Windows CE下的USB设备驱动程序开发实例

下面举个简单的例子来详细说明一下驱动程序的开发过程。

例如我们有个USB Mouse设备,设备信息描述如下:

Device Descriptor:

bcdUSB: 0x0100

bDeviceClass: 0x00

bDeviceSubClass: 0x00

bDeviceProtocol: 0x00

bMaxPacketSize0: 0x08 (8)

idVendor: 0x05E3 (Genesys Logic Inc.)

idProduct: 0x0001

bcdDevice: 0x0101

iManufacturer: 0x00

iProduct: 0x01

iSerialNumber: 0x00

bNumConfigurations: 0x01

 

ConnectionStatus: DeviceConnected

Current Config Value: 0x01

Device Bus Speed: Low

Device Address: 0x02

Open Pipes: 1

 

Endpoint Descriptor:

bEndpointAddress: 0x81

Transfer Type: Interrupt

wMaxPacketSize: 0x0003 (3)

bInterval: 0x0A


可以看出上述设备有一个中断PIPE,包的最大值为3。可能有人问上述的值怎么得到的,win2k 的DDK中有个usbview的例程,编译一下,将你的USB设备插到PC机的USB口中,运行usbview.exe即可看得相应的设备信息。

 

有了这些基本信息,就可以编写USB设备了,首先声明一下,下面的代码取自微软的USB鼠标样本程序,版权归微软所有,此处仅仅借用来描述一下USB鼠标驱动的开发过程,读者如需要引用此代码,需要得到微软的同意。

 

首先,必须输出USBD要求调用的三个函数,首先到设备插入到USB端口时,USBD会调用USBDeviceAttach()函数,相应的代码如下:

extern "C" BOOL

USBDeviceAttach(

USB_HANDLE hDevice,            // USB设备句柄

LPCUSB_FUNCS lpUsbFuncs,       // USBDI的函数集合

LPCUSB_INTERFACE lpInterface,  // 设备接口描述信息

LPCWSTR szUniqueDriverId,      // 设备ID描述字符串。

LPBOOL fAcceptControl,         // 返回TRUE,标识我们可以控制此设备, 反之表示不能控制

DWORD dwUnused)

{

*fAcceptControl = FALSE;

// 我们的鼠标设备有特定的描述信息,要检测是否是我们的设备。

if (lpInterface == NULL)

return FALSE;

// 打印相关的USB设备接口描述信息。

DEBUGMSG(ZONE_INIT,(TEXT("USBMouse: DeviceAttach, IF %u, #EP:%u, Class:%u, Sub:%u,Prot:% u/r/n"), lpInterface->Descriptor.bInterfaceNumber,lpInterface->Descriptor.bNumEndpoints, lpInterface->Descriptor.bInterfaceClass,lpInterface->Descriptor.bInterfaceSubClass,lpInterface->Descriptor.bInterfaceProtocol));

// 初试数据USB鼠标类,产生一个接受USB鼠标数据的线程

CMouse * pMouse = new CMouse(hDevice, lpUsbFuncs, lpInterface);

if (pMouse == NULL)

return FALSE;

 

if (!pMouse->Initialize())

{

delete pMouse;

return FALSE;

}

 

// 注册一个监控USB设备事件的回调函数,用于监控USB设备是否已经拔掉。

(*lpUsbFuncs->lpRegisterNotificationRoutine)(hDevice,

USBDeviceNotifications, pMouse);

 

*fAcceptControl = TRUE;

return TRUE;

}

 

第二个函数是 USBInstallDriver()函数,

一些基本定义如下:

const WCHAR gcszRegisterClientDriverId[] = L"RegisterClientDriverID";

const WCHAR gcszRegisterClientSettings[] = L"RegisterClientSettings";

const WCHAR gcszUnRegisterClientDriverId[] = L"UnRegisterClientDriverID";

const WCHAR gcszUnRegisterClientSettings[] = L"UnRegisterClientSettings";

const WCHAR gcszMouseDriverId[] = L"Generic_Sample_Mouse_Driver";

 

函数接口如下:

extern "C" BOOL

USBInstallDriver(

LPCWSTR szDriverLibFile) // @parm [IN] - Contains client driver DLL name

{

BOOL fRet = FALSE;

