C++经典程序代码大全

//根据半径计算圆的周长和面积
#include <iostream.h>
const float PI=3.1416;        //声明常量(只读变量)PI为3.1416
float fCir_L(float);           //声明自定义函数fCir_L()的原型 
float fCir_S(float);           //声明自定义函数fCir_S()的原型  

//以下是main()函数 
main() 
{ 
    float r,l,s;             //声明3个变量
    
    cout<<"r=";          //显示字符串
    cin>>r;              	//键盘输入
    l=fCir_L(r);          //计算圆的周长,赋值给变量l 
    s=fCir_S(r);          //计算圆的面积,赋值给变量s 
    cout<<"l="<<l;       //显示计算结果
    cout<<"\ns="<<s;                 
}   

//定义计算圆的周长的函数fCir_L()
float fCir_L(float x)
{ 
    float z=-1.0;         //声明局部变量
    if (x>=0.0)          //如果参数大于0,则计算圆的周长
        z=2*PI*x;
    return(z);          //返回函数值 
} 

//定义计算圆的面积的函数fCir_S()
float fCir_S(float x)
{ 
    float z=-1.0;         //声明局部变量
    if (x>=0.0)          //如果参数大于0,则计算圆的面积
        z=PI*x*x;
    return(z);           //返回函数值 
}
/* Program: P1-2.CPP
 Written by: Hap
 Date written: 02:11:10
*/


#include <iostream.h>
void main(void)
{
    double s1,s2,s3;
    s1=1.5;    /* 对变量s1赋值*/
    cout<<"s1="<<s1<<endl;
    /* 对变量s2赋值*/    s2=2.5;
    cout<<"s2="<<s2<<endl;
    s3=  /* 对变量s3赋值*/  3.5;
    cout<<"s3="<<s3<<endl;

    cout<<"s1+s2+s3="<<s1+s2+s3<<endl;        //计算并显示
    //计算并显示 cout<<"s1+s2+s3="<<s1+s2+s3<<endl; 
}
#include <iostream.h>
main()
{
    double  r=1.0;
    cout<<"r="<<r<<endl;
    double l;
    l=2*3.1416*r;           //计算圆的周长,赋值给变量l
    cout<<"l="<<l<<endl;    //显示圆的周长	
    double s=3.1416*r*r;     //计算圆的面积,赋值给变量s 
    cout<<"s="<<s<<endl;    //显示圆的面积

    cout<<"r=";            //显示提示输入的信息
    cin>>r;                 //键盘输入
    l=2*3.1416*r;           //计算圆的周长,赋值给变量l
    cout<<"l="<<l<<endl;    //显示圆的周长
    s=3.1416*r*r; 
    cout<<"s="<<s<<endl;    //显示圆的面积
}
#include <iostream.h>    //包含iostream.h头文件
void main()
{
    //输出字符常量、变量和字符串
    char c1='A';
    cout<<'W';
    cout<<c1<<endl;
    cout<<"This is a test."<<endl;
    cout<<"------------------"<<endl;

    //输出整型常量、变量和表达式
    int n=100;
    cout<<10;
    cout<<n;
    cout<<2*n<<endl;   //输出整型表达式
    cout<<"------------------"<<endl;

    //输出浮点型常量、变量和表达式
    double pi=3.1415926,r=10.0,s=pi*r*r;
    cout<<pi<<endl;
    cout<<r;
    cout<<s;
    cout<<2*r*pi<<endl;      //输出浮点型表达式
    cout<<"------------------"<<endl;
    
    //一个cout可以输出多项数据
    cout<<'W'<<" "<<c1<<endl;
    cout<<"This is a test."<<endl;
    cout<<"pi="<<pi<<" r="<<r<<" s="<<s<<endl;
}
#include <iostream.h>  //包含iostream.h头文件
main()
{
    //输入输出字符
    char c;
    cin>>c;
    cout<<"c="<<c<<endl;

    //输入输出整型数据
    int n;
    cin>>n;
    cout<<"n="<<n<<endl;

