard last night

 

过去进行时态 was/were +doing

Ex:

      There are waiting for you.

      He was talking with his friend just now.

      They went swimming yesterday.

 

一般将来时态

Will/ shall + 动词原形表示将要发生的事情

Ex:

      They will go to Shanghai by ship tomorrow

Begoing to + 动词原形意为打算,将要。

      They are going to play football thisafternoon

      She is going to lean French next year

 

 

表示位移的动词用现在进行时表将来ex; go , come , leave, start, arrive.

Ex:

      They are leaving for Japan.

      She is arriving tomorrow.

      They are coming here soon

完成时态

1.    现在完成时态 have/has + 过去式

      时间状语:already, yet(还,已经)

      They have already arrived in Shanghai.

      She has played soccer for 3 hours.

      She hasn’t finished the homework yet

 

2.    过去完成时态 had +过去式

Ex:

      They had arrived in Shanghai.

 

情态动词

1、      can/could/may/might/might/beable to

can 表示现在could表示过去 都译为可能

          he can /could/is able to swim.

           Can/could I stay here.

           She could speak French before, butnow she can’t

 

2、      should/oughtto/must (have to)

must表主观, have to(客观)

ex:

you mustn’tgo   你不许去

you don’thave to go 你没必要去。

Should表示劝告,建议,命令.

Ex:should they stay here now.

3、      need(don’t have to)需要

need 可以做情态动词和实意动词。

Ex:

  He need come here early

  He needn’t come here early

 

做实意动词时。

1、      He needs to come here early.

2、      He doesn’tneed to come here early.

3、      Must Icome here early tomorrow?

No youneedn’t .

 

Had better/would rather  

Had better+接动词原形“最好做某事”

Ex :

      He had better eat more

      Youhad better finish it right now.

Would rather 表示宁愿,宁可,最好,还是……为好。

You would rather deal with it now.

否定 had better not + 动词原形

    Would rather not + 动词原形

Ex: I would rather not say it (我还是不说为好)。

 

Used to/ would 过去常常

Used to 表示过去的状态或者情况,现在不是,习惯性的

Would表示习惯性发生的动作,可能再次发生。

 

Ex;

      He would practice English every week.

      I used to live in Beijing.

      He would to go to the park as soon as hewas free.

 

情态动词的疑问和否定。

      情态动词+not + 动词原形。

Ex:

      He can’t sing an English song

      He doesn’t have to go there.

  情态动词的提问。

           情态动词+主语+动词原形。

Ex:

1、      can hesing an English song?

Yes he can.

2、      Musthe go there

No ,he needn’t .

 

 

情态动词+一般完成时

两个含义1、表达过去的事实。2、推测的含义(但助动词should例外)

Ex;

 He can/could have arrived.

 He must have arrived.

Should+have+pp 本应该做却没做。

Needn’t have +pp (本不需要做却做了)

Ex:

      He should have arrived

      They should have finished the work.

   Must have +pp (肯定做了某事)

      Can’thave +pp(不可能做了某事)

 

 

被动语态

1、

Ex: he is taken to America by his mother.

The information is needed by us.

The book was being read by him.

The computer gas been used by her.

The room will be cleaned.

2、动作的行为不分明,或者不重要或上下文中提到了的行为者“by+行为者”可以省略。

      Ex:

1、     The information is needed.

2、     The book is being read.

被动语态的一般疑问句

助动词+主语+(其他助动词)+动词的过去分词。

      Ex:

      Is the information needed by him?

           Yes, it is/ no, it isn’t

      Will the room be cleaned?

      Yes, it is/no, it won’t

 

被动语态的特殊疑问句:

疑问句+助动词+主语+(其他助动词)+动词过去分词~?

Ex:

      The information is needed by them.

      What is needed by them?

 

      The girl is taken to Shanghai.

      Where is the girl taken?

 

      The book has been read three times.

      How many times has the book been read?

      Is the book being read by her?

      Has the computer been used by them?

      How often is the English class taken?

 

非谓语动词

         To+动词原形     动词原形+ing

      To do 不定式可以做很多成分。

      Ex:

To get there by bike will take us an hour.

The driver failed to see the car in time

宾补:

We believe him to be guilty.

定语:

The next train to arrive is from Seoul.

 

 

形式主语/宾语

不定式/动名词的否定

To do 做主语一般用It 做形式主语.

It’s a great honor to be invited.

形式宾语:

We think it important to learn English.

I found it pleasant walking in the park.

 

动名词的否定在名词前加not

He pretended not to see her.

 

 

To do不定式表目的

In order to +v 表示目的的可以放在句首(逗号隔开),与句尾。

So as to 引导目的状语从句,放置于句尾。

 

I have written it down in order to remember it.

 

他们的否定形式在to 前面加not

He said nothing so as not to be noticed.

He wrote it down not to forget it.

 

 

 

常见不定式和动名词

Too......to 太某某以至于

The room is to small to live.

