k8s(八)、监控--Prometheus告警篇(告警消息对接钉钉接口)

前言

承接上章k8s(七)、Prometheus部署篇,在上章的基础上,本章介绍Prometheus告警相关配置。

一、Querying expr & PromQL

在了解告警规则之前,首先得了解Prometheus的数据查询表达式,来获取metric数据是否到达告警阈(ps:这个字儿念yu,第四声,不念第二声的fa)值。

Overview
Prometheus提供了一种功能性表达式语言,能够让用户实时的选择和聚合时间序列的数据。表达式返回的结果可以被显示为曲线图,也可以在prometheus浏览器中显示为表格,或者通过HTTP API经由外部系统处理。

表达式语言类型
Prometheus表达式或子表达式可以评估为一下四种类型之一:
即时向量(Instant vector) - 包含每个时间序列单个样品的一组时间序列,共享相同的时间戳
范围向量(Range vector) - 包含一个范围内数据点的一组时间序列
标量(Scalar) - 一个简单的数字浮点值
字符串(String) - 一个简单的字符串值;当前未使用
根据使用情况(例如画图或者显示表达式的输出),只有某些类型是合法的,例如,即时向量表达式是可以画图的唯一类型。

时间序列选择器

即时向量选择
即时向量选择器允许选择一组时间序列,或者某个给定的时间戳的样本数据。下面这个例子选择了具有时间序列的http_requests_total metric对象:

http_requests_total

你可以通过附加一组标签,并用{}括起来,来进一步筛选这些时间序列。下面这个例子只选择有http_requests_total名称的、有prometheus工作标签的、有canary组标签的时间序列:

http_requests_total{job="prometheus",group="canary"}

另外,也可以也可以将标签值反向匹配,或者对正则表达式匹配标签值。下面列举匹配操作符:

=:选择正好相等的字符串标签
!=:选择不相等的字符串标签
=~:选择匹配正则表达式的标签(或子标签)
!=:选择不匹配正则表达式的标签(或子标签)
例如,选择staging、testing、development环境下的,GET之外的HTTP方法的http_requests_total的时间序列:

http_requests_total{environment=~"staging|testing|development",method!="GET"}

范围向量选择
范围向量表达式正如即时向量表达式一样运行,但是前者返回从当前时刻开始的一定时间范围的时间序列集合回来。语法是,在一个向量表达式之后添加[]来表示时间范围,持续时间用数字表示,后接下面单元之一:

s:seconds
m:minutes
h:hours
d:days
w:weeks
y:years
在下面这个例子中,我们选择最后5分钟的记录,metric名称为http_requests_total、作业标签为prometheus的时间序列的所有值:

http_requests_total{job="prometheus"}[5m]

操作符
Prometheus支持多种二元和聚合的操作符。

+ (addition)
- (subtraction)
* (multiplication)
/ (division)
% (modulo)
^ (power/exponentiation)

== (equal)
!= (not-equal)
> (greater-than)
< (less-than)
>= (greater-or-equal)
<= (less-or-equal)

and (intersection)
or (union)
unless (complement)

函数
Prometheus支持多种函数,来对数据进行操作,参考官网:https://prometheus.io/docs/prometheus/latest/querying/functions/

了解了metric查询表达式的基础上,下面开始部署告警器组件。

二、告警媒介

prometheus支持多种类型的告警媒介,国内可以用的例如mail/webchat,也可以使用webhook自定义接口,公司一般使用的钉钉,prometheus没有定制的钉钉接口,因此在这里使用自定义的接口来中转,将消息发送至钉钉接口,接收钉钉告警消息。
首先看下告警配置,各项参数已添加中文注释,直接看注释:
alertmanager-config.yaml:

kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: alertmanager
  namespace: kube-system
data:
  config.yml: |-
    global:
      resolve_timeout: 5m
    templates:
    - '/etc/alertmanager-templates/*.tmpl'
    route:
      group_by: ['alertname', 'cluster', 'service']
	  #根据['alertname', 'cluster', 'service'],在初始告警发送前,等待30秒,将这段时间的多个告警进行分组
      # When a new group of alerts is created by an incoming alert, wait at
      # least 'group_wait' to send the initial notification.
      # This way ensures that you get multiple alerts for the same group that start
      # firing shortly after another are batched together on the first
      # notification.