    //输入输出浮点型数据
    double x;
    cin>>x;
    cout<<"x="<<x<<endl; 

    //输入提示
    cout<<"n=";
    cin>>n;
    cout<<"n="<<n<<endl;

    //多项输入
    cout<<"c n x"<<endl;
    cin>>c>>n>>x;
    cout<<"c="<<c<<" n="<<n<<" x="<<x<<endl;
}
#include <iostream.h>  //包含iostream.h头文件
main()
{
    //声明整型变量
    int a,b; 

    //从键盘上为整型变量赋值
    cout<<"a=";
    cin>>a;
    cout<<"b=";
    cin>>b;

    //整型数的算术运算
    cout<<a<<"+"<<b<<"="<<a+b<<endl;
    cout<<a<<"-"<<b<<"="<<a-b<<endl;
    cout<<a<<"*"<<b<<"="<<a*b<<endl;
    cout<<a<<"/"<<b<<"="<<a/b<<endl;
    cout<<a<<"%"<<b<<"="<<a%b<<endl;

    //测试溢出
    short n=32767,m;    //n取short类型的最大值
    cout<<"n="<<n<<endl;
    m=n+1;      //引起溢出
    cout<<"n+1="<<m<<endl;
}
#include <iostream.h>  //包含iostream.h头文件
main()
{
    //声明变量,并初始化
    int a=010,b=10,c=0X10; 

    //以十进制形式显示数据
    cout<<"DEC:";
    cout<<" a="<<a;
    cout<<" b="<<b;
    cout<<" c="<<c<<endl; 
	
    //以八进制形式显示数据
    cout<<"OCT:";
    cout<<oct;             //指定八进制输出
    cout<<" a="<<a;
    cout<<" b="<<b;
    cout<<" c="<<c<<endl;  
	
    //以十六进制形式显示数据
    cout<<"HEX:";
    cout<<hex;            //指定十六进制输出
    cout<<" a="<<a;
    cout<<" b="<<b;
    cout<<" c="<<c<<endl;  

    //八、十和十六进制数混合运算并输出
    cout<<"a+b+c=";
    cout<<dec;            //恢复十进制输出
    cout<<a+b+c<<endl;

    //测试八、十和十六进制输入
    cout<<"DEC:a="; cin>>a;
    cout<<"OCT:b="; cin>>b;
    cout<<"HEX:a="; cin>>c;
    cout<<"DEC:"<<dec<<endl;            //指定十进制输出
    cout<<"a="<<a<<endl;
    cout<<"b="<<b<<endl;
    cout<<"c="<<c<<endl;
}
#include <iostream.h>  //包含iostream.h头文件
#include<iomanip.h>   // iomanip.h头文件包含setprecision()的定义
main()
{
    //float型变量的声明、输入、计算和输出
    float fx,fy;   
    cout<<"fx=";
    cin>>fx;
    cout<<"fy=";
    cin>>fy;
    cout<<fx<<"+"<<fy<<"="<<fx+fy<<endl;
    cout<<fx<<"-"<<fy<<"="<<fx-fy<<endl;
    cout<<fx<<"*"<<fy<<"="<<fx*fy<<endl;
    cout<<fx<<"/"<<fy<<"="<<fx/fy<<endl<<endl;
    //cout<<fx<<"%"<<fy<<"="<<fx%fy<<endl;  Error!

    //double型变量的声明、输入、计算和输出
    float dx,dy;  
    cout<<"dx=";
    cin>>dx;
    cout<<"dy=";
    cin>>dy;
    cout<<dx<<"+"<<dy<<"="<<dx+dy<<endl;
    cout<<dx<<"-"<<dy<<"="<<dx-dy<<endl;
    cout<<dx<<"*"<<dy<<"="<<dx*dy<<endl;
    cout<<dx<<"/"<<dy<<"="<<dx/dy<<endl<<endl;
    //cout<<fx<<"%"<<fy<<"="<<fx%fy<<endl;  Error!