 

Enough+ n+to+v

      Adj+enough+to+v  足够……可以 ……

There is enough food to eat

The box is big enough to contain six apples.

 

On–ing 一……就

On seeing the snake,the girl was very frightened

 

There is no hope of ----ing 没希望。

There is no hope of seeing him

Feel like ---ing 想要

I feel like  ---ing(想要)

I feel like eating ice cream now.

Have a hard time ---ing 做…… 很艰难.

They have a hard time solving the problem themselves.

 

 

 

动词的现在分词  Ving

Writing books is his job

He is writing a book.

 

动词的过去分词pp (用在完成时和被动语态)

He has written the homework.

The students went out of classroom, laughing and talking.

 

 

使役动词

1、Have, make, let做使役动词

构成形式为:

Have/make/let + 宾语+ 动词

He made me laugh

I let him go

Please have him come here (让他来这)

 

2、get 和 help都是使役动词

      Get 格式: get + 宾语+to+v

      Help的格式:help+宾语+(to)+v

I can’t get anyone to do the work properly.

I helped him(to) repair the car.

 

 

3、所有的使役动词+宾语+过去分词“表示”让某人/某物被别人……

      I must get my hair cut

      He couldn’t make himself heard.

      Can you get the work finished in time?

 

 

感官动词

      See/watch/observe/notice/hear/smell/taste/feel+宾语+动词原形/现在分词

+动词原形表示动作的真实性。

+现在分词表示动作的连续性,进行性。

Ex:

      I saw him work in the garden yesterday.

 

一般现在时的假设

If引导的从句通常译为“如果……”。置于句首逗号隔开,置于句尾无需

If you get up early, you will catch up with the train

If you ask him, he will help you.

 

 

与现在事实相反的虚拟语气  

从句:动词过去式(be动词用were)

主句:would/could/should/might+动词原形

主将从现

Ex:

      If I were you, I would join them.

      She would come with you if you invitedher.

      If I had any money with me, I would lendyou some.

 

与过去事实相反的虚拟语气

从句:had + 动词过去分词

主句: would/could/should/might+have+动词过去式

Ex:

      If I had got there earlier I should havemet her.

      If he had studies harder, he might havepassed the exam.

 

Wish/asif + 一般过去/过去完成时

      “希望……就好了”,是不可能实现的假设。

Ex:与现在事实相反的愿望:

      I wish I were as tall as you(一般过去时)

Ex:与过去事实相反的愿望:

      I wished he hadn’t said that(过去完成时态)

Ex:将来不太可能实现的愿望

      I wish it would rain tomorrow

 

Asif 翻译为“看起来好像……”

Ex:

      You look as if you didn’t care.

从句表示与过去事实相反

      He talks about Rome as if he had beenthere before.

与将来事实相反

      He opened his mouth as if he would saysomething.

     

 

 

条件状语从句

主句

与过去事实相反

Had+过去分词

Should/…Have+过去分词

与现在事实相反

一般过去时(be用were)

…+动词原形

与将来事实相反

Should(were to)+动原

…+动词原形

 

定语从句

         (that, who, which, whom)

       定语从句在句子中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词叫先行词,其后的从句就是定语从句由关系词引出

关系词:that, who, which, whom, whose.

The girl whom/that I spoke to is my cousin.

Whom作宾语who, that既可以作主语也可以做宾语。

They are the people that/who were seen yesterday.

Which,that在从句中可作主语和宾语作宾语时可以省略。

This is the chair whose legs were broken

 

引导词

先行词

在从句中所做的成分

Who

主语或宾语

Whom

宾语

Which

主语或宾语

That

人或物

主语或宾语

whose

人或物

定语

When

时间

状语

where

地点

状语

why

Reason

状语

 

Ex:

      We don’t know the reason why he didn’t showup.

      We will put off the picnic until next week, when the weather may be better.

We don’t know the place where he lives.

 

宾语从句:

在句子中起到宾语作用的从句。

从属连词:that if whether

连接代词:who,whom,whose,what

连接副词:when,where,why,how.

Ex:

      He said that he was there yesterday.

      He doesn’t know if/whether he was there.

      Do you know who has won the game?

      Do you know whom he likes?

      Do you know whose book it is?

 

      He wants to know when the party is.

      He wants to know where the party is.

      He wants to know why they have a party.

      He wants to know how the come.

 

比较级和最高级

         形容词和副词通常有比较级

      Hard->harder->the hardest.

      Nice->nicer->the nicest

      Dry->drier->the driest

 

以辅音结尾的重读闭音节时,双写最后一个字母,加“er”,“est”.    

Hot->hotter->hottest.

加上more或less表示更多或者更少。

不规则变化:

      Good->better->the best

      Many->more->the most.

 

Ex:

      He is taller than his brother.

      The book is more expensive than pen.

      He is the tallest in his class.

      The book is the most expensive of thethree.

 

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