MacOS python3的安装

MacOS默认是python的版本是2.7,采用home-brew包管理工具去安装python3。
安装过程如下:

➜  ~ brew install python3
Updating Homebrew...
==> Installing dependencies for python: gdbm, sqlite and xz
==> Installing python dependency: gdbm
==> Downloading https://homebrew.bintray.com/bottles/gdbm-1.18.1.catalina.bottle.1.tar.gz
######################################################################## 100.0%
==> Pouring gdbm-1.18.1.catalina.bottle.1.tar.gz
🍺  /usr/local/Cellar/gdbm/1.18.1: 20 files, 602.8KB
==> Installing python dependency: sqlite
==> Downloading https://homebrew.bintray.com/bottles/sqlite-3.30.1.catalina.bottle.tar.gz
==> Downloading from https://d29vzk4ow07wi7.cloudfront.net/38c39121f7634ec563bb201b483f66cf567dfe
-=O=-                                                             #   #  # #
curl: (35) LibreSSL SSL_connect: SSL_ERROR_ZERO_RETURN in connection to d29vzk4ow07wi7.cloudfront.net:443
Error: Failed to download resource "sqlite"
Download failed: https://homebrew.bintray.com/bottles/sqlite-3.30.1.catalina.bottle.tar.gz
Warning: Bottle installation failed: building from source.
==> Downloading https://sqlite.org/2019/sqlite-autoconf-3300100.tar.gz
######################################################################## 100.0%
==> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/Cellar/sqlite/3.30.1 --enable-dynamic-extensions --enable-rea
==> make install
==> Caveats
sqlite is keg-only, which means it was not symlinked into /usr/local,
because macOS provides an older sqlite3.

If you need to have sqlite first in your PATH run:
  echo 'export PATH="/usr/local/opt/sqlite/bin:$PATH"' >> ~/.zshrc

For compilers to find sqlite you may need to set:
  export LDFLAGS="-L/usr/local/opt/sqlite/lib"
  export CPPFLAGS="-I/usr/local/opt/sqlite/include"

==> Summary
🍺  /usr/local/Cellar/sqlite/3.30.1: 11 files, 3.9MB, built in 4 minutes 43 seconds
==> Installing python dependency: xz
==> Downloading https://homebrew.bintray.com/bottles/xz-5.2.4.catalina.bottle.tar.gz
==> Downloading from https://d29vzk4ow07wi7.cloudfront.net/5aa90b77d5e772dacd38146bbb7ff2fa43f210
######################################################################## 100.0%
==> Pouring xz-5.2.4.catalina.bottle.tar.gz
🍺  /usr/local/Cellar/xz/5.2.4: 92 files, 1MB
==> Installing python
Warning: Building python from source:
  The bottle needs the Apple Command Line Tools to be installed.
  You can install them, if desired, with:
    xcode-select --install

==> Downloading https://www.python.org/ftp/python/3.7.5/Python-3.7.5.tar.xz
######################################################################## 100.0%
==> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/Cellar/python/3.7.5 --enable-ipv6 --datarootdir=/usr/local/Cellar/
==> make
==> make install PYTHONAPPSDIR=/usr/local/Cellar/python/3.7.5
==> make frameworkinstallextras PYTHONAPPSDIR=/usr/local/Cellar/python/3.7.5/share/python
==> Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/11/0a/7f13ef5cd932a107cd4c0f3ebc9d831d9b78e1a0
######################################################################## 100.0%
==> Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/ce/ea/9b445176a65ae4ba22dce1d93e4b5fe182f953df
######################################################################## 100.0%
==> Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/59/b0/11710a598e1e148fb7cbf9220fd2a0b82c98e94e
######################################################################## 100.0%
Error: An unexpected error occurred during the `brew link` step
The formula built, but is not symlinked into /usr/local
Permission denied @ dir_s_mkdir - /usr/local/Frameworks
Error: Permission denied @ dir_s_mkdir - /usr/local/Frameworks

最后发现报错了,看提示是在执行brew link的时候没有权限。我们到/usr/local目录下看一下

➜  local git:(master)pwd
/usr/local
➜  local git:(master)ls -la
total 72
drwxr-xr-x  27 root       wheel   864  4 22 10:11 .
drwxr-xr-x@ 11 root       wheel   352  4 22 10:05 ..
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin     0  4  4  2019 .com.apple.installer.keep
drwxr-xr-x  16 zhongyili  admin   512  9 21 15:29 .git
drwxrwxr-x   5 zhongyili  admin   160 10 23  2018 .github
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin  1277  6 20  2017 .gitignore
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin  1279  6 20  2017 .travis.yml
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin   291  6 20  2017 .yardopts
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin    98  6 20  2017 CHANGELOG.md
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin  3161  6 20  2017 CODEOFCONDUCT.md
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin   718  6 20  2017 CONTRIBUTING.md
drwxrwxr-x  24 zhongyili  admin   768  9 21 15:14 Cellar
drwxrwxr-x  19 zhongyili  admin   608  9 21 15:23 Homebrew
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin  1334  6 20  2017 LICENSE.txt
drwxrwxr-x   5 zhongyili  admin   160 10 23  2018 Library
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin  6137  6 20  2017 README.md
drwxrwxr-x  81 zhongyili  admin  2592  9 21 15:24 bin
drwxr-xr-x   4 zhongyili  admin   128 10 23  2018 completions
drwxr-xr-x  48 zhongyili  admin  1536 10 23  2018 docs
drwxrwxr-x   6 zhongyili  admin   192 11 14  2019 etc
drwxrwxr-x  23 zhongyili  admin   736  9 21 15:12 include
drwxrwxr-x  66 zhongyili  admin  2112  9 21 15:12 lib
drwxr-xr-x   4 zhongyili  admin   128 10 23  2018 manpages
drwxrwxr-x  36 zhongyili  admin  1152  9 21 15:26 opt
drwxr-xr-x   3 zhongyili  admin    96 10 23  2018 remotedesktop
drwxrwxr-x  11 zhongyili  admin   352  9 21 15:06 share
drwxr-xr-x   3 zhongyili  admin    96 10 23  2018 var