HINSTANCE hInst = LoadLibrary(L"USBD.DLL");

 

// 注册USB设备信息

if(hInst)

{

LPREGISTER_CLIENT_DRIVER_ID pRegisterId = (LPREGISTER_CLIENT_DRIVER_ID)

GetProcAddress(hInst, gcszRegisterClientDriverId);

 

LPREGISTER_CLIENT_SETTINGS pRegisterSettings =

(LPREGISTER_CLIENT_SETTINGS) GetProcAddress(hInst,

gcszRegisterClientSettings);

 

if(pRegisterId && pRegisterSettings)

{

USB_DRIVER_SETTINGS DriverSettings;

 

DriverSettings.dwCount = sizeof(DriverSettings);

 

// 设置我们的特定的信息。

DriverSettings.dwVendorId = USB_NO_INFO;

DriverSettings.dwProductId = USB_NO_INFO;

DriverSettings.dwReleaseNumber = USB_NO_INFO;

 

DriverSettings.dwDeviceClass = USB_NO_INFO;

DriverSettings.dwDeviceSubClass = USB_NO_INFO;

DriverSettings.dwDeviceProtocol = USB_NO_INFO;

 

DriverSettings.dwInterfaceClass = 0x03; // HID

DriverSettings.dwInterfaceSubClass = 0x01; // boot device

DriverSettings.dwInterfaceProtocol = 0x02; // mouse

 

fRet = (*pRegisterId)(gcszMouseDriverId);

 

if(fRet)

{

fRet = (*pRegisterSettings)(szDriverLibFile,

gcszMouseDriverId, NULL, &DriverSettings);

 

if(!fRet)

{

//BUGBUG unregister the Client Driver’s ID

}

}

}

else

{

RETAILMSG(1,(TEXT("!USBMouse: Error getting USBD function pointers/r/n")));

}

FreeLibrary(hInst);

}

return fRet;

}

上述代码主要用于产生USB设备驱动程序需要的注册表信息,需要注意的是:USB设备驱动程序不使用标准的注册表函数,而是使用RegisterClientDriverID()和RegisterClientSettings来注册相应的设备信息。

 

另外一个函数是USBUninstallDriver()函数,具体代码如下:

extern "C" BOOL

USBUnInstallDriver()

{

BOOL fRet = FALSE;

HINSTANCE hInst = LoadLibrary(L"USBD.DLL");

 

if(hInst)

{

LPUN_REGISTER_CLIENT_DRIVER_ID pUnRegisterId =

(LPUN_REGISTER_CLIENT_DRIVER_ID)

GetProcAddress(hInst, gcszUnRegisterClientDriverId);

 

LPUN_REGISTER_CLIENT_SETTINGS pUnRegisterSettings =

(LPUN_REGISTER_CLIENT_SETTINGS) GetProcAddress(hInst,

gcszUnRegisterClientSettings);

 

if(pUnRegisterSettings)

{

USB_DRIVER_SETTINGS DriverSettings;

 

DriverSettings.dwCount = sizeof(DriverSettings);

// 必须填入与注册时相同的信息。

DriverSettings.dwVendorId = USB_NO_INFO;

DriverSettings.dwProductId = USB_NO_INFO;

DriverSettings.dwReleaseNumber = USB_NO_INFO;

 

DriverSettings.dwDeviceClass = USB_NO_INFO;

DriverSettings.dwDeviceSubClass = USB_NO_INFO;

DriverSettings.dwDeviceProtocol = USB_NO_INFO;

 

DriverSettings.dwInterfaceClass = 0x03; // HID

DriverSettings.dwInterfaceSubClass = 0x01; // boot device

DriverSettings.dwInterfaceProtocol = 0x02; // mouse

 

fRet = (*pUnRegisterSettings)(gcszMouseDriverId, NULL,

&DriverSettings);

}

 

if(pUnRegisterId)

{

BOOL fRetTemp = (*pUnRegisterId)(gcszMouseDriverId);

fRet = fRet ? fRetTemp : fRet;

}

FreeLibrary(hInst);