    //测试float和double类型数据的有效位
    fx=10.0;fy=6.0;
    float fz=fx/fy;
    dx=10.0;dy=6.0;
    double dz=dx/dy;
    cout<<"fz=";
    cout<<setprecision(20)<<fx<<"/"<<fy<<"="<<fz<<endl;
    cout<<"dz=";
    cout<<setprecision(20)<<dx<<"/"<<dy<<"="<<dz<<endl<<endl;;

    //float型溢出
    float x=3.5e14;
    cout<<"x="<<x<<endl;
    cout<<"x*x="<<x*x<<endl;
    cout<<"x*x*x="<<x*x*x<<endl;
}
#include <iostream.h>  //包含iostream.h头文件
main()
{
    //字符类型变量的声明
    char c1='A';
    char c2;

    //字符数据的运算及输出
    c2=c1+32;
    cout<<"c1="<<c1<<endl;
    cout<<"c2="<<c2<<endl;

    //输出字符及ASCII码	
    cout<<c1<<" : "<<int(c1)<<endl;
    cout<<c2<<" : "<<int(c2)<<endl;
    cout<<'$'<<" : "<<int('$')<<endl;
	
    //输入字符
    cout<<"c1 c2"<<endl;
    cin>>c1>>c2;
    cout<<"c1="<<c1<<"  c2="<<c2<<endl;
}
#include <iostream.h>  //包含iostream.h头文件
main()
{
    char c1='\a',TAB='\t';  
	
    //阵铃一声
    cout<<c1<<endl;

    //使用水平制表符
    cout<<1<<TAB<<2<<TAB<<3<<TAB<<4<<endl;

    //使用双引号
    cout<<"He said \"Thank you\"."<<endl;  

    //使用回车换行
    cout<<"abc\n"<<"def"<<'\n';
}

#include <iostream.h>  //包含iostream.h头文件
main()
{
    //声明bool变量,并初始化
    bool flag1=false,flag2=true; 
	
    //输出布尔常量和变量
    cout<<"false:"<<false<<endl;
    cout<<"true: "<<true<<endl;
    cout<<"flag1="<<flag1<<endl;
    cout<<"flag2="<<flag2<<endl;

    //布尔变量的赋值和输出
    int x=1;
    flag1=x>0;      //存放关系运算结果
    cout<<"flag1="<<flag1<<endl;
    flag2=flag1;    //bool类型变量相互赋值
    cout<<"flag2="<<flag2<<endl;

    //布尔变量超界处理
    flag1=100; 
    cout<<"flag1="<<flag1<<endl;
    flag2=-100; 
    cout<<"flag2="<<flag2<<endl;
}
#include <iostream.h>
const double PI=3.1416;     //声明常量(const变量)PI为3.1416
main() 
{
    //声明3个变量
    double r,l,s; 
   
    //输入圆的半径
    cout<<"r=";          		
    cin>>r; 

    //计算圆的周长
    l=2*PI*r; 
    cout<<"l="<<l<<endl; 
	 
    //计算圆的面积
    s=PI*r*r; 
    cout<<"s="<<s<<endl;                 
}

#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //定义枚举类型,并指定其枚举元素的值
    enum color {  
         RED=3,
         YELLOW=6,
         BLUE=9
    };

    //声明枚举变量a和b,并为枚举变量a赋初值 
    enum color a=RED;
    color b;        //合法,与C语言不同

    // 输出枚举常量 
    cout<<"RED="<<RED<<endl;
    cout<<"YELLOW="<<YELLOW<<endl;
    cout<<"BLUE="<<BLUE<<endl;
    
    //枚举变量的赋值和输出
    b=a;
    a=BLUE;
    cout<<"a="<<a<<endl;
    cout<<"b="<<b<<endl;
    //a=100;   错误!
    //a=6      也错误!

