Java 集合体系详解——List体系有序集合


引言

面向对象语言对事物的体现必然是以对象的形式,Java工程师为了方便多多个对象的操作,就对对象进行存储,集合就是存储对象的一种方式,他们的底层都是基于不同的数据结构。当然集合和数组一样都是容器,数组也是可以存储对象的,但是数组长度一经初始化长度就是固定的,而集合长度是可变的,数组只能用于存储相同类型的对象,而集合可以存储不同类型的对象,数据多了用对象封装,对象多了用集合存。

一Java 集合类体系结构

Java的所有的集合体系都是实现了Collection接口,所有通用的 Collection 实现类(通常通过它的一个子接口间接实现 Collection)应该提供两个“标准”构造方法:一个是 void(无参数)构造方法,用于创建空 collection;另一个是带有 Collection 类型单参数的构造方法,用于创建一个具有与其参数相同元素新的 collection。add方法的参数类型是Object,以便于利用多态特性接收任意类型的对象,集合中存储的都是对象的引用(地址)。在Collection下又分三个子体系: 
List、Set、Map体系。 
这里写图片描述

二集合的迭代器

1 迭代器的实质及设计思想

迭代器其实质只是一个接口,只是取出集合中元素的一种方式,为了专业些给了他一个叫名字曰:迭代器。再深究其思想:每一个容器都有存和取的方式,而且每个容器的数据结构也许都不一样,所以存取的动作实现的方式也有可能不一样,为了用同一个描述不同集合读取方式而把这个一操作封装为一个类,而这个类是在各个集合类的内部(因为要操作集合内部的数据成员,内部类最方便)且这个内部类都继承了Iterator接口,Iterator主要是封装了判断和取出数据操作。每一个容器都对外暴露了一个方法即Iterator(),只要调用就能得到对应的迭代器。不知道你们是否受到了启发?反正我是学习到了他的设计思想。(把数据封装为类,抽取共性作为父类或者接口,再结合多态

2 迭代器的应用

再回到顶层接口Collection,接口里定义了一个Iterator iterator() <返回在此 collection 的元素上进行迭代的迭代器>,既然所有的集合类都是实现了Collection接口所以我们只要调用对应集合类中复写了的 Iterator()就得到了迭代器,都能够借助迭代器里的定义的方法hasNext()、next()、remove()去遍历集合元素。

3 List体系特有的迭代器ListIterator

List体系下由于Iterator在迭代时不能通过集合对象的方法操作集合中的元素,因为会发生并发异常,所以在迭代时只能用迭代器的方法操作元素,可Iterator方法是有限的,只能对元素进行判断、取出、删除的操作,如果要进行其他操作如添加、修改等就应该使用特有的ListIterator。

三 List集合体系

List集合体系即实现了List接口的所有集合类,最常用的是ArrayListLinkedList这两个集合类。

1 List集合的特点

  1. 元素是有序的,元素可以重复,因为该集合体系有索引
  2. List体系下由于Iterator在迭代时不能通过集合对象的方法操作集合中的元素,因为会发生异常。

2 ArrayList存储对象的过程及应用

2.1)集合中存储的是对象的地址

举个例子说明,我们要把一个Student对象保存到ArrayList集合里,在栈中会保存s、al变量(基本类型的变量和对象的引用变量都是在函数的栈内存中分配),由于new了两个对象而在堆内存中会分配到两个地址空间(堆内存用于存放由new创建的对象和数组),一个用于保存new Student(),一个用于保存new ArrayList(),当add之后,才会把new Student()的地址保存到集合中。

<code class="hljs oxygene has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background: transparent;">Student s=<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> Student();
ArrayList<Student> al=<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> ArrayList<Student> ();
al.<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">add</span>(s);</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238);"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li></ul><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238);"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li></ul>

这里写图片描述

2.2)ArrayList集合的应用

  1. 例1 :保存数据到ArrayList中并遍历
<code class="hljs avrasm has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background: transparent;">//创建ArrayList对象
ArrayList<String> al=new ArrayList<String>()<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;</span>
al<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.add</span>(<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"初"</span>)<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;</span>
al<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.add</span>(<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"识"</span>)<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;</span>
al<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.add</span>(<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"Java"</span>)<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;</span>
al<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.add</span>(<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"集合"</span>)<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;</span>
al<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.add</span>(<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"框架"</span>)<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;</span>
//遍历
Iterator<String> it=al<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.Iterator</span>()<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;//接口只能指向自己的子类对象,获取迭代器用于出去集合中的元素</span>
while(it<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.hasNext</span>()){
    System<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.out</span><span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.println</span>(it<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.next</span>())<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;//取出每一个元素</span>
}</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238);"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li></ul><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238);"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li></ul>