}

return fRet;

}

此函数主要用于删除USBInstallDriver()时创建的注册表信息,同样的它使用自己的函数接口UnRegisterClientDriverID()和UnRegisterClientSettings()来做相应的处理。

另外一个需要处理的注册的监控通知函数USBDeviceNotifications():

extern "C" BOOL USBDeviceNotifications(LPVOID lpvNotifyParameter, DWORD dwCode,

LPDWORD * dwInfo1, LPDWORD * dwInfo2, LPDWORD * dwInfo3,

LPDWORD * dwInfo4)

{

CMouse * pMouse = (CMouse *)lpvNotifyParameter;

 

switch(dwCode)

{

case USB_CLOSE_DEVICE:

//删除相关的资源。

delete pMouse;

return TRUE;

}

return FALSE;

}

 

USB鼠标的类的定义如下:

class CMouse

{

public:

CMouse::CMouse(USB_HANDLE hDevice, LPCUSB_FUNCS lpUsbFuncs,

LPCUSB_INTERFACE lpInterface);

~CMouse();

 

BOOL Initialize();

private:

// 传输完毕调用的回调函数

static DWORD CALLBACK MouseTransferCompleteStub(LPVOID lpvNotifyParameter);

// 中断处理函数

static ULONG CALLBACK CMouse::MouseThreadStub(PVOID context);

DWORD MouseTransferComplete();

DWORD MouseThread();

 

BOOL SubmitInterrupt();

BOOL HandleInterrupt();

 

BOOL m_fClosing;

BOOL m_fReadyForMouseEvents;

 

HANDLE m_hEvent;

HANDLE m_hThread;

 

USB_HANDLE m_hDevice;

USB_PIPE m_hInterruptPipe;

USB_TRANSFER m_hInterruptTransfer;

 

LPCUSB_FUNCS m_lpUsbFuncs;

LPCUSB_INTERFACE m_pInterface;

 

BOOL m_fPrevButton1;

BOOL m_fPrevButton2;

BOOL m_fPrevButton3;

 

// 数据接受缓冲区。

BYTE m_pbDataBuffer[8];

};

 

具体实现如下:

 

// 构造函数,初始化时调用

CMouse::CMouse(USB_HANDLE hDevice, LPCUSB_FUNCS lpUsbFuncs,

LPCUSB_INTERFACE lpInterface)

{

m_fClosing = FALSE;

m_fReadyForMouseEvents = FALSE;

m_hEvent = NULL;

m_hThread = NULL;

 

m_hDevice = hDevice;

m_hInterruptPipe = NULL;

m_hInterruptTransfer = NULL;

 

m_lpUsbFuncs = lpUsbFuncs;

m_pInterface = lpInterface;

 

m_fPrevButton1 = FALSE;

m_fPrevButton2 = FALSE;

m_fPrevButton3 = FALSE;

 

memset(m_pbDataBuffer, 0, sizeof(m_pbDataBuffer));

}

 

// 析构函数,用于清除申请的资源。

CMouse::~CMouse()

{

// 通知系统去关闭相关的函数接口。

m_fClosing = TRUE;

 

// Wake up the connection thread again and give it time to die.

if (m_hEvent != NULL)

{

// 通知关闭数据接受线程。

SetEvent(m_hEvent);

 

if (m_hThread != NULL)

{

DWORD dwWaitReturn;

 

dwWaitReturn = WaitForSingleObject(m_hThread, 1000);

if (dwWaitReturn != WAIT_OBJECT_0)

{

TerminateThread(m_hThread, DWORD(-1));

}

CloseHandle(m_hThread);

m_hThread = NULL;

}

CloseHandle(m_hEvent);

m_hEvent = NULL;

}

 

if(m_hInterruptTransfer)

(*m_lpUsbFuncs->lpCloseTransfer)(m_hInterruptTransfer);

 

if(m_hInterruptPipe)

(*m_lpUsbFuncs->lpClosePipe)(m_hInterruptPipe);

}

 

 

// 初始化USB鼠标驱动程序

BOOL CMouse::Initialize()

{

LPCUSB_DEVICE lpDeviceInfo = (*m_lpUsbFuncs->lpGetDeviceInfo)(m_hDevice);