      group_wait: 30s

      # When the first notification was sent, wait 'group_interval' to send a batch
      # of new alerts that started firing for that group.
	  #按上面分组的消息,同一组消息,间隔5m才发送下一个。这个是为了尽量避免由一个问题带来的批量告警重复发送。
      group_interval: 5m

      # If an alert has successfully been sent, wait 'repeat_interval' to
      # resend them.
      #完全相同的一个告警消息,间隔repeat_interval时间才下一次发送,这里为了测试效果设置1m,一般这个值设置时间都较长
      #repeat_interval: 1m
      repeat_interval: 1m

      # A default receiver

      # If an alert isn't caught by a route, send it to default.
      #默认接收器为webhook_alert 
      receiver: webhook_alert 

      # All the above attributes are inherited by all child routes and can
      # overwritten on each.

      # The child route trees.
      routes:
      #给webhook_alert接收器定义匹配标签规则
      # Send severity=slack alerts to slack.
      - match:
          severity: info
        receiver: webhook_alert
      - match:
          severity: warning
        receiver: webhook_alert
        
    # 接收器定义,这里是webhook类型,webhook_configs写上自定义api接口的url。
    # 注意,这里的webhook钩子接口是我自己写的接收prometheus告警的接口,api接收到prometheus的消息后会提取信息,通过钉钉的接口发给相应的人员。
    # 也可以使用wechat/mail的接口,配置方式参考官网:https://prometheus.io/docs/alerting/configuration/
    receivers:
    - name: webhook_alert
      webhook_configs:
      - url: 'http://192.168.88.26:8080/api/1.0/utils/alert/?token=ADW82115yn7YEWXCEW88WEW6'
        send_resolved: true

prometheus通过webhook发送的告警消息样例:

{
	"receiver":"webhook_alert",
	"status":"firing",
	"alerts":[{
		"status":"firing",
		"labels":{
			"DEVDB":"","alertname":"NodeMemoryUsage-low",
			"beta_kubernetes_io_arch":"amd64",
			"beta_kubernetes_io_os":"linux",
			"instance":"hv001238",
			"job":"kubernetes-node-exporter","kubernetes_io_hostname":"hv001238","node_role_kubernetes_io_master":"","severity":"info","team":"node"
		},
		"annotations":{
			"description":"hv001238: Memory usage is above 80% (current value is: 52.18385396227273",
			"summary":"hv001238: High Memory usage detected"
		},
		"startsAt":"2018-06-23T03:47:10.408935848Z",
		"endsAt":"0001-01-01T00:00:00Z",
		"generatorURL":"http://prometheus-785fc5bbf4-ztlrd:9090/graph?g0.expr=%28node_memory_MemTotal_bytes+-+%28node_memory_MemFree_bytes+%2B+node_memory_Buffers_bytes+%2B+node_memory_Cached_bytes%29%29+%2F+node_memory_MemTotal_bytes+%2A+100+%3E+1\\u0026g0.tab=1"
	},],

	"groupLabels":{"alertname":"NodeMemoryUsage-low"},
	"commonLabels":{
		"DEVDB":"",
		"alertname":"NodeMemoryUsage-low",
		"beta_kubernetes_io_arch":"amd64",
		"beta_kubernetes_io_os":"linux",
		"job":"kubernetes-node-exporter",
		"node_role_kubernetes_io_master":"",
		"severity":"info","team":"node"},
		"commonAnnotations":{},
		"externalURL":"http://alertmanager-7cffc68878-xb2m6:9093",
		"version":"4",
		"groupKey":"{}/{severity=\\"info\\"}:{alertname=\\"NodeMemoryUsage-low\\"}"
}

消息太多,不够精简,我webhook端在接收之后将它精简提取为了如下格式:

{
	'description': 'hv001238: Memory usage is above 80% (current value is: 39.42384016274741', 
	'title': 'hv001238: High Memory usage detected', 
	'notice_user': ['xxx', 'xxx', 'xxx'], 
	'start_time': '2018-06-23T03:47:10.408935848Z',
	'end_time': '0001-01-01T00:00:00Z', 
	'status': 'firing', 
	'graph_link': 'http://http://prometheusv19.xxx.com/graph?g0.expr=%28node_memory_MemTotal_bytes+-+%28node_memory_MemFree_bytes+%2B+node_memory_Buffers_bytes+%2B+node_memory_Cached_bytes%29%29+%2F+node_memory_MemTotal_bytes+%2A+100+%3E+1&g0.tab=1'
}

中转api接口python(django + rest-framework框架)代码样例如下,钉钉消息的接口可以自己去官网查:钉钉官网

from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
import collections

from account.tasks.message import send_dingding_message

class AlertView(APIView):

    def post(self,request):
        token = request.GET.get('token')
        message = collections.OrderedDict()

        if token == 'ADW82115yn7YEWXCEW88WEW6xxwetrcX':
            # ops = ['xxx', 'xxx', 'xxx']
            ops = ['xxx']
            content = request.data
            message['title'] = content['alerts'][0]['annotations']['summary']
            message['status'] = content['status']
            message['description'] = content['alerts'][0]['annotations']['description']
            message['start_time'] = content['alerts'][0]['startsAt']
            message['end_time'] = content['alerts'][0]['endsAt']
			#截图有效的url段,并将hostname从podname替换成自己真实环境的域名,这样接收到的消息点击链接可以直接查看告警数据及图形
            valid_link = content['alerts'][0]['generatorURL'].split("\\")[0]
            uri = valid_link.split(':9090')[1]
            host = "http://prometheus.xxx.com"
            message['graph_link'] = host + uri

            messages = ""
            for k,v in message.items():
                messages = messages + '[' + k + ']:' + v + "\n"

            print(messages)
            res = send_dingding_message(user=ops,message=messages)

            return Response(res)

def send_dingding_message(user,message)
	#自己去获取钉钉的api接口,调用接口
    return True

三、Alertmanager部署

Alertmanager相关部署yaml文件:

alertmanager-templates.yaml     		#各类常见告警模板
configmap.yaml                          #配置文件
deployment.yaml                        #部署文件
service.yaml                           #服务文件

alertmanager-templates.yaml:

apiVersion: v1
data:
  default.tmpl: |
    {{ define "__alertmanager" }}AlertManager{{ end }}
    {{ define "__alertmanagerURL" }}{{ .ExternalURL }}/#/alerts?receiver={{ .Receiver }}{{ end }}

    {{ define "__subject" }}[{{ .Status | toUpper }}{{ if eq .Status "firing" }}:{{ .Alerts.Firing | len }}{{ end }}] {{ .GroupLabels.SortedPairs.Values | join " " }} {{ if gt (len .CommonLabels) (len .GroupLabels) }}({{ with .CommonLabels.Remove .GroupLabels.Names }}{{ .Values | join " " }}{{ end }}){{ end }}{{ end }}
    {{ define "__description" }}{{ end }}

    {{ define "__text_alert_list" }}{{ range . }}Labels:
    {{ range .Labels.SortedPairs }} - {{ .Name }} = {{ .Value }}
    {{ end }}Annotations:
    {{ range .Annotations.SortedPairs }} - {{ .Name }} = {{ .Value }}
    {{ end }}Source: {{ .GeneratorURL }}
    {{ end }}{{ end }}


    {{ define "slack.default.title" }}{{ template "__subject" . }}{{ end }}
    {{ define "slack.default.username" }}{{ template "__alertmanager" . }}{{ end }}
    {{ define "slack.default.fallback" }}{{ template "slack.default.title" . }} | {{ template "slack.default.titlelink" . }}{{ end }}
    {{ define "slack.default.pretext" }}{{ end }}
    {{ define "slack.default.titlelink" }}{{ template "__alertmanagerURL" . }}{{ end }}
    {{ define "slack.default.iconemoji" }}{{ end }}
    {{ define "slack.default.iconurl" }}{{ end }}
    {{ define "slack.default.text" }}{{ end }}


    {{ define "hipchat.default.from" }}{{ template "__alertmanager" . }}{{ end }}
    {{ define "hipchat.default.message" }}{{ template "__subject" . }}{{ end }}


