【MCM-2017】2017年数学建模美赛题目原文及翻译-D(个人思路)

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2017 ICM Problem D

Problem D: Optimizing the Passenger Throughput at an Airport Security Checkpoint

Following the terrorist attacks in the US on September 11, 2001, airport security has been significantly enhanced throughout the world. Airports have security checkpoints, where passengers and their baggage are screened for explosives and other dangerous items. The goals of these security measures are to prevent passengers from hijacking or destroying aircraft and to keep all passengers safe during their travel. However, airlines have a vested interest in maintaining a positive flying experience for passengers by minimizing the time they spend waiting in line at a security checkpoint and waiting for their flight. Therefore, there is a tension between desires to maximize security while minimizing inconvenience to passengers.

During 2016, the U.S. Transportation Security Agency (TSA) came under sharp criticism for extremely long lines, in particular at Chicago’s O’Hare international airport. Following this public attention, the TSA invested in several modifications to their checkpoint equipment and procedures and increased staffing in the more highly congested airports. While these modifications were somewhat successful in reducing waiting times, it is unclear how much cost the TSA incurred to implement the new measures and increase staffing. In addition to the issues at O’Hare, there have also been incidents of unexplained and unpredicted long lines at other airports, including airports that normally have short wait times. This high variance in checkpoint lines can be extremely costly to passengers as they decide between arriving unnecessarily early or potentially missing their scheduled flight. Numerous news articles, including [1,2,3,4,5], describe some of the issues associated with airport security checkpoints.

Your Internal Control Management (ICM) team has been contracted by the TSA to review airport security checkpoints and staffing to identify potential bottlenecks that disrupt passenger throughput. They are especially interested in creative solutions that both increase checkpoint throughput and reduce variance in wait time, all while maintaining the same standards of safety and security.
The current process for a US airport security checkpoint is displayed in Figure 1.

 Zone A:
o Passengers randomly arrive at the checkpoint and wait in a queue until a
security officer can inspect their identification and boarding documents.
 Zone B:
o The passengers then move to a subsequent queue for an open screening
line; depending on the anticipated activity level at the airport, more or less
lines may be open.
o Oncethepassengersreachthefrontofthisqueue,theyprepareallof
their belongings for X-ray screening. Passengers must remove shoes, belts, jackets, metal objects, electronics, and containers with liquids, placing them in a bin to be X-rayed separately; laptops and some medical equipment also need to be removed from their bags and placed in a separate bin.
o Alloftheirbelongings,includingthebinscontainingtheaforementioned items, are moved by conveyor belt through an X-ray machine, where some items are flagged for additional search or screening by a security officer (Zone D).
o Meanwhile the passengers process through either a millimeter wave scanner or metal detector.
o Passengers that fail this step receive a pat-down inspection by a security officer (Zone D).
 Zone C:
o The passengers then proceed to the conveyor belt on the other side of
the X-ray scanner to collect their belongings and depart the checkpoint area.

Figure 1: Illustration of the TSA Security Screening Process.

Approximately 45% of passengers enroll in a program called Pre-Check for trusted travelers. These passengers pay $85 to receive a background check and enjoy a separate screening process for five years. There is often one Pre-Check lane open for every three regular lanes, despite the fact that more passengers use the Pre-Check process. Pre-Check passengers and their bags go through the same screening process with a few modifications designed to expedite screening. Pre-Check passengers must still remove metal and electronic items for scanning as well as any liquids, but are not required to remove shoes, belts, or light jackets; they also do not need to remove their computers from their bags.

Data has been collected about how passengers proceed through each step of the security screening process. Click here to view the Excel data.

Your specific tasks are:
a. Develop one or more model(s) that allow(s) you to explore the flow of passengers through a security check point and identify bottlenecks. Clearly identify where problem areas exist in the current process.
b. Develop two or more potential modifications to the current process to improve passenger throughput and reduce variance in wait time. Model these changes to demonstrate how your modifications impact the process.
c. It is well known that different parts of the world have their own cultural norms that shape the local rules of social interaction. Consider how these cultural norms might impact your model. For example, Americans are known for deeply respecting and prioritizing the personal space of others, and there is a social stigma against “cutting” in front of others. Meanwhile, the Swiss are known for their emphasis on collective efficiency, and the Chinese are known for prioritizing individual efficiency. Consider how cultural differences may impact the way in which passenger’s process through checkpoints as a sensitivity analysis. The cultural differences you apply to your sensitivity analysis can be based on real cultural differences, or you can simulate different traveler styles that are not associated with any particular culture (e.g., a slower traveler). How can the security system accommodate these differences in a manner that expedites passenger throughput and reduces variance?
d. Propose policy and procedural recommendations for the security managers based on your model. These policies may be globally applicable, or may be tailored for specific cultures and/or traveler types.

In addition to developing and implementing your model(s) to address this problem, your team should validate your model(s), assess strengths and weaknesses, and propose ideas for improvement (future work).

Your ICM submission should consist of a 1 page Summary Sheet and your solution cannot exceed 20 pages for a maximum of 21 pages. Note: The appendix and references do not count toward the 20 page limit.