 

// 检测配置:USB鼠标应该只有一个中断管道

if ((m_pInterface->lpEndpoints[0].Descriptor.bmAttributes & USB_ENDPOINT_TYPE_MASK) != USB_ENDPOINT_TYPE_INTERRUPT)

{

RETAILMSG(1,(TEXT("!USBMouse: EP 0 wrong type (%u)!/r/n"),

m_pInterface->lpEndpoints[0].Descriptor.bmAttributes));

return FALSE;

}

DEBUGMSG(ZONE_INIT,(TEXT("USBMouse: EP 0:MaxPacket: %u, Interval: %u/r/n"),

m_pInterface->lpEndpoints[0].Descriptor.wMaxPacketSize,

m_pInterface->lpEndpoints[0].Descriptor.bInterval));

 

m_hInterruptPipe = (*m_lpUsbFuncs->lpOpenPipe)(m_hDevice,

&m_pInterface->lpEndpoints[0].Descriptor);

 

if (m_hInterruptPipe == NULL) {

RETAILMSG(1,(TEXT("Mouse: Error opening interrupt pipe/r/n")));

return (FALSE);

}

m_hEvent = CreateEvent(NULL, FALSE, FALSE, NULL);

if (m_hEvent == NULL)

{

RETAILMSG(1,(TEXT("USBMouse: Error on CreateEvent for connect event/r/n")));

return(FALSE);

}

// 创建数据接受线程

m_hThread = CreateThread(0, 0, MouseThreadStub, this, 0, NULL);

if (m_hThread == NULL)

{

RETAILMSG(1,(TEXT("USBMouse: Error on CreateThread/r/n")));

return(FALSE);

}

 

return(TRUE);

}

 

// 从USB鼠标设备中读出数据,产生相应的鼠标事件。

BOOL CMouse::SubmitInterrupt()

{

if(m_hInterruptTransfer)

(*m_lpUsbFuncs->lpCloseTransfer)(m_hInterruptTransfer);

 

// 从USB鼠标PIPE中读数据

m_hInterruptTransfer = (*m_lpUsbFuncs->lpIssueInterruptTransfer)

(m_hInterruptPipe, MouseTransferCompleteStub, this,

USB_IN_TRANSFER | USB_SHORT_TRANSFER_OK, // 表示读数据

min(m_pInterface->lpEndpoints[0].Descriptor.wMaxPacketSize,

sizeof(m_pbDataBuffer)),

m_pbDataBuffer,

NULL);

 

if (m_hInterruptTransfer == NULL)

{

DEBUGMSG(ZONE_ERROR,(L "!USBMouse: Error in IssueInterruptTransfer/r/n"));

return FALSE;

}

else

{

DEBUGMSG(ZONE_TRANSFER,(L"USBMouse::SubmitInterrupt,Transfer:0x%X/r/n",

m_hInterruptTransfer));

}

return TRUE;

}

 

// 处理鼠标中断传输的数据

BOOL CMouse::HandleInterrupt()

{

DWORD dwError;

DWORD dwBytes;

 

DWORD dwFlags = 0;

INT dx = (signed char)m_pbDataBuffer[1];

INT dy = (signed char)m_pbDataBuffer[2];

 

BOOL fButton1 = m_pbDataBuffer[0] & 0x01 ? TRUE : FALSE;

BOOL fButton2 = m_pbDataBuffer[0] & 0x02 ? TRUE : FALSE;

BOOL fButton3 = m_pbDataBuffer[0] & 0x04 ? TRUE : FALSE;

 

if (!(*m_lpUsbFuncs->lpGetTransferStatus)(m_hInterruptTransfer, &dwBytes,&dwError))

{

DEBUGMSG(ZONE_ERROR,(TEXT("!USBMouse: Error in GetTransferStatus(0x%X)/r/n"),

m_hInterruptTransfer));

return FALSE;

}

else

{

DEBUGMSG(ZONE_TRANSFER,(TEXT("USBMouse::HandleInterrupt, hTransfer 0x%X complete (%u bytes, Error:%X)/r/n"),

m_hInterruptTransfer,dwBytes,dwError));

