be 动词... 2
There be 句型... 13
Had better/would rather. 17
Used to/ would 过去常常... 18
To do不定式表目的... 23
动词的现在分词 Ving. 24
be, is, am, are, was, were, being, been
the man is back.
The man was back.
He was back.
They have been back.
2. Be 动词的用法
1、The man is a teacher .
2、Mary’s new dress are colorful.
3. Be 动词的否定
The man is not back.
I am not back.
4. Be 动词的提问和回答
Is he a teacher? Yes he is/no he isn’t
Are you a teacher? Yes I am /no I am not
Were they in the classroomyesterday? 回答同上
主格：I , you, he, she, it, we, they
宾格：me, you, her, him, it, us, them
Ex: they known him.
形容词性物主代词： your, my, her, his, it’s, one’s, our, their
Ex: this is my book.
名词性物主代词：mine, yours, his/hers/it’s, one’s, ours, yours, theirs.
the book is ours.
The apple is hers.
单数：Yourself, myself, herself, himself，itself.
复数：yourselves, ourselves, themselves.
1、Please help yourself to some fish.
2、We enjoyed ourselves last night.
3、The thing itself is not important.
4、Take good care of yourself.
Come, read, go, watch, play
Ex: he comes from Shanghai.
1、 am,is, are, was, were(帮助变为进行时态、被动语态)
2、 do,does, did（帮助句子变为疑问，否定，和强调）
5、 will， shall（帮助变为一般将来时态）
7、 begoing to（帮助句子变为一般将来时态）
they have already left
they have already been repaired
I don’t go to school by bus.
He didn’t swim last night.
He often plays golf.
Does he often play golf?
Yes he dose/no he doesn’t
疑问词: when , where, what, how, who
1. he bought three books last night.
2. Who bought three books last night.
3. What did he buy last night.
4. When did he buy three books.
疑问词： how long, how far, how often, why
They have been China for three years.
How long they have been in China.
They come to visit me once a week.
How often do they come to visit me.
She comes late, because she missed bus.
Why did she come late.
How long have they learned English.
How often do you watch movies.
How far is it from your house to your school.
1、一般情况：在结尾加s ex: friend->friends
2、以s, z, x, ch, sh.结尾的词，在该次的结尾上后缀-es
1、 指示代词：标识人或物的代词用来替代前面已经出现过的词。This(these), that(those)
Ex:this is his book
2、 不定代词：指定不确定的人或事物,常用指示代词：one, the other, some, any,something, nothing.
no one knows where he is.
This teacher is from china.
I know nothing about this person
而动词的过去分词是动词的一种非谓语形式，也叫非限定性动词。不能独立作谓语，只能与助动词一起构成谓语。 如：“have/has/had +过去分词”构成完成时态；“be+过去分词”构成被动语态等。 它相当于一个形容词或副词，在句中起一个形容词或副词的作用，可作表语、定语、补语等。 它的作用与现在分词doing类似。过去分词表的意义是被动或完成。 而过去式和过去分词最主要的区别是：过去式是一个动词，而过去分词是一个动词的非谓语形式，相当于一个形容词或副词的一种非谓语形式，也叫非限定性动词。 不能独立作谓语，只能与助动词一起构成谓语。如：“have/has/had +过去分词”构成完成时态；“be+过去分词”构成被动语态等。 它相当于一个形容词或副词，在句中起一个形容词或副词的作用，可作表语、定语、补语等。它的作用与现在分词doing类似。 过去分词表的意义是被动或完成。 而过去式和过去分词最主要的区别是：过去式是一个动词，而过去分词是一个动词的非谓语形式，相当于一个形容词或副词。
He goes to school every day.。
形容词位于名词前 be 动词后
Ex : The old need more care than the young
The rich sometimes complain their empty life
1、 am,is, are, was, were(帮助变为进行时态，被动语态)
2、 do,does, did(帮助句子变疑问句，否定，强调)
5、 will,shall (帮助变为一般将来时)
7、 be going to(帮助句子变为一般将来时态)
He runs fast.
She is very beautiful.
They work very hard.
They have already been repaired
常用的频度副词：always, usually, often, sometimes, never.一般放置在动词前，be动词后。助动词和实意动词之间。
1、 Some、any, most, every, all
Some 主要用于肯定（名词可数用复数，不可数用单数） any 主要用在疑问句中
Some 大部分 +可/不可数名词
All 接可数名词复数 和 不可数名词
All the cars are parked in the parking lot
All the coffee is served on time
2、 both， either，neither.
Both his eyes were severely burned
Neither answer is correct
3、 much 接不可数名词，many 接可数名词。A lot of 都可以修饰。
many books much water.
boththe hands are washed.
Xiaoming drink much coffee last night.
4、a few 几个肯定 few否定 翻译为“没几个”+可数名词复数形式
A few books are put into the box
Few books are put into the box
5、a little 肯定一点儿 Litter否定 没多点
There is a little water in the bottle
There is little water in the bottle.
6、none, 可以接of短语动词可用单复数， no one动词只能是单数，都翻译为一点也不
No one knows the answer.
None of us have(has) arrived
They often get up at 7:00
He often gets up at 7:00
A. 直接加s EX:paly->palys
B. 一字母s, x, ch,或o 结尾的动词加-es EX:guess->guesses
He doesn’t like this car.
Does he like the car?
Yes he does/no he doesn’t
2、现在进行时 be +doing
Thy are watching TV
He is watching TV
They aren’t watching TV
Are they watching TV?
He works very late every day.
Do you study English yourself.
There be 句型
1. There be 记性表示某处存在某人或某物。
There is + 单数名词/不可数名词+地点状语
There are +复数名词+地点状语
Ex: there is a bird in the tree.