    {{ define "pagerduty.default.description" }}{{ template "__subject" . }}{{ end }}
    {{ define "pagerduty.default.client" }}{{ template "__alertmanager" . }}{{ end }}
    {{ define "pagerduty.default.clientURL" }}{{ template "__alertmanagerURL" . }}{{ end }}
    {{ define "pagerduty.default.instances" }}{{ template "__text_alert_list" . }}{{ end }}


    {{ define "opsgenie.default.message" }}{{ template "__subject" . }}{{ end }}
    {{ define "opsgenie.default.description" }}{{ .CommonAnnotations.SortedPairs.Values | join " " }}
    {{ if gt (len .Alerts.Firing) 0 -}}
    Alerts Firing:
    {{ template "__text_alert_list" .Alerts.Firing }}
    {{- end }}
    {{ if gt (len .Alerts.Resolved) 0 -}}
    Alerts Resolved:
    {{ template "__text_alert_list" .Alerts.Resolved }}
    {{- end }}
    {{- end }}
    {{ define "opsgenie.default.source" }}{{ template "__alertmanagerURL" . }}{{ end }}


    {{ define "victorops.default.message" }}{{ template "__subject" . }} | {{ template "__alertmanagerURL" . }}{{ end }}
    {{ define "victorops.default.from" }}{{ template "__alertmanager" . }}{{ end }}


    {{ define "email.default.subject" }}{{ template "__subject" . }}{{ end }}
    {{ define "email.default.html" }}
    <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
    <!--
    Style and HTML derived from https://github.com/mailgun/transactional-email-templates


    The MIT License (MIT)

    Copyright (c) 2014 Mailgun

    Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
    of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
    in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
    to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
    copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
    furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

    The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
    copies or substantial portions of the Software.

    THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
    IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
    FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
    AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
    LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
    OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
    SOFTWARE.
    -->
    <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">
    <head style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width" style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;" />
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;" />
    <title style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">{{ template "__subject" . }}</title>

    </head>

    <body itemscope="" itemtype="http://schema.org/EmailMessage" style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; -webkit-text-size-adjust: none; height: 100%; line-height: 1.6em; width: 100% !important; background-color: #f6f6f6; margin: 0; padding: 0;" bgcolor="#f6f6f6">

    <table style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; width: 100%; background-color: #f6f6f6; margin: 0;" bgcolor="#f6f6f6">
      <tr style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">
        <td style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; vertical-align: top; margin: 0;" valign="top"></td>
        <td width="600" style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; vertical-align: top; display: block !important; max-width: 600px !important; clear: both !important; width: 100% !important; margin: 0 auto; padding: 0;" valign="top">
          <div style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; max-width: 600px; display: block; margin: 0 auto; padding: 0;">
            <table width="100%" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; border-radius: 3px; background-color: #fff; margin: 0; border: 1px solid #e9e9e9;" bgcolor="#fff">
              <tr style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">
                <td style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: top; color: #fff; font-weight: 500; text-align: center; border-radius: 3px 3px 0 0; background-color: #E6522C; margin: 0; padding: 20px;" align="center" bgcolor="#E6522C" valign="top">
                  {{ .Alerts | len }} alert{{ if gt (len .Alerts) 1 }}s{{ end }} for {{ range .GroupLabels.SortedPairs }}
                    {{ .Name }}={{ .Value }}
                  {{ end }}
                </td>
              </tr>
              <tr style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">
                <td style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; vertical-align: top; margin: 0; padding: 10px;" valign="top">
                  <table width="100%" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">
                    <tr style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">
                      <td style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; vertical-align: top; margin: 0; padding: 0 0 20px;" valign="top">
                        <a href="{{ template "__alertmanagerURL" . }}" style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; color: #FFF; text-decoration: none; line-height: 2em; font-weight: bold; text-align: center; cursor: pointer; display: inline-block; border-radius: 5px; text-transform: capitalize; background-color: #348eda; margin: 0; border-color: #348eda; border-style: solid; border-width: 10px 20px;">View in {{ template "__alertmanager" . }}</a>
                      </td>
                    </tr>
                    {{ if gt (len .Alerts.Firing) 0 }}
                    <tr style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">
                      <td style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; vertical-align: top; margin: 0; padding: 0 0 20px;" valign="top">
                        <strong style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">[{{ .Alerts.Firing | len }}] Firing</strong>
                      </td>
                    </tr>
                    {{ end }}
                    {{ range .Alerts.Firing }}
                    <tr style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">
                      <td style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; vertical-align: top; margin: 0; padding: 0 0 20px;" valign="top">
                        <strong style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">Labels</strong><br style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;" />
                        {{ range .Labels.SortedPairs }}{{ .Name }} = {{ .Value }}<br style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;" />{{ end }}
                        {{ if gt (len .Annotations) 0 }}<strong style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">Annotations</strong><br style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;" />{{ end }}
                        {{ range .Annotations.SortedPairs }}{{ .Name }} = {{ .Value }}<br style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;" />{{ end }}
                        <a href="{{ .GeneratorURL }}" style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; color: #348eda; text-decoration: underline; margin: 0;">Source</a><br style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;" />
                      </td>
                    </tr>
                    {{ end }}

