kubernetes 部署redis cluster

kubernetes 部署redis cluster

前言

Redis cluster的集群关系的维系,并非是依赖于ip的,而是依赖于cluster内部的唯一id, ip只在首次建立集群关系时连接彼此使用,不作为成员连接凭据,取而代之的是id。画外音:只要持有id,容器重启ip怎么变化都不会影响到维系redis cluster的成员关系。

那么id怎么保存的呢?redis cluster在建立起来后,每个主备节点都会保存一份cluster节点的元数据文件,因此,为了保证在kubernetes内pod重启后,集群相关的角色配置等不丢失,此文件必须持久化,因此,适合使用statefulSet来部署。

部署

直接贴部署的yaml文件:

apiVersion: v1
data:
  redis.conf: |2
        appendonly no
        save 900 1
        save 300 10
        save 60 300
        maxmemory 4GB
        maxmemory-policy allkeys-lru
        cluster-enabled yes
        cluster-config-file  /var/lib/redis/nodes.conf  # cluster的node元数据文件
        #cluster-node-timeout 5000 # 主从心跳检查的时间间隔
        cluster-node-timeout 500 # 这里临时配置成500ms,为了下方的主备切换的测试
        dir /var/lib/redis
        port 6379
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: app-rds-cluster
  namespace: default
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: PersistentVolumeClaim
metadata:
  name: app-rds-cluster
spec:
  accessModes:
  - ReadWriteMany
  resources:
    requests:
      storage: 50Gi
  storageClassName: cephfs
---
# 用来提供redis cluster对外连接服务的
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: app-rds-cluster
  labels:
    app: redis
spec:
  ports:
  - name: redis-port
    port: 6379
  selector:
    app: app-rds-cluster
    appCluster: redis-cluster
---
apiVersion: apps/v1beta1
kind: StatefulSet
metadata:
  name: app-rds-cluster
spec:
  serviceName: "app-rds-cluster"
  replicas: 6
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: app-rds-cluster
        appCluster: redis-cluster
    spec:
      terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 5
      affinity:
        podAntiAffinity:
          preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
          - weight: 100
            podAffinityTerm:
              labelSelector:
                matchExpressions:
                - key: app
                  operator: In
                  values:
                  - app-rds-cluster
              topologyKey: kubernetes.io/hostname
      containers:
      - name: redis
        env:
        - name: POD_NAME
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              apiVersion: v1
              fieldPath: metadata.name
        image: redis:v4.0.14
        command:
          - "redis-server"                  #redis启动命令
        args:
          - "/etc/redis/redis.conf"         # 配置文件
        # command: redis-server /etc/redis/redis.conf
        resources:                          #资源
          requests:                         #请求的资源
            cpu: "100m"                     #m代表千分之,相当于0.1 个cpu资源
            memory: "100Mi"                 #内存100m大小
          limits:                         
            cpu: "1"                        # 1代表1核
            memory: "4096Mi"                 #内存100m大小            
        ports:
            - name: redis
              containerPort: 6379
              protocol: "TCP"
            - name: cluster
              containerPort: 16379
              protocol: "TCP"
        volumeMounts:
          - name: "redis-conf"              # 挂载configmap生成的文件
            mountPath: "/etc/redis"         
          - name: pvc
            mountPath: "/var/lib/redis"
            subPathExpr: $(POD_NAME)/data/
      nodeSelector:
        RDSDB: ''
      volumes:
      - name: "redis-conf"
        configMap:
          name: app-rds-cluster
      - name: pvc
        persistentVolumeClaim:
          claimName: app-rds-cluster

部署说明

  1. redis配置文件使用configmap挂载
  2. 共配置6个节点,3主3从,这也是官方文档中说的推荐最小的集群规模了。
  3. redis cluster node元数据文件很重要,下面会有详细说明。这个文件必须要做持久化,可使用pvc/hostPath等方式。
  4. 使用redis-trib工具建立cluster,建立好cluster后,后续cluster关系维护不再需要它。
  5. 网上有不少其他文章中都部署了2个service,包含一个headless service,建cluster时用作服务发现;和一个正常的service,给客户端连接使用。但这个headless service其实根本没有必要,建cluster的时候手动取一次pod ip就好,何必多建一个无用的service

假设你的持久化没有问题,那么,你现在应该有6个运行正常的pod了:

[root@008019 redis-cluster]# kubectl get pods -o wide --all-namespaces | grep app-rds-cluster
default       app-rds-cluster-0                                 1/1     Running   0          5m1s    172.36.4.43      008031   <none>           <none>
default       app-rds-cluster-1                                 1/1     Running   0          4m58s   172.36.1.30      008020   <none>           <none>
default       app-rds-cluster-2                                 1/1     Running   0          4m56s   172.36.6.21      020203   <none>           <none>
default       app-rds-cluster-3                                 1/1     Running   0          4m53s   172.36.5.25      008032   <none>           <none>
default       app-rds-cluster-4                                 1/1     Running   0          4m51s   172.36.0.198     008019   <none>           <none>
default       app-rds-cluster-5                                 1/1     Running   0          4m48s   172.36.3.134     020204   <none>           <none>

# 获取到这些pod 的ip,下面会用到
[root@008019 redis-cluster]# echo `kubectl get pods -o wide --all-namespaces | grep app-rds-cluster | awk '{print $7":6379"}'`

172.36.4.43:6379 172.36.1.30:6379 172.36.6.21:6379 172.36.5.25:6379 172.36.0.198:6379 172.36.3.134:6379

建立集群

因此建立集群的操作只需要执行一次,后续集群关系redis节点之间会基于节点元数据文件自动维护,所以,专门部署一个环境,用来初始化配置集群,部署文件如下:

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  labels:
    app: redis-cluster-manager
  name: redis-cluster-manager
  namespace: default
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: redis-cluster-manager
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: redis-cluster-manager
    spec:
      containers:
      - command:
          - tail
        args:
          - -f
          - /dev/null
        env:
        - name: DB_NAME
          value: redis-cluster-manager
        image: centos:centos7
        imagePullPolicy: Always
        name: redis-cluster-manager
        resources:
          limits:
            cpu: 500m
            memory: 300Mi
          requests:
            cpu: 100m
            memory: 100Mi
        terminationMessagePath: /dev/termination-log
        terminationMessagePolicy: File
      dnsPolicy: ClusterFirst
      restartPolicy: Always
      schedulerName: default-scheduler
      securityContext: {}
      terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 30
[root@008019 redis-cluster]# kubectl get pods -o wide --all-namespaces | grep redis-cluster-manager
default       redis-cluster-manager-5468b99f7f-lxpw7            1/1     Running   0          87m     172.36.4.42      008031   <none>           <none>
[root@008019 redis-cluster]# kubectl exec -it redis-cluster-manager-5468b99f7f-lxpw7 bash
[root@redis-cluster-manager-5468b99f7f-lxpw7 /]#

安装集群配置工具:

cat >> /etc/yum.repos.d/epel.repo<<'EOF'
[epel]
name=Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 7 - $basearch
baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/epel/7/$basearch
#mirrorlist=https://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/metalink?repo=epel-7&arch=$basearch
failovermethod=priority
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-EPEL-7
EOF


yum -y install redis-trib.noarch

初始化集群:

# 拿到上面获取到的pod ip,执行命令,交互步骤输入yes,不出意外,集群初始化成功
# 解释一下,这里的6个节点,--replicas 1,前3个会是master,后3个会是前3个的slave
redis-trib create --replicas 1 \
172.36.4.43:6379 172.36.1.30:6379 172.36.6.21:6379 172.36.5.25:6379 172.36.0.198:6379 172.36.3.134:6379

...
[OK] All nodes agree about slots configuration.
>>> Check for open slots...
>>> Check slots coverage...
[OK] All 16384 slots covered.

连接

选择其中一个

[root@008019 redis-cluster]# kubectl exec -it redis-cluster-manager-5468b99f7f-lxpw7 bash
[root@redis-cluster-manager-5468b99f7f-lxpw7 /]#
[root@redis-cluster-manager-5468b99f7f-lxpw7 /]# exit
exit
[root@008019 redis-cluster]# kubectl exec -it app-rds-cluster-0 bash

# redis-cli连接cluster记得加-c参数
root@app-rds-cluster-0:/var/lib/redis# redis-cli -c
# 设一个key
127.0.0.1:6379> get a
-> Redirected to slot [15495] located at 172.36.6.21:6379
(nil)
172.36.6.21:6379> set a 1
OK
172.36.6.21:6379> get a
"1"
# 查看角色
172.36.6.21:6379> role
1) "master"
2) (integer) 1954
3) 1) 1) "172.36.3.134"
      2) "6379"
      3) "1954"
172.36.6.21:6379> quit