发现没有Frameworks目录,先建目录

➜  ~ sudo mkdir /usr/local/Frameworks
Password:

再看一下目录内容

➜  local git:(master)ls -la
total 72
drwxr-xr-x  28 root       wheel   896  9 21 15:33 .
drwxr-xr-x@ 11 root       wheel   352  4 22 10:05 ..
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin     0  4  4  2019 .com.apple.installer.keep
drwxr-xr-x  16 zhongyili  admin   512  9 21 15:32 .git
drwxrwxr-x   5 zhongyili  admin   160 10 23  2018 .github
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin  1277  6 20  2017 .gitignore
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin  1279  6 20  2017 .travis.yml
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin   291  6 20  2017 .yardopts
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin    98  6 20  2017 CHANGELOG.md
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin  3161  6 20  2017 CODEOFCONDUCT.md
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin   718  6 20  2017 CONTRIBUTING.md
drwxrwxr-x  24 zhongyili  admin   768  9 21 15:14 Cellar
drwxr-xr-x   2 root       wheel    64  9 21 15:33 Frameworks
drwxrwxr-x  19 zhongyili  admin   608  9 21 15:23 Homebrew
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin  1334  6 20  2017 LICENSE.txt
drwxrwxr-x   5 zhongyili  admin   160 10 23  2018 Library
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin  6137  6 20  2017 README.md
drwxrwxr-x  81 zhongyili  admin  2592  9 21 15:24 bin
drwxr-xr-x   4 zhongyili  admin   128 10 23  2018 completions
drwxr-xr-x  48 zhongyili  admin  1536 10 23  2018 docs
drwxrwxr-x   6 zhongyili  admin   192 11 14  2019 etc
drwxrwxr-x  23 zhongyili  admin   736  9 21 15:12 include
drwxrwxr-x  66 zhongyili  admin  2112  9 21 15:12 lib
drwxr-xr-x   4 zhongyili  admin   128 10 23  2018 manpages
drwxrwxr-x  36 zhongyili  admin  1152  9 21 15:26 opt
drwxr-xr-x   3 zhongyili  admin    96 10 23  2018 remotedesktop
drwxrwxr-x  11 zhongyili  admin   352  9 21 15:06 share
drwxr-xr-x   3 zhongyili  admin    96 10 23  2018 var

发现有Frameworks目录了,可是目录拥有者是root,我们修改一下拥有者

➜  local git:(master)sudo chown -R $(whoami) /usr/local/Frameworks
Password:
➜  local git:(master)ls -la
total 72
drwxr-xr-x  28 root       wheel   896  9 21 15:33 .
drwxr-xr-x@ 11 root       wheel   352  4 22 10:05 ..
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin     0  4  4  2019 .com.apple.installer.keep
drwxr-xr-x  16 zhongyili  admin   512  9 21 15:34 .git
drwxrwxr-x   5 zhongyili  admin   160 10 23  2018 .github
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin  1277  6 20  2017 .gitignore
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin  1279  6 20  2017 .travis.yml
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin   291  6 20  2017 .yardopts
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin    98  6 20  2017 CHANGELOG.md
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin  3161  6 20  2017 CODEOFCONDUCT.md
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin   718  6 20  2017 CONTRIBUTING.md
drwxrwxr-x  24 zhongyili  admin   768  9 21 15:14 Cellar
drwxr-xr-x   2 zhongyili  wheel    64  9 21 15:33 Frameworks
drwxrwxr-x  19 zhongyili  admin   608  9 21 15:23 Homebrew
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin  1334  6 20  2017 LICENSE.txt
drwxrwxr-x   5 zhongyili  admin   160 10 23  2018 Library
-rw-r--r--   1 zhongyili  admin  6137  6 20  2017 README.md
drwxrwxr-x  81 zhongyili  admin  2592  9 21 15:24 bin
drwxr-xr-x   4 zhongyili  admin   128 10 23  2018 completions
drwxr-xr-x  48 zhongyili  admin  1536 10 23  2018 docs
drwxrwxr-x   6 zhongyili  admin   192 11 14  2019 etc
drwxrwxr-x  23 zhongyili  admin   736  9 21 15:12 include
drwxrwxr-x  66 zhongyili  admin  2112  9 21 15:12 lib
drwxr-xr-x   4 zhongyili  admin   128 10 23  2018 manpages
drwxrwxr-x  36 zhongyili  admin  1152  9 21 15:26 opt
drwxr-xr-x   3 zhongyili  admin    96 10 23  2018 remotedesktop
drwxrwxr-x  11 zhongyili  admin   352  9 21 15:06 share
drwxr-xr-x   3 zhongyili  admin    96 10 23  2018 var

再执行brew link

➜  ~ brew link python
Linking /usr/local/Cellar/python/3.7.5... Error: Permission denied @ dir_s_mkdir - /usr/local/Frameworks
➜  ~ brew link python
Linking /usr/local/Cellar/python/3.7.5... 1 symlinks created

现在python3安装完成了,我们看看版本对不对

➜  ~ python --version
Python 2.7.16

发现还是2.7,这是因为我们用的命令不对,得用python3。需要说明的是brew安装后,我们是不用自己配置环境变量的,brew自动在/usr/local/bin给我们建立的软链接。
如果python3 版本还不对,说明安装过程中有错,卸载了重新安装一遍

➜  ~ python3 -V
Python 3.7.5

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