                    {{ if gt (len .Alerts.Resolved) 0 }}
                      {{ if gt (len .Alerts.Firing) 0 }}
                    <tr style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">
                      <td style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; vertical-align: top; margin: 0; padding: 0 0 20px;" valign="top">
                        <br style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;" />
                        <hr style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;" />
                        <br style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;" />
                      </td>
                    </tr>
                      {{ end }}
                    <tr style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">
                      <td style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; vertical-align: top; margin: 0; padding: 0 0 20px;" valign="top">
                        <strong style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">[{{ .Alerts.Resolved | len }}] Resolved</strong>
                      </td>
                    </tr>
                    {{ end }}
                    {{ range .Alerts.Resolved }}
                    <tr style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">
                      <td style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; vertical-align: top; margin: 0; padding: 0 0 20px;" valign="top">
                        <strong style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">Labels</strong><br style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;" />
                        {{ range .Labels.SortedPairs }}{{ .Name }} = {{ .Value }}<br style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;" />{{ end }}
                        {{ if gt (len .Annotations) 0 }}<strong style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">Annotations</strong><br style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;" />{{ end }}
                        {{ range .Annotations.SortedPairs }}{{ .Name }} = {{ .Value }}<br style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;" />{{ end }}
                        <a href="{{ .GeneratorURL }}" style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; color: #348eda; text-decoration: underline; margin: 0;">Source</a><br style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;" />
                      </td>
                    </tr>
                    {{ end }}
                  </table>
                </td>
              </tr>
            </table>

            <div style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; width: 100%; clear: both; color: #999; margin: 0; padding: 20px;">
              <table width="100%" style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">
                <tr style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; margin: 0;">
                  <td style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 12px; vertical-align: top; text-align: center; color: #999; margin: 0; padding: 0 0 20px;" align="center" valign="top"><a href="{{ .ExternalURL }}" style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 12px; color: #999; text-decoration: underline; margin: 0;">Sent by {{ template "__alertmanager" . }}</a></td>
                </tr>
              </table>
            </div></div>
        </td>
        <td style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 14px; vertical-align: top; margin: 0;" valign="top"></td>
      </tr>
    </table>

    </body>
    </html>

    {{ end }}

    {{ define "pushover.default.title" }}{{ template "__subject" . }}{{ end }}
    {{ define "pushover.default.message" }}{{ .CommonAnnotations.SortedPairs.Values | join " " }}
    {{ if gt (len .Alerts.Firing) 0 }}
    Alerts Firing:
    {{ template "__text_alert_list" .Alerts.Firing }}
    {{ end }}
    {{ if gt (len .Alerts.Resolved) 0 }}
    Alerts Resolved:
    {{ template "__text_alert_list" .Alerts.Resolved }}
    {{ end }}
    {{ end }}
    {{ define "pushover.default.url" }}{{ template "__alertmanagerURL" . }}{{ end }}
  slack.tmpl: |
    {{ define "slack.devops.text" }}
    {{range .Alerts}}{{.Annotations.DESCRIPTION}}
    {{end}}
    {{ end }}
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: null
  name: alertmanager-templates
  namespace: kube-system

configmap.yaml:

kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: alertmanager
  namespace: kube-system
data:
  config.yml: |-
    global:
      # ResolveTimeout is the time after which an alert is declared resolved
      # if it has not been updated.
      resolve_timeout: 5m
      # The smarthost and SMTP sender used for mail notifications.

