论文写作--英文语法

在写英文论文时,会牵扯到冠词,which等的一些用法。

冠词篇:

参考文献:https://www.zybang.com/question/a7e282e0cf505acb203836d1b2852cfd.html

  • 国名,人名前通常不用定冠词:England,Mary;
  • 泛指的复数名词,表示一类人或事物时,可不用定冠词;
    They are teachers.他们是教师.
  • 抽象名词表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词;
    Failure is the mother of success. 失败乃成功之母.
  • 物质名词表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词,当表示特定的意思时,需要加定冠词;
    Man cannot live without water. 人离开水就无法生存.
  • 在季节、月份、节日、 假日、日期、星期等表示时间的名词之前,不加冠词;
    We go to school from Monday to Friday.我们从星期一到星期五都上课.
  • 在称呼或表示官衔,职位的名词前不加冠词;
    The guards took the American to General Lee.士兵们把这个美国人送到李将军那里.
  • 在三餐、球类运动和娱乐运动的名称前,不加冠词
    如:have breakfast,play chess
  • 当两个或两个以上名词并用时,常省去冠词;
    I can’t write without pen or pencil.  没有钢笔和铅笔,我就写不了字.
  • 当by 与火车等交通工具连用,表示一种方式时,中间无冠词;by bus,by train;
  • 有些个体名词不用冠词
    如:school,college,prison,market,hospital,bed,table,class,town,church,court 等个体名词,直接置于介词后,表示该名词的深层含义;
    go to hospital  去医院看病
    go to the hospital  去医院 (并不是去看病,而是有其他目的)
  • 不用冠词的序数词;
     a.序数词前有物主代词
     b.序数词作副词  He came first in the race.
     c.在固定词组中  at (the) first,first of all, from first to last

关系代词which

which在非限制性定语从句中所指代的和修饰的可以时主句中的名词、形容词、短语、其他从句或整个主句。

  • which指代主句中的名词。

    (1)These apple trees which I planted three years ago have not borne any fruit.
    (2)She is an artist, which I am not.

  • which指代主句中的形容词
    (1) She was very patient towards the children, which her husband seldom was.
    (2)She is always careless, which we should not be.

  • which指代主句中的某个从句
    He said that he had never seen her before, which was not true.

  • which指代整个主句
    (1) In the presence of so many people he was little tense, which was understandable.
    (2) He may have acute appendicitis, in which case he will have to be operated on.
    他可能得了严重的阑尾炎,如果是这样,他将动手术。

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