Spring Cloud (第三篇)服务消费者(rest+ribbon)

一、ribbon简介

ribbon是一个负载均衡客户端,可以很好的控制htt和tcp的一些行为。Feign默认集成了ribbon。
ribbon 已经默认实现了这些配置bean:

  • IClientConfig ribbonClientConfig: DefaultClientConfigImpl
  • IRule ribbonRule: ZoneAvoidanceRule
  • IPing ribbonPing: NoOpPing
  • ServerList ribbonServerList: ConfigurationBasedServerList
  • ServerListFilter ribbonServerListFilter: ZonePreferenceServerListFilter
  • ILoadBalancer ribbonLoadBalancer: ZoneAwareLoadBalancer

二、准备工作

这一篇文章基于上一篇文章的工程,启动eureka-server 工程;启动service-hi工程,它的端口为8762;将service-hi的配置文件的端口改为8763,8765,并启动,这时你会发现:service-hi在eureka-server注册了3个实例,这就相当于一个小的集群。访问localhost:8761如图所示:
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三、建一个服务消费者

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
	<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

	<groupId>com.example</groupId>
	<artifactId>service-ribbon</artifactId>
	<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
	<packaging>jar</packaging>

	<name>service-ribbon</name>
	<description>Demo project for Spring Boot</description>

	<parent>
		<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
		<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
		<version>1.5.17.RELEASE</version>
		<relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
	</parent>

	<properties>
		<project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
		<project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
		<java.version>1.8</java.version>
		<spring-cloud.version>Dalston.SR5</spring-cloud.version>
	</properties>

	<dependencies>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-eureka</artifactId>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-ribbon</artifactId>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
		</dependency>
		

		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
			<scope>test</scope>
		</dependency>
	</dependencies>

	<dependencyManagement>
		<dependencies>
			<dependency>
				<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
				<artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
				<version>${spring-cloud.version}</version>
				<type>pom</type>
				<scope>import</scope>
			</dependency>
		</dependencies>
	</dependencyManagement>

	<build>
		<plugins>
			<plugin>
				<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
				<artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
			</plugin>
		</plugins>
	</build>


</project>

四、配置文件application.yml如下:

 eureka:
  client:
    serviceUrl:
      defaultZone: http://localhost:8761/eureka/
server:
  port: 8764
spring:
  application:
    name: service-ribbon

指定服务的注册中心地址为http://localhost:8761/eureka/

五、在工程的启动类中,通过@EnableDiscoveryClient向服务中心注册;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.cloud.client.discovery.EnableDiscoveryClient;

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableDiscoveryClient
public class ServiceRibbonApplication {
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		SpringApplication.run(ServiceRibbonApplication.class, args);
	}
}

六、新键一个配置类 注入一个bean: restTemplate;并通过@LoadBalanced注解表明这个restRemplate开启负载均衡的功能。

import org.springframework.cloud.client.loadbalancer.LoadBalanced;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.web.client.RestTemplate;

@Configuration
public class config {
	@Bean
	@LoadBalanced
	 public RestTemplate restTemplate() {
		
		return new RestTemplate();
	}

}

七、写一个测试类HelloService,通过之前注入ioc容器的restTemplate来消费service-hi服务的“/hi”接口,在这里我们直接用的程序名替代了具体的url地址,在ribbon中它会根据服务名来选择具体的服务实例,根据服务实例在请求的时候会用具体的url替换掉服务名,代码如下:

@Service
public class HelloService {

    @Autowired
    RestTemplate restTemplate;

    public String hiService(String name) {
    	
        return restTemplate.getForObject("http://SERVICE-HI/hi?name="+name,String.class);
    }

}

八、写一个controller,在controller中用调用HelloService 的方法,代码如下:

@RestController
public class HelloControler {
	

    @Autowired
    HelloService helloService;
    @RequestMapping(value = "/hi")
    public String hi(@RequestParam String name){
    	
        return helloService.hiService(name);
    }

}

在浏览器上多次访问http://localhost:8764/hi?name=jack,浏览器交替显示

hi jack,i am from port:8762
hi jack,i am from port:8763
hi jack,i am from port:8765

可能会出现的错误解决,这种错误的原因是原因spring boot 和spring cloud版本不匹配导致的,修改Edgware.SR5 为Dalston.SR5即可(适用于spring boot 版本为1.5-2.0之间),2.0以上的版本用Finchley.RELEASE的版本

Finchley 是基于 Spring Boot 2.0.x 构建的,不支持 Spring Boot 1.5.x
Dalston 和 Edgware 是基于 Spring Boot 1.5.x 构建的,不支持 Spring Boot 2.0.x
Camden 构建于 Spring Boot 1.4.x,但依然能支持 Spring Boot 1.5.x
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