      # The API URL to use for Slack notifications.
    # # The directory from which notification templates are read.
    templates:
    - '/etc/alertmanager-templates/*.tmpl'

    # The root route on which each incoming alert enters.
    route:

      # The labels by which incoming alerts are grouped together. For example,
      # multiple alerts coming in for cluster=A and alertname=LatencyHigh would
      # be batched into a single group.

      group_by: ['alertname', 'cluster', 'service']

      # When a new group of alerts is created by an incoming alert, wait at
      # least 'group_wait' to send the initial notification.
      # This way ensures that you get multiple alerts for the same group that start
      # firing shortly after another are batched together on the first
      # notification.

      group_wait: 30s

      # When the first notification was sent, wait 'group_interval' to send a batch
      # of new alerts that started firing for that group.

      group_interval: 5m

      # If an alert has successfully been sent, wait 'repeat_interval' to
      # resend them.

      #repeat_interval: 1m
      repeat_interval: 1m

      # A default receiver

      # If an alert isn't caught by a route, send it to default.
      receiver: webhook_alert 

      # All the above attributes are inherited by all child routes and can
      # overwritten on each.

      # The child route trees.
      routes:
      # Send severity=slack alerts to slack.
      - match:
          severity: info
        receiver: webhook_alert
      - match:
          severity: warning
        receiver: webhook_alert

    receivers:
    - name: webhook_alert
      webhook_configs:
      - url: 'http://192.168.88.26:8080/api/1.0/utils/alert/?token=ADW82115yn7YEWXCEW88WEW6'
        send_resolved: true

deployment.yaml:

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: alertmanager
  namespace: kube-system
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: alertmanager
  template:
    metadata:
      name: alertmanager
      labels:
        app: alertmanager
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: alertmanager
        image: quay.io/prometheus/alertmanager:v0.15.0
        args:
          - '--config.file=/etc/alertmanager/config.yml'
          - '--storage.path=/alertmanager'
        ports:
        - name: alertmanager
          containerPort: 9093
        volumeMounts:
        - name: config-volume
          mountPath: /etc/alertmanager
        - name: templates-volume
          mountPath: /etc/alertmanager-templates
        - name: alertmanager
          mountPath: /alertmanager
      serviceAccountName: prometheus
      volumes:
      - name: config-volume
        configMap:
          name: alertmanager
      - name: templates-volume
        configMap:
          name: alertmanager-templates
      - name: alertmanager
        emptyDir: {}

service.yaml:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  annotations:
    prometheus.io/scrape: 'true'
    prometheus.io/path: '/metrics'
  labels:
    name: alertmanager
  name: alertmanager
  namespace: kube-system
spec:
  selector:
    app: alertmanager
  type: NodePort
  ports:
  - name: alertmanager
    protocol: TCP
    port: 9093
    targetPort: 9093

依次部署上方几个yaml文件。
在配置完alertmanager之后,需要给prometheus主程序配置文件添加alertmanager相关的配置,即修改prometheus的configmap,添加data.rules.yml,增加一些达到触发告警阈值的规则。

