【Leetcode】Insert Delete GetRandom O(1)

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题目链接:https://leetcode.com/problems/insert-delete-getrandom-o1/

题目:

Design a data structure that supports all following operations in average O(1) time.

  1. insert(val): Inserts an item val to the set if not already present.
  2. remove(val): Removes an item val from the set if present.
  3. getRandom: Returns a random element from current set of elements. Each element must have the same probability of being returned.

Example:

// Init an empty set.
RandomizedSet randomSet = new RandomizedSet();

// Inserts 1 to the set. Returns true as 1 was inserted successfully.
randomSet.insert(1);

// Returns false as 2 does not exist in the set.
randomSet.remove(2);

// Inserts 2 to the set, returns true. Set now contains [1,2].
randomSet.insert(2);

// getRandom should return either 1 or 2 randomly.
randomSet.getRandom();

// Removes 1 from the set, returns true. Set now contains [2].
randomSet.remove(1);

// 2 was already in the set, so return false.
randomSet.insert(2);

// Since 1 is the only number in the set, getRandom always return 1.
randomSet.getRandom();

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思路:

O(1)的插入删除明显考虑用hash set或map,set存没法getRandom,则自然想到用hash map

因为要getRandom(),即key必须是连续的,当删除某元素时可能导致key不连续,所以当删除元素时要保证key空间连续,简单的,我们让最后元素填补到被删除元素的位置,使得key空间连续。

算法:

   /** Initialize your data structure here. */
    public RandomizedSet() {
        
    }
    
   	List<Integer> vals = new ArrayList<Integer>();
	Map<Integer, Integer> val2idx = new HashMap<Integer, Integer>();

	/**
	 * Inserts a value to the set. Returns true if the set did not already
	 * contain the specified element.
	 */
	public boolean insert(int val) {
		if (val2idx.containsKey(val)) {
			return false;
		} else {
			val2idx.put(val, val2idx.size());
			vals.add(val);
			return true;
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Removes a value from the set. Returns true if the set contained the
	 * specified element.
	 */
	public boolean remove(int val) {
		if (!val2idx.containsKey(val)) {
			return false;
		} else {
			int idx = val2idx.remove(val);
			if (idx < vals.size() - 1) {// 若删除的不是链表最后的元素
				// 交换末尾元素和被删除元素
				vals.set(idx, vals.get(vals.size() - 1));
				val2idx.put(vals.get(vals.size() - 1), idx);
			}
			vals.remove(vals.size() - 1);
			return true;
		}
	}

	/** Get a random element from the set. */
	Random r = new Random();
	public int getRandom() {
		return vals.get(r.nextInt(vals.size()));
	}



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