    //枚举变量的关系运算
    b=BLUE;                    		// 枚举变量的赋值运算
    cout<<"a<b="<<(a<b)<<endl;
}
#include <iostream.h>
const double PI=3.1416;     //声明常量(const变量)PI为3.1416
main() 
{
    //声明3个变量
    double r=3,l,s;   

    //计算圆的周长
    l=2*PI*r; 
    cout<<"l="<<l<<endl; 
	 
    //计算圆的面积
    s=PI*r*r; 
    cout<<"s="<<s<<endl;    

    //验证赋值误差
    int il,is;
    il=l;
    is=s;
    cout<<"il="<<il<<endl; 
    cout<<"is="<<is<<endl;    
}
#include <iostream.h>
main() 
{ 
    //变量声明
    char c;
    double x,y;

    //测试自增
	cout<<"++E and E++ :"<<endl;
    c='B';
    cout<<"c="<<++c<<endl;   //输出c=C
    c='B';
    cout<<"c="<<c++<<endl;   //输出c=B
    x=1.5;
    y=5+ ++x;               //加号后的空格不能少
    cout<<"y="<<y<<endl;    //输出y=7.5
    x=1.5;
    y=5+x++;
    cout<<"y="<<y<<endl;    //输出y=6.5
    cout<<"--------------------"<<endl;

	//测试自减
	cout<<"--E and E-- :"<<endl;
    c='B';
    cout<<"c="<<--c<<endl;   //输出c=A
    c='B';
    cout<<"c="<<c--<<endl;   //输出c=B
    x=1.5;
    y=5+--x;
    cout<<"y="<<y<<endl;    //输出y=5.5
    x=1.5;
    y=5+x--;
    cout<<"y="<<y<<endl;    //输出y=6.5
}
#include <iostream.h>
main()
{
    int a=3, b=2;

    //输出关系表达式
    cout<<a<b<<endl;
    cout<<(a<b)<<(a>b)<<(a>=b)<<(a==b)<<(a!=b)<<endl;

    bool flag=2*a<b+10;
    cout<<"flag="<<flag;
}
#include <iostream.h>
main()     
{
    float a=3.5,b=2.1,c=0;
    cout<<"a="<<a<<"  b="<<b<<"  c="<<c<<endl;

    //与运算
    cout<<"a&&b="<<(a&&b)<<endl;//输出1
    cout<<"a&&c="<<(a&&c)<<endl;//输出0

    //或运算
    cout<<"a||b="<<(a||b)<<endl;//输出1
    cout<<"a||c="<<(a||c)<<endl;//输出1

    //非运算
    cout<<"!a="<<!a<<endl<<"!c="<<!c<<endl;//输出0  1

    //关系运算和逻辑运算
    bool flag=a>=0 && a<=5;  //变量a在[0,5]区间内
    cout<<"a=>0 && a<=5="<<flag<<endl;//输出1

    //算术运算、关系运算和逻辑运算
    cout<<"a+5>2*b+2||a<b+3="<<(a+5>2*b+2||a<b+3)<<endl;//输出1
}
#include <iostream.h>
main()     
{
    //按位与运算
    cout<<"24&12="<<(24&12)<<endl;
    //按位异或运算
    cout<<"24^12="<<(24^12)<<endl;
    //按位或运算
    cout<<"24|12="<<(24|12)<<endl;
    //按位取反运算
    cout<<"~24="<<(~24)<<endl;

    //左移位运算
    cout<<"5<<3="<<(5<<3)<<endl;
    cout<<"-5<<3="<<(-5<<3)<<endl;

    //右移位运算
    cout<<"5>>3="<<(5>>3)<<endl;
    cout<<"-5>>3="<<(-5>>3)<<endl;
}
#include <iostream.h>
main()
{
    int a=1,b=1,c=3;
    //显示a,b,c的值
    cout<<"a="<<a<<" b="<<b<<" c="<<c<<endl;

    //计算显示(1) b+=a+2*c%5; 的结果
    b+=a+2*c%5;    	//相当于表达式语句 b=b+(a+2*c%5);
    cout<<"(1) b="<<b<<endl;