  rules.yml: |
    groups:
    - name: test-rule
      rules:
      - alert: NodeFilesystemUsage-high
        expr: (node_filesystem_size{device="rootfs"} - node_filesystem_free{device="rootfs"}) / node_filesystem_size{device="rootfs"} * 100 > 80
        for: 2m
        labels:
          team: node
          severity: warning
        annotations:
          summary: "{{$labels.instance}}: High Filesystem usage detected"
          description: "{{$labels.instance}}: Filesystem usage is above 80% (current value is: {{ $value }}"
      - alert: NodeMemoryUsage
        expr: (node_memory_MemTotal - (node_memory_MemFree+node_memory_Buffers+node_memory_Cached )) / node_memory_MemTotal * 100 > 80
        for: 2m
        labels:
          team: node
        annotations:
          summary: "{{$labels.instance}}: High Memory usage detected"
          description: "{{$labels.instance}}: Memory usage is above 80% (current value is: {{ $value }}"
      - alert: NodeMemoryUsage-low
        expr: (node_memory_MemTotal_bytes - (node_memory_MemFree_bytes + node_memory_Buffers_bytes + node_memory_Cached_bytes)) / node_memory_MemTotal_bytes * 100 > 1
        for: 1m
        labels:
          team: node
          severity: info
        annotations:
          summary: "{{$labels.instance}}: High Memory usage detected"
          description: "{{$labels.instance}}: Memory usage is above 80% (current value is: {{ $value }}"
      - alert: NodeCPUUsage
        expr: (100 - (avg by (instance) (irate(node_cpu{job="kubernetes-node-exporter",mode="idle"}[5m])) * 100)) > 80
        for: 2m
        labels:
          team: node
        annotations:
          summary: "{{$labels.instance}}: High CPU usage detected"
          description: "{{$labels.instance}}: CPU usage is above 80% (current value is: {{ $value }}"
      - alert: PodMemUsage
        expr: container_memory_working_set_bytes{pod_name!="",namespace="default"}/container_spec_memory_limit_bytes{pod_name!="",namespace="default"} *100 != +Inf > 10
        for: 2m
        labels:
          team: node
        annotations:
          summary: "{{$labels.instance}}: Pod High Mem usage detected"
          description: "{{$labels.instance}}: Pod CPU Mem is above 80% (current value is: {{ $value }}"

更新之后的prometheus的configmap完整yaml文件如下:

kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: prometheus-config
  namespace: kube-system
data:
  prometheus.yml: |
    global:
      scrape_interval:     15s
      evaluation_interval: 15s
    rule_files:
    - /etc/prometheus/rules.yml
    alerting:
      alertmanagers:
        - static_configs:
          - targets: ["alertmanager:9093"]
    scrape_configs:

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-apiservers'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: endpoints
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace, __meta_kubernetes_service_name, __meta_kubernetes_endpoint_port_name]
        action: keep
        regex: default;kubernetes;https

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-nodes'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)
      - target_label: __address__
        replacement: kubernetes.default.svc:443
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_node_name]
        regex: (.+)
        target_label: __metrics_path__
        replacement: /api/v1/nodes/${1}/proxy/metrics

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-cadvisor'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)
      - target_label: __address__
        replacement: kubernetes.default.svc:443
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_node_name]
        regex: (.+)
        target_label: __metrics_path__
        replacement: /api/v1/nodes/${1}/proxy/metrics/cadvisor

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-service-endpoints'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: endpoints
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_scrape]
        action: keep
        regex: true
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_scheme]
        action: replace
        target_label: __scheme__
        regex: (https?)
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_path]
        action: replace
        target_label: __metrics_path__
        regex: (.+)
      - source_labels: [__address__, __meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_port]
        action: replace
        target_label: __address__
        regex: ([^:]+)(?::\d+)?;(\d+)
        replacement: $1:$2
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_service_label_(.+)
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace]
        action: replace
        target_label: kubernetes_namespace
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_name]
        action: replace
        target_label: kubernetes_name

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-services'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: service
      metrics_path: /probe
      params:
        module: [http_2xx]
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_probe]
        action: keep
        regex: true
      - source_labels: [__address__]
        target_label: __param_target
      - target_label: __address__
        replacement: blackbox-exporter.example.com:9115
      - source_labels: [__param_target]
        target_label: instance
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_service_label_(.+)
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace]
        target_label: kubernetes_namespace
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_name]
        target_label: kubernetes_name