References:
[1] http://www.wsj.com/articles/why-tsa-security-lines-arent-as-bad-as-youd-feared-1469032116
[2] http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-tsa-airport-security-lines-met-20160823-story.html
[3] http://www.cnn.com/2016/06/09/travel/tsa-security-line-wait-times-how-long/
[4] http://wgntv.com/2016/07/13/extremely-long-lines-reported-at-chicago-midway-airports-tsa-checkpoint/
[5] http://www.cnbc.com/2016/04/14/long-lines-and-missed-flights-fuel-criticism-of-tsa-screening.html


问题D:在机场安全检查站优化乘客吞吐量

继2001年9月11日美国发生恐怖袭击事件后,全世界的机场安全状况得到显着改善。机场有安全检查站,在那里,乘客及其行李被检查爆炸物和其他危险物品。这些安全措施的目的是防止乘客劫持或摧毁飞机,并在旅行期间保持所有乘客的安全。然而,航空公司有既得利益,通过最小化他们在安全检查站排队等候并等待他们的航班的时间,为乘客保持积极的飞行体验。因此,在希望之间存在最大化安全性同时最小化对乘客的不便的张力。

在2016年,美国运输安全局(TSA)受到了对极长线路,特别是在芝加哥的奥黑尔国际机场的尖锐批评。在此公众关注之后,TSA投资对其检查点设备和程序进行了若干修改,并增加了在高度拥堵的机场中的人员配置。虽然这些修改在减少等待时间方面有一定的成功,但TSA在实施新措施和增加人员配置方面花费了多少成本尚不清楚。除了在O’Hare的问题,还有在其他机场,包括通常有短的等待时间的机场不明原因和不可预测的长线的事件。检查站线路的这种高差异对于乘客来说可能是极其耗时的,因为他们决定要尽早到达,因为可能延迟错过他们的预定航班之间。许多新闻文章,包括[1,2,3,4,5],描述了与机场安全检查站相关的一些问题。

您的内部控制管理(ICM)团队已经与TSA签订合同,审查机场安全检查站和人员配置,以确定可能干扰乘客吞吐量的瓶颈。他们特别感兴趣的创意解决方案,既增加检查点吞吐量,减少等待时间的方差,同时保持相同的安全和安全标准。

美国机场安全检查点的当前流程如图1所示。

区域A:

o乘客随机到达检查站,并等待队列,直到安全人员可以检查他们的身份证明和登机文件。

区域B:

o然后乘客移动到打开的筛选线的后续队列;根据机场的预期活动水平,或多或少的线路可能开放。

o一旦乘客到达这个队列的前面,他们准备所有的物品用于X射线检查。乘客必须用液体去除鞋子,皮带,夹克,金属物体,电子产品和容器,将它们放置在单独的X射线箱中;笔记本电脑和一些医疗设备也需要从其袋中取出并放置在单独的容器中。

o他们的所有物品,包括包含上述物品的箱子,由传送带通过X光机移动,其中一些物品被标记,供安全人员(D区)进行额外的搜索或筛选。

o同时乘客通过毫米波扫描仪或金属探测器进行处理。

o未能通过此步骤的乘客接受安全官员(D区)的轻击检查。

C区:

o乘客然后前进到X射线扫描仪另一侧的传送带,收集他们的物品并离开检查站区域。

图1:TSA安全筛选过程的图示。

大约45%的乘客报名参加一个称为预检查信任旅行者的计划。这些乘客支付85美元,接受背景调查,并享受五年的独立筛选程序。尽管事实上更多的乘客使用预检查过程,但是每三条常规车道通常有一个预检查车道打开。预检查乘客和他们的行李经过相同的筛选过程,经过一些修改,以加快筛选。预检查乘客还必须移除扫描用的金属和电子物品以及任何液体,但不需要去除鞋子,皮带或灯罩;他们也不需要从他们的包里删除他们的电脑。

收集了关于乘客如何进行安全检查过程的每个步骤的数据。

您的特定任务是:

a.开发一个或多个模型,允许您通过安全检查点探索乘客流,并识别瓶颈。清楚地确定当前流程中存在哪些问题区域。

b.对当前流程开发两个或多个潜在修改,以提高旅客吞吐量并减少等待时间的差异。对这些更改进行建模,以演示修改如何影响流程。

c.众所周知,世界上不同的地方都有自己的文化规范,塑造了地方社会互动的规则。考虑这些文化规范如何影响你的模型。例如,美国人以深为尊重和优先考虑别人的个人空间而闻名,在别人的面前“切割,或者理解为剪切”当作是一种社会歧视。同时,瑞士人以集体效率为重点,中国人以优先个人效率而闻名。考虑文化差异如何影响乘客的过程通过检查点作为敏感性分析的方式。您应用于敏感性分析的文化差异可以基于真实的文化差异,或者您可以模拟与任何特定文化(例如,较慢的旅行者)无关的不同旅行者风格。安全系统如何以加快乘客吞吐量并减少差异的方式来适应这些差异?

d.根据您的模型为安全管理器提出政策和程序建议。这些策略可以是全球适用的,或者可以针对特定文化和/或旅行者类型来定制。

除了开发和实施您的模型来解决这个问题,您的团队还应该验证您的模型,评估优势和弱点,并提出改进建议(未来工作)。


个人思路 仅供参考

个人觉得是一个排队论中的多服务排队系统方面的问题【 Multi-Server and Multi-Queue Systems】,但是特殊的,需要评估风险因子

参考文献:

Fair Operation of Multi-Server and Multi-Queue Systems.pdf

Airport Gate Scheduling for Passengers, Aircraft, and.pdf

MATLab排队系统设计

A Discrete Event Simulation to model Passenger Flow in the Airport Terminal .pdf

Optimizing the Aviation Checkpoint Process to Enhance Security and Expedite Screening.pdf

机场安检优化

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