HDU 1372 Knight Moves

版权声明:如若看得上本博客,麻烦注明出处. https://blog.csdn.net/weixin_41075012/article/details/79966757
A friend of you is doing research on the Traveling Knight Problem (TKP) where you are to find the shortest closed tour of knight moves that visits each square of a given set of n squares on a chessboard exactly once. He thinks that the most difficult part of the problem is determining the smallest number of knight moves between two given squares and that, once you have accomplished this, finding the tour would be easy. 
Of course you know that it is vice versa. So you offer him to write a program that solves the "difficult" part. 

Your job is to write a program that takes two squares a and b as input and then determines the number of knight moves on a shortest route from a to b. 
InputThe input file will contain one or more test cases. Each test case consists of one line containing two squares separated by one space. A square is a string consisting of a letter (a-h) representing the column and a digit (1-8) representing the row on the chessboard. 
OutputFor each test case, print one line saying "To get from xx to yy takes n knight moves.". 
Sample Input
e2 e4
a1 b2
b2 c3
a1 h8
a1 h7
h8 a1
b1 c3
f6 f6
Sample Output
To get from e2 to e4 takes 2 knight moves.
To get from a1 to b2 takes 4 knight moves.
To get from b2 to c3 takes 2 knight moves.
To get from a1 to h8 takes 6 knight moves.
To get from a1 to h7 takes 5 knight moves.
To get from h8 to a1 takes 6 knight moves.
To get from b1 to c3 takes 1 knight moves.
To get from f6 to f6 takes 0 knight moves.

1.由原始问题引出的3个问题

(1)求任意两点间的最短步数

该问题不需要求出该两点间的路径上的点,也不需要求出拥有该最短步数的路径个数,只需将其间的最短步数求出即可;

(2)求任意两点间的所有最短路径及其全部信息

路径信息:路径上的每一点

该问题不仅需要求出两点间的最短路径,且要求出这样的最短路径有多少条和每一条路径上的每一点

(3)骑士周游世界问题

在一个8×8的方格棋盘中,按照国际象棋中马的行走规则从棋盘上的某一方格出发,开始在棋盘上周游,如果能不重复地走遍棋盘上的每一个方格,这样的一条周游路线在数学上被称为国际象棋盘上汉密尔顿链,求从任意一点出发,所有这样的汉密尔顿链及其全部信息;


2.问题分析

(1)棋盘的表示方法

可以用一个9×9的二维数组chess[9][9]来表示国际象棋的棋盘,在马还没有开始行走时,棋盘上所有的格都置为零,以后,马跳到哪个格,就将马跳跃的步数加1后的值记录在相应的空格里;开始点在行走前设为1;

注:为表示方便,取9×9,数组均下标从1开始;

(2)马的跳跃方向

在国际象棋的棋盘上,一匹马共有8个可能的跳跃方向,如图1所示,按顺时针分别记为1~8,设置一组坐标增量来描述这8个方向;

一开始题意愣是没理解,还以为一格格走,不知道要马走日.多亏下面真~大佬的思路,也很喜欢他写的,因为没有代码.

https://blog.csdn.net/livelylittlefish/article/details/2108045


代码:

#include<stdio.h>//knight moves
#include<string.h>
#include<queue>
#define M 10
using namespace std;
int ma[M][M];

int ne[8][2]= {{1,-2},{2,-1},{2,1},{1,2},//马走日的八个方向.
    {-1,2},{-2,1},{-2,-1},{-1,-2}
};

struct node
{
    int x;
    int y;
    int step;
};

int main()
{
    int ex,ey;
    char st[3],ed[3];
    while(~scanf("%s%s",st,ed))
    {
        memset(ma,0,sizeof(ma));

        ex=ed[0]-'a';//转化终点.并记录
        ey=ed[1]-'1';

        struct node n;//转化起点,并且准备入队首.
        n.x=st[0]-'a';
        n.y=st[1]-'1';
        n.step=0;//记得初始化起点的步数.
        ma[n.x][n.y]=0;//这个也是
        queue<node> q;
        q.push(n);


//        for(int i=0;i<8;i++)//搜索前的棋盘步数格局(检验bug的时候看)
//        {
//            for(int j=0;j<8;j++)
//                printf("%d ",ma[i][j]);
//            printf("\n");
//        }

        while(!q.empty())
        {
//            printf("1\n");//看看有没有死循环,在修bug 的时候
            node n=q.front();
            q.pop();

            if(n.x==ex&&n.y==ey)//如果走到了终点
            {
                printf("To get from %s to %s takes %d knight moves.\n",st,ed,n.step);
                break;//记得跳出循环,记得跳出循环,记得跳出循环
            }

            for(int i=0; i<8; i++)
            {
                struct node nn;
                nn.x=n.x+ne[i][0];
                nn.y=n.y+ne[i][1];
                if(nn.x<0||nn.x>=8||nn.y<0||nn.y>=8||ma[nn.x][nn.y]!=0)//如果这个点不在棋盘里或者这个点已经被走过
                    continue;
                else//如果满足在棋盘,并且没走过
                {
                    nn.step=n.step+1;//每次扩展一次方向,则增加一步.
                    ma[nn.x][nn.y]=nn.step;//标记步数在棋盘里.(这步其实只要标记一下就好了,这为了方便看他是怎么走的 步数的动态)
                    q.push(nn);//入队列.
                }
            }
        }

//        for(int i=0;i<8;i++)//队列搜索完后的棋盘步数格局(检验bug的时候看)
//        {
//            for(int j=0;j<8;j++)
//                printf("%d ",ma[i][j]);
//            printf("\n");
//        }

        while(!q.empty())//清空队列;
            q.pop();
    }
    return 0;//这是个好习惯
}

ps:2018-04-16 21:23:14

终于终于 大部分凭自己把bfs做出来了 超级开心???(滑稽脸)菜鸡自娱自乐.

个人赛选拔结束了,自己打的很菜.但是多谢大佬带我,真的很感激,如果不能请到集训的假,我应该坚持不下来吧.

很感谢你.我会努力刷专题,补题多看英语,追上你们的步伐的.

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