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-ingresses'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: ingress
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_ingress_annotation_prometheus_io_probe]
        action: keep
        regex: true
        regex: (.+)
      - source_labels: [__address__, __meta_kubernetes_pod_annotation_prometheus_io_port]
        action: replace
        regex: ([^:]+)(?::\d+)?;(\d+)
        replacement: $1:$2
        target_label: __address__
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_pod_label_(.+)
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace]
        action: replace
        target_label: kubernetes_namespace
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_pod_name]
        action: replace
        target_label: kubernetes_pod_name
    - job_name: 'kubernetes-node-exporter'
      scheme: http
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_role]
        action: replace
        target_label: kubernetes_role
      - source_labels: [__address__]
        regex: '(.*):10250'
        replacement: '${1}:31672'
        target_label: __address__
  rules.yml: |
    groups:
    - name: test-rule
      rules:
      - alert: NodeFilesystemUsage-high
        expr: (node_filesystem_size{device="rootfs"} - node_filesystem_free{device="rootfs"}) / node_filesystem_size{device="rootfs"} * 100 > 80
        for: 2m
        labels:
          team: node
          severity: warning
        annotations:
          summary: "{{$labels.instance}}: High Filesystem usage detected"
          description: "{{$labels.instance}}: Filesystem usage is above 80% (current value is: {{ $value }}"
      - alert: NodeMemoryUsage
        expr: (node_memory_MemTotal - (node_memory_MemFree+node_memory_Buffers+node_memory_Cached )) / node_memory_MemTotal * 100 > 80
        for: 2m
        labels:
          team: node
        annotations:
          summary: "{{$labels.instance}}: High Memory usage detected"
          description: "{{$labels.instance}}: Memory usage is above 80% (current value is: {{ $value }}"
      - alert: NodeMemoryUsage-low
        expr: (node_memory_MemTotal_bytes - (node_memory_MemFree_bytes + node_memory_Buffers_bytes + node_memory_Cached_bytes)) / node_memory_MemTotal_bytes * 100 > 1
        for: 1m
        labels:
          team: node
          severity: info
        annotations:
          summary: "{{$labels.instance}}: High Memory usage detected"
          description: "{{$labels.instance}}: Memory usage is above 80% (current value is: {{ $value }}"
      - alert: NodeCPUUsage
        expr: (100 - (avg by (instance) (irate(node_cpu{job="kubernetes-node-exporter",mode="idle"}[5m])) * 100)) > 80
        for: 2m
        labels:
          team: node
        annotations:
          summary: "{{$labels.instance}}: High CPU usage detected"
          description: "{{$labels.instance}}: CPU usage is above 80% (current value is: {{ $value }}"
      - alert: PodMemUsage
        expr: container_memory_working_set_bytes{pod_name!="",namespace="default"}/container_spec_memory_limit_bytes{pod_name!="",namespace="default"} *100 != +Inf > 80
        for: 2m
        labels:
          team: node
        annotations:
          summary: "{{$labels.instance}}: Pod High Mem usage detected"
          description: "{{$labels.instance}}: Pod CPU Mem is above 80% (current value is: {{ $value }}"

为了测试使用,增加了一项node内存使用率超过1%则触发告警,这个在使用时可以删掉。

kubectl apply -f config.map更新prometheus配置文件,更新配置文件后,prometheus不会自动重载配置,需重启pod,为了优雅地重载,可以采取更新deployment注解的方式来触发滚动升级,保证服务不中断。使用如下命令:

kubectl patch deployment prometheus --patch '{"spec": {"template": {"metadata": {"annotations": {"update-time": "2018-06-25 17:50" }}}}}' -n kube-system

特别说明

一般用于容器计算内存使用量的,有两个常用指标:

  • container_memory_usage_bytes = container_memory_rss + container_memory_cache + kernel memory
  • container_memory_working_set_bytes = container_memory_usage_bytes – total_inactive_file(未激活的匿名缓存页)

其中container_memory_working_set_bytes是容器真实使用的内存量,也是limit限制时的 oom 判断依据,kubectl top 命令采集的也是这个metric,因此,若你存在容器实际使用内存情况计算不准的情况,可以检查一下是不是混用了这两个metric,建议使用以container_memory_working_set_bytes来计算容器的内存使用情况。

四、告警效果

查看prometheus告警模块,可以看到激活的告警消息:
这里写图片描述

钉钉收到告警消息:
这里写图片描述
这里写图片描述

告警处于firing激活状态时,只有有效的start_time,endtime为无效值,状态为resolved时会有准确的end-time。

点击告警消息中的链接,查看明细数据:
这里写图片描述
这里写图片描述

总结

配置告警消息并不难,难点在于各项键控值的定义,metrics类型有很多,同时支持的各类应用也有很多,还有很多可摸索的空间。后期还要不断的扩充、调整监控类型,调整优化通知策略,prometheus非常地灵活,可以基于此不断发掘,打造最适合自己公司环境的容器云监控体系。

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