    //计算显示(2) a<<=c-2*b; 的结果
    a=1,b=1,c=3;
    a<<=c-2*b;     	// 相当于表达式语句 a=a<<(c-2*b);
    cout<<"(2) a="<<a<<endl;

    //计算显示(3) a*=b=c=3;的结果
    a=1,b=1,c=3;
    a*=b=c=3;      	//相当于语句组 c=3;b=c;a=a*b;
    cout<<"(3) a="<<a<<"  b="<<b<<"  c="<<c<<endl;

    //计算显示(4) a+=b+=c;的结果
    a=1,b=1,c=3;
    a+=b+=c;       	//相当于语句组 b=b+c; a=a+b;
    cout<<"(4) a="<<a<<"  b="<<b<<"  c="<<c<<endl;

    //计算显示(5) a-=b=++c+2;的结果
    a=1,b=1,c=3;
    a-=b=++c+2;      	//相当于语句组 ++c;b=b+c+2;a=a-b;
    cout<<"(5) a="<<a<<"  b="<<b<<"  c="<<c<<endl;
}
#include <iostream.h>
main()
{
    //用 sizeof 计算各类种常量的字节长度
    cout<<"sizeof('$')="<<sizeof('$')<<endl;
    cout<<"sizeof(1)="<<sizeof(1)<<endl;
    cout<<"sizeof(1.5)="<<sizeof(1.5)<<endl;
    cout<<"sizeof(\"Good!\")="<<sizeof("Good!")<<endl;

    //用sizeof 计算各类型变量的字节长度
    int i=100;
    char c='A';
    float x=3.1416; 
    double p=0.1;
    cout<<"sizeof(i)="<<sizeof(i)<<endl;
    cout<<"sizeof(c)="<<sizeof(c)<<endl;
    cout<<"sizeof(x)="<<sizeof(x)<<endl;
    cout<<"sizeof(p)="<<sizeof(p)<<endl;

    //用sizeof 计算表达式的字节长度
    cout<<"sizeof(x+1.732)="<<sizeof(x+1.732)<<endl;

    //用 sizeof 计算各类型的字节长度
    cout<<"sizeof(char)="<<sizeof(char)<<endl;
    cout<<"sizeof(int)="<<sizeof(int)<<endl;
    cout<<"sizeof(float)="<<sizeof(float)<<endl;
    cout<<"sizeof(double)="<<sizeof(double)<<endl;

    //用sizeof 计算数组的字节长度
    char str[]="This is a test.";
    int a[10];	
    double xy[10];
    cout<<"sizeof(str)="<<sizeof(str)<<endl;
    cout<<"sizeof(a)="<<sizeof(a)<<endl;
    cout<<"sizeof(xy)="<<sizeof(xy)<<endl;

    //用sizeof 计算自定义类型的长度
    struct st {
        short num;
        float math_grade;
        float Chinese_grade;
        float sum_grade;
    };
    st student1;
    cout<<"sizeof(st)="<<sizeof(st)<<endl;
    cout<<"sizeof(student1)="<<sizeof(student1)<<endl;
}
#include <iostream.h>
main()
{
    //声明变量语句中使用顺序运算
    int x, y;

    //计算中使用顺序运算
    x=50; 
    y=(x=x-5, x/5); 
    cout<<"x="<<x<<endl;
    cout<<"y="<<y<<endl;
}
#include <iostream.h>
main()
{
    //测试表达式类型的转换
    int n=100,m;
    double x=3.791,y;
    cout<<"n*x="<<n*x<<endl;
    
    //赋值类型转换
    m=x;
    y=n;
    cout<<"m="<<m<<endl;
    cout<<"y="<<y<<endl;

