英语介词的的用法

I. 介词的概念

  介词是一种用来表示词与词, 词与句之间的关系的词。在句中不能单独作句子成分。介词后面一般有名词代词或相当于名词的其他词类,短语或从句作它的宾语。介词和它的宾语构成介词词组,在句中作状语,表语,补语或介词宾语。

  II. 牢记口诀

  介词口诀:自从以当为按照,由于对于为了到;和跟把比在关于,除了同对向往朝;用在名词代词前,修饰动形要记牢。

  III. 介词归类大全

  一、表示地理位置的介词:

(1)at ,in, on, to

at (1)表示在小地方; (2)表示“在……附近,旁边”
in (1)表示 在大地方; (2)表示“在…范围之内”。

on 表示毗邻,接壤

to 表示在……范围外,不强调是否接壤

例句:He arrived at the station at ten.
He is sitting at the desk.
He arrived in Shanghai yesterday.
Jiangsu lies in the east of China.
Russia lies on the north of China.
Fujian is to the south of Jiangsu Province.

(2)above, over, on 在……上

above 指在……上方,不强调是否垂直,与 below相对;

over指垂直的上方,与under相对,但over与物体有一定的空间,不直接接触。

on表示某物体上面并与之接触。

例句:The bird is flying above my head.
There is a bridge over the river.
He put his watch on the desk.

  (3)below, under 在……下面

under表示在…正下方
below表示在……下,不一定在正下方

例句 There is a cat under the table.
Please write your name below the line.

  二、表示时间的介词:

(1)in , on,at 在……时

in表示较长时间,如世纪、朝代、时代、年、季节、月及一般(非特指)的早、中、晚等。

如:in the 20th century, in the 1950s, in 1989, in summer, in January,
in the morning, in the night, in one’s life , in one’s thirties等。

on表示具体某一天及某一天的早、中、晚。

如:on May 1st, on Monday, on New Year’s Day, on a cold night
in January, on a fine morning, on Sunday afternoon等。

at表示某一时刻或较短暂的时间,或泛指圣诞节,复活节等。

如: at 3:20, at this time of year, at the beginning of, at the end of …,
at the age of …, at Christmas, at night, at noon, at this moment等。

注意:在last, next, this, that, some, every 等词之前一律不用介词。如:We meet every day.

(2)in, after 在……之后

“in +段时间”表示将来的一段时间以后;

“after+段时间”表示过去的一段时间以后;

“after+将来点时间”表示将来的某一时刻以后。

例句:My mother will come back in three or four days.
He arrived after five months.
She will appear after five o’clock this afternoon.

(3)from, since 自从……

from仅说明什么时候开始,不说明某动作或情况持续多久;

since表示某动作或情况持续至说话时刻,通常与完成时连用。

例句:He studied the piano from the age of three.
They have lived here since 1978.

(4)after, behind 在……之后

after主要用于表示时间;
behind主要用于表示位置。

例句:We shall leave after lunch.
Lucy is hiding behind an old house.

  三、表运动方向的介词:

across, through 通过,穿过

across表示横过,即从物体表面通过,与on有关;

through穿过,即从物体内部穿过,与in有关。

例句:She swam across the river.
He walked through the forest.

  四、表示“在……之间”的介词:

between, among

between指在两个人或两个事物之间;

among指在三个或三个以上的人或事物之间。

例句:There is a football match between Class One and Class Two on the playground.
The teacher is standing among the students.

  五、表示其他意义的介词:

(1)on ,about 关于

on 表示这本书,这篇文章或演说是严肃的,或学术性的,可供专门研究这一问题的人阅读;

about表示内容较为普通,不那么正式。

例句:There will be a lecture on economics this afternoon.
He is writing a book on cooking.
He told me a lot about his life in the summer vocation.

(2)by, with, in 表示方法、手段、工具

by 以……方法、手段或泛指某种交通工具;

with 表示用 …工具、手段,一般接具体的工具和手段;

in 表示用…方式,用…语言(语调、笔墨、颜色)等;

例句:He makes a living by selling newspapers.
He broke the window with a stone.
The foreigner spoke to us in English.

(3)except, besides 除了

except 除……之外,不包括在内;

besides 除……之外,包括在内。

例句:Except Mr. Wang, we went to see the film.(王先生没去)
Besides Mr. Wang, we also went to see the film.(王先生也去了)

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