}

 

if (!SubmitInterrupt())

return FALSE;

 

if(dwError != USB_NO_ERROR)

{

DEBUGMSG(ZONE_ERROR,(TEXT("!USBMouse: Error 0x%X in interrupt transfer/r/n"),dwError));

return TRUE;

}

 

if(dwBytes < 3)

{

DEBUGMSG(ZONE_ERROR,(TEXT("!USBMouse: Invalid byte cnt %u from interrupt transfer/r/n"),dwBytes));

return TRUE;

}

 

if(dx || dy)

dwFlags |= MOUSEEVENTF_MOVE;

 

if(fButton1 != m_fPrevButton1)

{

if(fButton1)

dwFlags |= MOUSEEVENTF_LEFTDOWN;

else

dwFlags |= MOUSEEVENTF_LEFTUP;

}

 

if(fButton2 != m_fPrevButton2)

{

if(fButton2)

dwFlags |= MOUSEEVENTF_RIGHTDOWN;

else

dwFlags |= MOUSEEVENTF_RIGHTUP;

}

 

if(fButton3 != m_fPrevButton3)

{

if(fButton3)

dwFlags |= MOUSEEVENTF_MIDDLEDOWN;

else

dwFlags |= MOUSEEVENTF_MIDDLEUP;

}

 

m_fPrevButton1 = fButton1;

m_fPrevButton2 = fButton2;

m_fPrevButton3 = fButton3;

 

DEBUGMSG(ZONE_EVENTS,

(TEXT("USBMouse event: dx:%d, dy:%d, dwFlags:0x%X (B1:%u, B2:%u, B3:%u)/r/n"),

dx,dy,dwFlags,fButton1,fButton2,fButton3));

 

// 通知系统产生鼠标事件

if (m_fReadyForMouseEvents)

mouse_event(dwFlags, dx, dy, 0, 0);

else

m_fReadyForMouseEvents = IsAPIReady(SH_WMGR);

 

return TRUE;

}

 

 

DWORD CALLBACK CMouse::MouseTransferCompleteStub(LPVOID lpvNotifyParameter)

{

CMouse * pMouse = (CMouse *)lpvNotifyParameter;

return(pMouse->MouseTransferComplete());

}

 

// 数据传输完毕回调函数

DWORD CMouse::MouseTransferComplete()

{

if (m_hEvent)

SetEvent(m_hEvent);

return 0;

}

 

 

ULONG CALLBACK CMouse::MouseThreadStub(PVOID context)

{

CMouse * pMouse = (CMouse *)context;

return(pMouse->MouseThread());

}

 

// USB鼠标线程

DWORD CMouse::MouseThread()

{

DEBUGMSG(ZONE_INIT,(TEXT("USBMouse: Worker thread started/r/n")));

SetThreadPriority(GetCurrentThread(), THREAD_PRIORITY_HIGHEST);

 

if (SubmitInterrupt())

{

while (!m_fClosing)

{

WaitForSingleObject(m_hEvent, INFINITE);

 

if (m_fClosing)

break;

 

if ((*m_lpUsbFuncs->lpIsTransferComplete)(m_hInterruptTransfer))

{

if (!HandleInterrupt())

break;

}

else

{

RETAILMSG(1,(TEXT("!USBMouse: Event signalled, but transfer not complete/r/n")));

// The only time this should happen is if we get an error on the transfer

ASSERT(m_fClosing || (m_hInterruptTransfer == NULL));

break;

}

}

}

RETAILMSG(1,(TEXT("USBMouse: Worker thread exiting/r/n")));

return(0);

}

 

看到了没有,其实USB的驱动程序编写就这么简单,类似的其他设备,例如打印机设备,就有Bulk OUT PIPE,需要Bulk传输,那就需要了解一下IssueBulkTransfer()的应用。当然如果是开发USB Mass Storage Disk的驱动,那就需要了解更多的协议,例如Bulk-Only Transport协议等。

 

微软的Windows CE的Platform Build中已经带有USB Printer和USB Mass Storage Disk的驱动的源代码了,好好研究一下,你一定回受益非浅的。

 

 

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