    //强制类型转换
    cout<<"int(x)="<<int(x)<<endl;
    cout<<"(int)x="<<(int)x<<endl;
    cout<<"int(1.732+x)="<<int(1.732+x)<<endl;
    cout<<"(int)1.732+x="<<(int)1.723+x<<endl;
    cout<<"double(100)="<<double(100)<<endl;
}
#include <iostream.h>
main()
{
    float a,b,s;

    cout<<"a b"<<endl;
    cin>>a>>b;	   //利用cin从键盘上为变量 a,b 赋值
    s=a;
    if (a<b) {
       s=b;         //if语句中只有这一个语句,可省略花括号
    }
    s=s*s;          //变量s中保存a,b中较大的一个数的平方
    cout<<"s="<<s;
}

#include <iostream.h>
main()
{
    int x,y;
    cout<<"x=";
    cin>>x;
    if (x<=0) {            //满足条件执行
       y=2*x; 
       cout<<"y="<<y;     //输出结果
    }
    else  {              //不满足条件执行
       y=x*x; 
       cout<<"y="<<y;    //输出结果
    }
}
#include <iostream.h>
main()
{
    int a,b,c;
    int smallest;
    cout<<"a  b  c"<<endl;
    cin>>a>>b>>c;
    if (a<=b)    //外层条件语句
    {
        if (a<=c)    //内层条件语句
           smallest=a;
        else
           smallest=c;
    }
    else
    {
       if (b<=c)    //内层条件语句
           smallest=b;
       else
           smallest=c;
    }
    cout<<"Smallest="<<smallest<<endl;
}

#include <iostream.h>
main()
{
    int score;

    //从键盘上输入分数
    cout<<"score=";
    cin>>score;

    //用带else if的条件语句判断处理
    if (score<0 || score>100)    
    {
       cout<<"The score is out of range!"<<endl;
    }
    else if (score>=90) 
       cout<<"Your grade is a A."<<endl;
    else if (score>=80) 
       cout<<"Your grade is a B."<<endl;
    else if (score>=70) 
       cout<<"Your grade is a C."<<endl;
    else if (score>=60) 
       cout<<"Your grade is a D."<<endl;
    else 
       cout<<"Your grade is a E."<<endl;
}
#include <iostream.h>
main()
{
    int n;
    cout<<"n=";
    cin>>n;
    if (n>=0 && n<=100 &&n%2==0)
       cout<<"n="<<n<<endl;
    else
       cout<<"The "<<n<<" is out of range!"<<endl;
}

#include <iostream.h>
main()
{
    int a,b,Max;
    //输入数据
    cout<<"a=";
    cin>>a;
    cout<<"b=";
    cin>>b;

    //找出较大值
    Max=a>b?a:b;
    cout<<"Max="<<Max<<endl;
}

#include <iostream.h>
main()
{
    int a,b;
    //输入数据
    cout<<"a=";
    cin>>a;
    cout<<"b=";
    cin>>b;

    //除法判断
    if (b!=0 && a%b==0) {
        cout<<b<<" divides "<<a<<endl;
        cout<<"a/b="<<a/b<<endl;
    }
    else
        cout<<b<<" does not divide "<<a<<endl;
}


#include <iostream.h>
main()
{
    //x,y 为操作数,c为运算符
    int x,y,z;
    char c1;
    cin>>x>>c1>>y;   //c1

    //多路选择语句选择不同表达式计算语句
    switch(c1) {
          case '+':cout<<x<<"+"<<y<<"="<<x+y<<endl;
                   break;
          case '-':cout<<x<<"-"<<y<<"="<<x-y<<endl;
                   break;
          case '*':cout<<x<<"*"<<y<<"="<<x*y<<endl;
                   break;
          case '/':cout<<x<<"/"<<y<<"="<<x/y<<endl;
                   break;
          case '%':cout<<x<<"%"<<y<<"="<<x%y<<endl;
                   break;
          default :cout<<"Wrong !"<<endl; //当不符合上述情况时执行本子句
    }
}