# 查看集群节点元数据文件,第一列是id号,后面则是ip与角色信息, myself指的是自身
root@app-rds-cluster-0:/var/lib/redis# cat nodes.conf
bdcda6ce963add5bc9706e912b6fcf4b355e2add 172.36.3.134:6379@16379 slave d24da6b03aa3b614a1429847b3a47836f89dbc07 0 1578042761171 6 connected
f85ce96851823832a9bda4233cc6e3066e97c050 172.36.5.25:6379@16379 slave 561f70b2c94c6e46f7b9588705f2cb48861b1e89 0 1578042760571 4 connected
561f70b2c94c6e46f7b9588705f2cb48861b1e89 172.36.4.43:6379@16379 myself,master - 0 1578042760000 1 connected 0-5460
e5c64aa60dcc73746e196b6c1630019ec0c10ad5 172.36.0.198:6379@16379 slave 7e2a3fa95ef9402bfba7b2e08a27812272640179 0 1578042760000 5 connected
7e2a3fa95ef9402bfba7b2e08a27812272640179 172.36.1.30:6379@16379 master - 0 1578042760000 2 connected 5461-10922
d24da6b03aa3b614a1429847b3a47836f89dbc07 172.36.6.21:6379@16379 master - 0 1578042759569 3 connected 10923-16383
vars currentEpoch 6 lastVoteEpoch 0
root@app-rds-cluster-0:/var/lib/redis#
root@app-rds-cluster-0:/var/lib/redis#

使用service 固定ip连接:

[root@008019 ~]# kubectl get service --all-namespaces | grep app-rds-cluster
default       app-rds-cluster                        ClusterIP   10.123.80.163    <none>        6379/TCP                   48m

[root@008019 ~]# kubectl exec -it redis-cluster-manager-5468b99f7f-lxpw7 bash
[root@redis-cluster-manager-5468b99f7f-lxpw7 /]# redis-cli -h 10.123.80.163 -c
10.123.80.163:6379> get a
-> Redirected to slot [15495] located at 172.36.6.22:6379
"1"

主备切换

作为一个高可用集群,主备切换是基本能力,看一看切换过程发生了什么:

# 重启一个master
[root@008019 ~]# kubectl delete pod app-rds-cluster-0
pod "app-rds-cluster-0" deleted
[root@008019 ~]#
[root@008019 ~]# kubectl get pods -o wide --all-namespaces | grep app-rds-cl
default       app-rds-cluster-0                                 1/1     Running   0          20s     172.36.4.44      008031   <none>           <none>
default       app-rds-cluster-1                                 1/1     Running   0          31m     172.36.1.30      008020   <none>           <none>
default       app-rds-cluster-2                                 1/1     Running   0          31m     172.36.6.21      020203   <none>           <none>
default       app-rds-cluster-3                                 1/1     Running   0          31m     172.36.5.25      008032   <none>           <none>
default       app-rds-cluster-4                                 1/1     Running   0          31m     172.36.0.198     008019   <none>           <none>
default       app-rds-cluster-5                                 1/1     Running   0          31m     172.36.3.134     020204   <none>           <none>

# 对比上面可以发现,redis-0的ip从172.36.4.43变成了172.36.4.44,那么连接看看数据和角色
# 可以看到,此时master已经变成了slave, 但nodes.conf内的ip没有随着容器ip变化而修改,只是修改了从属关系的记录。当然,数据也没有丢失。
root@app-rds-cluster-0:/var/lib/redis# cat nodes.conf
7e2a3fa95ef9402bfba7b2e08a27812272640179 172.36.1.31:6379@16379 master - 1578044978612 1578044978607 2 connected 5461-10922
e5c64aa60dcc73746e196b6c1630019ec0c10ad5 172.36.0.199:6379@16379 slave 7e2a3fa95ef9402bfba7b2e08a27812272640179 0 1578044978614 5 connected
561f70b2c94c6e46f7b9588705f2cb48861b1e89 172.36.4.43:6379@16379 myself,slave f85ce96851823832a9bda4233cc6e3066e97c050 0 1578044978608 9 connected
bdcda6ce963add5bc9706e912b6fcf4b355e2add 172.36.3.135:6379@16379 slave d24da6b03aa3b614a1429847b3a47836f89dbc07 1578044978612 1578044978608 10 connected
f85ce96851823832a9bda4233cc6e3066e97c050 172.36.5.26:6379@16379 master - 0 1578044978614 11 connected 0-5460
d24da6b03aa3b614a1429847b3a47836f89dbc07 172.36.6.22:6379@16379 master - 1578044978612 1578044978608 10 connected 10923-16383
vars currentEpoch 11 lastVoteEpoch 10
root@app-rds-cluster-0:/var/lib/redis# redis-cli -c
127.0.0.1:6379> get a
-> Redirected to slot [15495] located at 172.36.6.22:6379
"1"

有兴趣可以同时删除多个节点试试,6节点,3个为主,按照raft的算法,外加主挂了之后还有备接替上,因此,除非2主+2备或更多节点同时挂掉,不然不会影响redis的服务。

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