There is a teacher and many students in our classroom
There are two boys and a girl under the tree.
2. There be /have 的区别
He has two sons.
There are two men in the office.
Ex: play-> played 直接加ed
Ex: he worked very hard last night
过去进行时态 was/were +doing
There are waiting for you.
He was talking with his friend just now.
They went swimming yesterday.
Will/ shall + 动词原形表示将要发生的事情
They will go to Shanghai by ship tomorrow
Begoing to + 动词原形意为打算，将要。
They are going to play football thisafternoon
She is going to lean French next year
表示位移的动词用现在进行时表将来ex; go , come , leave, start, arrive.
They are leaving for Japan.
She is arriving tomorrow.
They are coming here soon
1. 现在完成时态 have/has + 过去式
They have already arrived in Shanghai.
She has played soccer for 3 hours.
She hasn’t finished the homework yet
2. 过去完成时态 had +过去式
They had arrived in Shanghai.
1、 can/could/may/might/might/beable to
can 表示现在could表示过去 都译为可能
he can /could/is able to swim.
Can/could I stay here.
She could speak French before, butnow she can’t
2、 should/oughtto/must (have to)
must表主观， have to(客观)
you mustn’tgo 你不许去
you don’thave to go 你没必要去。
Ex:should they stay here now.
3、 need（don’t have to）需要
He need come here early
He needn’t come here early
1、 He needs to come here early.
2、 He doesn’tneed to come here early.
3、 Must Icome here early tomorrow?
No youneedn’t .
He had better eat more
Youhad better finish it right now.
Would rather 表示宁愿，宁可，最好，还是……为好。
You would rather deal with it now.
否定 had better not + 动词原形
Would rather not + 动词原形
Ex: I would rather not say it (我还是不说为好)。
Used to/ would 过去常常
Used to 表示过去的状态或者情况，现在不是，习惯性的
He would practice English every week.
I used to live in Beijing.
He would to go to the park as soon as hewas free.
情态动词+not + 动词原形。
He can’t sing an English song
He doesn’t have to go there.
1、 can hesing an English song?
Yes he can.
2、 Musthe go there
No ,he needn’t .
He can/could have arrived.
He must have arrived.
Needn’t have +pp (本不需要做却做了)
He should have arrived
They should have finished the work.
Must have +pp （肯定做了某事）
Ex: he is taken to America by his mother.
The information is needed by us.
The book was being read by him.
The computer gas been used by her.
The room will be cleaned.
1、 The information is needed.
2、 The book is being read.
Is the information needed by him?
Yes, it is/ no, it isn’t
Will the room be cleaned?
Yes, it is/no, it won’t
The information is needed by them.
What is needed by them?
The girl is taken to Shanghai.
Where is the girl taken?
The book has been read three times.
How many times has the book been read?
Is the book being read by her?
Has the computer been used by them?
How often is the English class taken?
To do 不定式可以做很多成分。
To get there by bike will take us an hour.
The driver failed to see the car in time
We believe him to be guilty.
The next train to arrive is from Seoul.
To do 做主语一般用It 做形式主语.
It’s a great honor to be invited.
We think it important to learn English.
I found it pleasant walking in the park.
He pretended not to see her.
In order to +v 表示目的的可以放在句首（逗号隔开），与句尾。
So as to 引导目的状语从句，放置于句尾。
I have written it down in order to remember it.
He said nothing so as not to be noticed.
He wrote it down not to forget it.
The room is to small to live.
Adj+enough+to+v 足够……可以 ……
There is enough food to eat
The box is big enough to contain six apples.
On seeing the snake,the girl was very frightened
There is no hope of ----ing 没希望。
There is no hope of seeing him
Feel like ---ing 想要
I feel like ---ing(想要)
I feel like eating ice cream now.
Have a hard time ---ing 做…… 很艰难.
They have a hard time solving the problem themselves.
Writing books is his job
He is writing a book.
He has written the homework.
The students went out of classroom, laughing and talking.
1、Have, make, let做使役动词
Have/make/let + 宾语+ 动词
He made me laugh
I let him go
Please have him come here (让他来这)
2、get 和 help都是使役动词
Get 格式： get + 宾语+to+v
I can’t get anyone to do the work properly.
I helped him(to) repair the car.
I must get my hair cut
He couldn’t make himself heard.
Can you get the work finished in time？
I saw him work in the garden yesterday.
If you get up early, you will catch up with the train
If you ask him, he will help you.
If I were you, I would join them.
She would come with you if you invitedher.
If I had any money with me, I would lendyou some.
从句：had + 动词过去分词
If I had got there earlier I should havemet her.
If he had studies harder, he might havepassed the exam.
Wish/asif + 一般过去/过去完成时
I wish I were as tall as you(一般过去时)
I wished he hadn’t said that(过去完成时态)
I wish it would rain tomorrow
You look as if you didn’t care.
He talks about Rome as if he had beenthere before.
He opened his mouth as if he would saysomething.
（that, who, which, whom）
关系词：that, who, which, whom, whose.
The girl whom/that I spoke to is my cousin.
They are the people that/who were seen yesterday.
This is the chair whose legs were broken
We don’t know the reason why he didn’t showup.
We will put off the picnic until next week, when the weather may be better.
We don’t know the place where he lives.
从属连词：that if whether
He said that he was there yesterday.
He doesn’t know if/whether he was there.
Do you know who has won the game?
Do you know whom he likes?
Do you know whose book it is?
He wants to know when the party is.
He wants to know where the party is.
He wants to know why they have a party.
He wants to know how the come.
He is taller than his brother.
The book is more expensive than pen.
He is the tallest in his class.
The book is the most expensive of thethree.