Linux 内核中的并发--自旋锁

版权声明:本文由Eric_Xi_BJ,转载请注明出处。eric.xi.bj@gmail.com https://blog.csdn.net/xyfabcde/article/details/72833525

自旋锁(获取自旋锁->临界区->释放自旋锁)

自旋锁的名称源于它的工作原理:尝试获取一个自旋锁,如果锁空闲就获取该自旋锁并继续向下执行;如果锁已被占用就循环检测该锁是否被释放(原地打转直到锁被释放)
只有在占用锁的时间极短的情况下使用;不能递归使用一个自旋锁(形成死锁);占用锁时不能使用可能引起进程调度的函数,如copy_xx_user()、kmalloc()、msleep()…
自旋锁主要针对SMP或单CPU抢占内核的情况,而对于单CPU非抢占内核自旋锁退化为空操作
自旋锁不能阻止中断对临界区的访问,但可以使用带关中断功能的变体解决这一问题

自旋锁的使用流程:


自旋锁接口函数:

#include <linux/spinlock.h> //自旋锁头文件
定义自旋锁变量
struct spinlock my_spinlock; 或
spinlock_t my_spinlock;
spin_lock_init(&my_spinlock); //自旋锁初始化
获得自旋锁(可自旋等待,可被软、硬件中断)
void spin_lock(spinlock_t *my_spinlock);
获得自旋锁(可自旋等待,保存中断状态并关闭软、硬件中断)
void spin_lock_irqsave(spinlock_t *my_spinlock,unsigned long flags);
释放自旋锁,退出临界区
void spin_unlock(spinlock_t *lock)
void spin_unlock_irqrestore(spinlock_t *lock,unsigned long flags)
尝试获得自旋锁(不自旋等待,成功返回1、失败则返回0)

int spin_trylock(spinlock_t *lock)


总结:




实例代码:

驱动端:

#include <linux/device.h>
#include <linux/interrupt.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <linux/fs.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/irq.h>
#include <asm/uaccess.h>
#include <asm/irq.h>
#include <asm/io.h>
#include <mach/gpio.h>
#include <linux/delay.h>
#include <mach/regs-gpio.h>  /*S5PV210_GPH3_BASE*/

#define EINT_DEVICE_ID			1

#define DRIVER_NAME				"key_eint_race"
#define err(msg) 				printk(KERN_ERR "%s: " msg "\n", DRIVER_NAME)
#define __debug(fmt, arg...)	printk(KERN_DEBUG fmt, ##arg)

#define GPH3CON					(unsigned long)(S5PV210_GPH3_BASE+ 0x00)
#define GPH3DAT					(unsigned long)(S5PV210_GPH3_BASE + 0x04)
#define GPH2UP					(unsigned long)(S5PV210_GPH2_BASE + 0x08)

static int major = 0;		/* Driver Major Number */
static int minor = 0;		/* Driver Minor Number */
struct class *key_class;
static struct device *key_device;

static unsigned int key;

static spinlock_t my_spin_lock; //

static unsigned int deal_key_value(unsigned int data)
{
	key = data;
	udelay(1000);
	return key;
}

static unsigned int deal_key_value_excl(unsigned int data)
{
	unsigned int value;
	unsigned long flag;
	/*
	*	自旋锁解决了SMP多处理的并发问题,对于内核的抢占也可以起到关闭的作用,
	*   可仍没有解决中断产生的并发问题,但是不用担心,我们可以采用spin_lock
	*   的变体spin_lock_irqsave函数完成同时关中断的功能
	*
	*   注意:此处用自旋锁并不合理,因为我们的临界区udelay了1ms(时间很长),
	*   但我们本例子的目的是验证自旋锁的作用,在实际编程中要特别注意
	*/
	spin_lock_irqsave(&my_spin_lock,flag);		//获取自旋锁
	value =deal_key_value(data);
	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&my_spin_lock,flag);		//释放自旋锁
	
	return value;
}

irqreturn_t buttons_interrupt(int irq, void *dev_id)
{	
	deal_key_value_excl((unsigned int)dev_id);
	//__debug("in eint function...\n");
	return IRQ_HANDLED;
}

static void key_io_port_init(void)
{
	unsigned long reg_val;
	
