78. Subsets

78. Subsets
Given a set of distinct integers, nums, return all possible subsets (the power set).

Note: The solution set must not contain duplicate subsets.

Example:

Input: nums = [1,2,3]
Output:
[
[3],
[1],
[2],
[1,2,3],
[1,3],
[2,3],
[1,2],
[]
]

来源:力扣(LeetCode)
链接:https://leetcode-cn.com/problems/subsets
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Think and method:

I. Backtracking (recursion)
To see such a subset enumeration problem, backtrace should have become a natural train of thought for us, which can be divided into two cases: considering to select the current position, or not choosing the current position. For the problem backtrace(I, TMP), we need to put num[I] into TMP, perform DFS (I +1, TMP), and backtrace TMP.Keep considering the subproblem backtrace(I +1, TMP), and terminate the recursion when the value of I is equal to n to complete the answer operation.

Time complexity: O(n*2^n)
There are 2 to the n states, each of which takes order n time to construct the subset.

Space complexity: O(n)

2. Iterative method
A curious line of thought, from the official line
Let’s consider the sequence {5,2,9}
Let’s say that we have a 1 in the subset and a 0 in the subset and we don’t have a number in the subset, so we can use binary Numbers to perfectly restore the state of the subset enumeration
在这里插入图片描述
To be specific, it exactly corresponds to 0 to 2^n-1. Take the number in the original set according to the 0/1 sequence, for example, take {5,2}. After enumerating 2^n binary Numbers, all subsets will be constructed naturally

Time complexity: O(n*2^n)
There are 2 to the n states, each of which takes order n time to construct the subset.

Space complexity: O(n)

Code:
1、

func subsets(nums []int) [][]int {
	ans := [][]int{[]int{}}

	if len(nums) == 0 {
		return ans
	}
        //function backtrace
	var backtrace func(int, []int)

	backtrace = func(start int, path []int) {
		for i := start; i <= len(nums)-1; i++ {
			tmp := make([]int, len(path))
			copy(tmp, path)
                   //add number into []int
			tmp = append(tmp, nums[i])
			//form [][]int result
                   ans = append(ans, append([]int{}, tmp...))
			//calculate the  subproblem  
                   backtrace(i+1, tmp)
		}
	}
	backtrace(0, []int{})
	return ans
}

2、

func subsets(nums []int) (ans [][]int) {
    n := len(nums)
     //enumerate mask from 0 to 2^n - 1
    for mask := 0; mask < 1<<n; mask++ {
        set := []int{}
        //add num into the result follow the mask
        for i, v := range nums {
            if mask>>i&1 > 0 {
                set = append(set, v)
            }
        }
        ans = append(ans, append([]int(nil), set...))
    }
    return ans
}

Test:
Example1:

Input: nums = [1,2,3]
Output:
在这里插入图片描述
Example2:

Input: nums = [1]
Output:
在这里插入图片描述
Example3:

Input: nums = []
Output:
在这里插入图片描述

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