若在迭代过程中,使用集合对象准备添加或者删除元素时会产生并发修改异常,把遍历代码改成这样:

<code class="hljs livecodeserver has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background: transparent;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">while</span>(<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">it</span>.hasNext()){
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">if</span>(obj.equals(<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"Java"</span>)){
        al.<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">add</span>(<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"任性添加"</span>);<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;"> //执行时报异常</span>
    }
    System.out.println(<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">it</span>.next())<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;//取出每一个元素</span>
}</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238);"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li></ul><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238);"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li></ul>

但是不是使用集合对象去操作,而是该用迭代器对象去操作集合的数据,则可以正常执行,比如删除掉指定元素,把代码改为:

<code class="hljs cmake has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background: transparent;">System.out.println(al);//输出:[<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"初"</span>,<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"识"</span>,<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"Java"</span>,<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"集合"</span>,<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"框架"</span>]
Iterator<<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">String</span>> it=al.Iterator();//接口只能指向自己的子类对象,获取迭代器用于出去集合中的元素
<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">while</span>(it.hasNext()){
    it.next();//取出每一个元素
    //若在迭代过程中,使用集合对象进行准备添加或者删除元素时会产生并发修改异常,应该同样适用迭代器对象来进行,比如 it.<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">remove</span>();
    Object obj=new Object();
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">if</span>(obj.equals(<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"Java"</span>)){
        it.<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">remove</span>();//会正常执行,并把元素Java引用从集合移除掉,但是Java还是存在于内存中,因为Java的引用还在被obj引用所以被打印出来
    }
    //但是迭代过程还是会先输出被删除的元素:<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"初"</span>,<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"识"</span>,<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"Java"</span>,<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"集合"</span>,<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"框架"</span>
}
System.out.println(al);//输出:[<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"初"</span>,<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"识"</span>,<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"集合"</span>,<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"框架"</span>]</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238);"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li></ul><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238);"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li></ul>

再一次证明的集合存储的是对象的地址。 
2. 例2:去除ArrayList中的重复元素

<code class="hljs cs has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background: transparent;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> ArrayList <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">removeRepeatElem</span>(ArraList al){

<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//定义个临时容器</span>
ArrayList tmp=<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> ArrayList();
Iterator it=<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> al.iterator();
<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">while</span>(it.hasNext()){
    Object obj=it.next();
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">if</span>(!tmp.contains(obj)){
        tmp.add(obj);
    }
}
<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> tmp;
}</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238);"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">13</li></ul><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238);"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">13</li></ul>

2 LinkedList链表的应用

LinkedList的使用和ArrayList没多大区别,两者相比LinkedList的优势在于更加便于进行频繁的修改操作。下面用LinkedList来模拟Queue队列数据结构

<code class="hljs java has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background: transparent;">Class MyQueue{
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> LinkedList link;
    Quee(){
        link=<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> LinkedList();
    }
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">void</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">myAdd</span>(Object obj){
        link.addFirst(obj);
    }

    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> Object <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">myGet</span>(){
        link.removeLast();
    }
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">boolean</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">isNull</span>(){
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> link.isEmpty();
    }
    。。。
}</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238);"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">13</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">14</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">15</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">16</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">17</li></ul><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238);"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">13</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">14</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">15</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">16</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">17</li></ul>

3 向量Vector(尽量不要使用)

向量Vector其实就是可变长度的数组,ArrayList完全可以替代,向量中的枚举。有点类似迭代器,应优先考虑迭代器。因为枚举的名称及方法的名称都过长所以被迭代器取代了。

<code class="hljs avrasm has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background: transparent;">Vector e=new Vector()<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;</span>
e<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.add</span>(<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"初"</span>)<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;</span>
e<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.add</span>(<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"识"</span>)<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;</span>
e<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.add</span>(<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"Java"</span>)<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;</span>
e<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.add</span>(<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"集合"</span>)<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;</span>
e<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.add</span>(<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"框架"</span>)<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;</span>

Enumeration en =v<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.elements</span>()<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;//获取枚举,可以理解为迭代器该怎么用还是怎么用</span></code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238);"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li></ul><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238);"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li></ul>

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