	reg_val = readl(GPH3CON);
	reg_val &= ~((0x0f<<0) | (0x0f<<4));
	reg_val |= ((0x01<<0) | (0x01<<4));
	writel(reg_val, GPH3CON);

	reg_val = readl(GPH3DAT);
	reg_val &= ~((0x01<<0) | (0x01<<1));
	writel(reg_val, GPH3DAT);

	reg_val = readl(GPH2UP);
	reg_val &= ~(0x03<<8);
	reg_val |= 0x02<<8;
	writel(reg_val, GPH2UP);
}

static ssize_t key_read(struct file *filp, char *buf, size_t count, loff_t *f_pos)
{
	int key_num;
	int cpy_len;
	int retval;
	
	key_num = deal_key_value_excl(current->pid);
	
	cpy_len = min(sizeof(key_num), count);
	retval = copy_to_user(buf, &key_num, cpy_len);
	
	return (cpy_len - retval);
}

/* Driver Operation structure */
static struct file_operations key_fops = {
	.owner = THIS_MODULE,
	.read = key_read,
};


static int __init key_eint_init(void)
{
	int retval;
	
	key_io_port_init();
	
	spin_lock_init(&my_spin_lock);

	
	//__debug("in key_eint_init\n");
	
	retval = set_irq_type(IRQ_EINT(20),IRQ_TYPE_EDGE_FALLING);
	if(retval){
		err("IRQ_EINT20 set irq type failed");
		goto error;
	}
	
	retval = request_irq(IRQ_EINT(20), buttons_interrupt, IRQF_DISABLED, 
			"KEY1", (void *)EINT_DEVICE_ID);
	if(retval){
		err("request eint20 failed");
		goto error;
	}
	
	/* Driver register */
	major = register_chrdev(major, DRIVER_NAME, &key_fops);
	if(major < 0){
		err("register char device fail");
		retval = major;
		goto error_register;
	}
	key_class=class_create(THIS_MODULE,DRIVER_NAME);
	if(IS_ERR(key_class)){
		err("class create failed!");
		retval =  PTR_ERR(key_class);
		goto error_class;
	}
	key_device=device_create(key_class,NULL, MKDEV(major, minor), NULL,DRIVER_NAME);
	if(IS_ERR(key_device)){
		err("device create failed!");
		retval = PTR_ERR(key_device);
		goto error_device;
	}
	__debug("register myDriver OK! Major = %d\n", major);
	return 0;

error_device:
	class_destroy(key_class);
error_class:
	unregister_chrdev(major, DRIVER_NAME);
error_register:
	free_irq(IRQ_EINT(20), (void *)EINT_DEVICE_ID);
error:
	return retval;
}

static void __exit key_eint_exit(void)
{
	//__debug("in key_eint_exit\n");
	
	free_irq(IRQ_EINT(20), (void *)EINT_DEVICE_ID);

	unregister_chrdev(major, DRIVER_NAME);
	device_destroy(key_class,MKDEV(major, minor));
	class_destroy(key_class);

	return;
}

module_init(key_eint_init);
module_exit(key_eint_exit);

MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
MODULE_AUTHOR("Eric");


应用层:
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>

/*Linux内核是抢占式内核,在一个系统调用未结束前,另一个系统调用也可以进入进程上下文,访问同一缓冲区*/
int main(void)
{	
	int status;
	pid_t pid;
	
	//打开文件raceStation
	int fd_driver;
	if((fd_driver = open("/dev/key_eint_race", O_RDWR)) < 0){
		printf("file open error\n");
		exit(1);
	}
	//创建子进程
 	if((pid = fork()) < 0){
		perror("fork:");
		exit(1);
	}
	else if(pid == 0){					//判断如果是子进程
		int num;
		while(1){
			read(fd_driver,&num,sizeof(num));	
			printf("the num value is <son-%d>: %d\n",getpid(), num);

		//	usleep(50*1000);
		}
		close(fd_driver);
	}else{								//判断如果是父进程
		int num;
		while(1){	
			read(fd_driver,&num,sizeof(num));	
			printf("the num value is <father-%d>: %d\n",getpid(), num);

		//	usleep(50*1000);
		}
		pid = wait(&status);
		close(fd_driver);
	}
}


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