#include<iostream.h>
float x=365.5;  //声明全局变量
main() {
    int x=1,y=2;
    double w=x+y;
    {
        double x=1.414,y=1.732,z=3.14;
        cout<<"inner:x="<<x<<endl;
        cout<<"inner:y="<<y<<endl;
        cout<<"inner:z="<<z<<endl;
        cout<<"outer:w="<<w<<endl;
        cout<<"::x="<<::x<<endl;    //访问重名的全局变量
    }
    cout<<"outer:x="<<x<<endl;
    cout<<"outer:y="<<y<<endl;
    cout<<"outer:w="<<w<<endl;

    //cout<<"inner:z="<<z<<endl;无效
    cout<<"::x="<<::x<<endl;    //访问重名的全局变量
}
#include<iostream.h>
main() {
    //显示1,2,3...10
    for(int i=1;i<=10;i++)
        cout<<i<<" ";
    cout<<endl;

    //显示10,9,8...1
    for(int j=10;j>=1;j--)
       cout<<j<<" ";
    cout<<endl;

    //显示1,3,5...9
    for(int k=1;k<=10;k=k+2)
       cout<<k<<" ";
    cout<<endl;

    //显示ABC...Z   
    for(char c='A';c<='Z';c++)
       cout<<c;
    cout<<endl;

    //显示0,0.1,0.2...1.0
    for(float x=0;x<=1.0;x=x+0.1)
       cout<<x<<" ";
    cout<<endl;

    //显示0,0.1,0.2...1.0
    for(float x1=0;x1<=1.0+0.1/2;x1=x1+0.1)
       cout<<x1<<" ";
    cout<<endl;

    //计算s=1+2+3...+100
    int s=0;
    for(int n=1;n<=100;n++)
        s=s+n;
    cout<<"s="<<s<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //计算s=1+2+3...+100
    int s=0,n=1;
    while(n<=100) {
        s=s+n;
        n++;
    }
    cout<<"s="<<s<<endl;

    //累加键盘输入的数据
    double x,sum=0.0;
    cout<<"x=";
    cin>>x;
    while(x!=0) {
        sum+=x;
        cout<<"x=";
        cin>>x;
    }
    cout<<"sum="<<sum<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //计算s=1+2+3...+100
    int s=0,n=0;
    do  {
        n++;
        s+=n;
    }while(n<100);
    cout<<"s="<<s<<endl;

    //累加键盘输入的数据
    double x,sum=0.0;
    do {
        cout<<"x=";
        cin>>x;
        sum+=x;
    } while(x!=0);
    cout<<"sum="<<sum<<endl;
}

#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //计算和打印打印乘法九九表
    for (int i=1;i<=9;i++) {
        cout<<i;
        for (int j=1;j<=9;j++)
            cout<<'\t'<<i<<"*"<<j<<"="<<i*j;
        cout<<endl;
    }
}

#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    int x,sum=0;
    //定义标号L1
L1: cout<<"x=";
    cin>>x;
    if (x==-1)
       goto L2;          //无条件转移语句,转到L2语句处
    else
       sum+=x;
    goto L1;             //无条件转移语句,转到L1语句处
    //定义标号L2
L2: cout<<"sum="<<sum<<endl;
}


#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //累加键盘输入的数据
    double x,sum=0.0;
    while(1) {
        cout<<"x=";
        cin>>x;
        if (x<=0) break;
        sum+=x;
    }
    cout<<"sum="<<sum<<endl;
}

#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    int i;
    for (i=1;i<=20;i++)
   {
        if (i%3==0)   //能被 3 整除的整数,返回进行下次循环
            continue;
        cout<<i<<" ";
    }
    cout<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //声明数组和变量
    int a[5],i,sum;
    double avg;
	
    //从键盘上循环为数组赋值
    for (i=0;i<5;i++) {
        cout<<"a["<<i<<"]=";
        cin>>a[i];
    }

    //直接显示数组元素
    cout<<a[0]<<a[1]<<a[2]<<a[3]<<a[4]<<endl;
    
    //利用for循环显示数组各元素的值
    for (i=0;i<5;i++)
        cout<<a[i]<<"  ";
    cout<<endl;

    //计算数组元素之和,并显示计算结果
    sum=a[0]+a[1]+a[2]+a[3]+a[4];
    cout<<"sum="<<sum<<endl;

    //利用循环计算数组的累加和
    for (sum=0,i=0;i<5;i++)
        sum+=a[i];

    //显示累加和及平均值
    cout<<"sum="<<sum<<endl;
    avg=sum/5.0;
    cout<<"avg="<<avg<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
     int i,max,index,a[5];

    //从键盘上为数组赋值
     for (i=0;i<=4;i++)
     {
       cout<<"a["<<i<<"]=";
       cin>>a[i];
     }

    // 利用循环遍历数组,找出最大值的元素及其下标
    max=a[0];
    for (i=0;i<=4;i++)
    {
            if (max<a[i])
            {
                max=a[i];
                index=i;
            }
        }
    cout<<"\nMax="<<max<<"  index="<<index;
}
#include<iostream.h>
#define size 5
main()
{
    //声明变量
    int i,j;
    float t,a[size];

    //从键盘上为数组赋值
    for (i=0;i<size;i++)
    {
       cout<<"a["<<i<<"]=";
       cin>>a[i];
    }

    //对数组按从小到大顺序排序
    for (i=0;i<size-1;i++)
        for (j=i+1;j<size;j++)
            if (a[i]>a[j])
            {
               t=a[i];
               a[i]=a[j];
               a[j]=t;
            }

    //显示排序结果
    for (i=0;i<size;i++)
       cout<<a[i]<<" ";
    cout<<endl;

    //输入要查找的数据
    int value;
    int found;   //找到为1,否则为0
    int	low,high,mid;   
    for (i=1;i<=3;i++) {
        cout<<"value=";
        cin>>value;
	
        //二分法查找数组a
        found=0;
        low=0;
        high=size-1;
        while(low<=high)
        {	
            mid=(high+low)/2;
            if (a[mid]==value)
            {
            found=1;
            break;
            }
            if (a[mid]<value)
                low=mid+1;
            else
                high=mid-1;
        }
        if (found)
            cout<<"The valu found at:a["<<mid<<"]="<<a[mid]<<endl;
        else
            cout<<"The "<<value<<" is not found!"<<endl;
    }
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
	//声明变量
    int i,j;
    float t,a[5];

    //从键盘上为数组赋值
    for (i=0;i<=4;i++)
    {
       cout<<"a["<<i<<"]=";
       cin>>a[i];
    }

    //对数组按从大到小顺序排序
    for (i=0;i<=3;i++)
        for (j=i+1;j<=4;j++)
            if (a[i]<=a[j])
            {
               t=a[i];
               a[i]=a[j];
               a[j]=t;
            }

    //显示排序结果
    for (i=0;i<=4;i++)
       cout<<a[i]<<" ";
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //声明二维数组及变量 
    int a[2][3],i,j;
    
    //从键盘上为数组a赋值
     for (i=0;i<2;i++) 
         for (j=0;j<3;j++) 
         {
            cout<<"a["<<i<<"]["<<j<<"]=";
            cin>>a[i][j];
          }

    //显示数组a
     for (i=0;i<2;i++) { 
         for (j=0;j<3;j++) 
         {
            cout<<a[i][j]<<"  ";
         }
        cout<<endl;
    }

    //找出该数组的最大元素及其下标
    int h,l,Max=a[0][0];
     for (i=0;i<2;i++) {  
         for (j=0;j<3;j++) 
         {
            if (Max<a[i][j]) {
                Max=a[i][j];
                h=i;
                l=j;
            }
         }
    }
     cout<<"Max:"<<"a["<<h<<"]["<<l<<"]="<<a[h][l]<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //声明字符数组和变量
    char str[6];
    int i;

    //从键盘上输入字符串
    cout<<"str=";
    cin>>str; 
    cout<<str<<endl;
	
    //按数组和下标变量两种方式显示字符数组
    cout<<str<<endl;
    for (i=0;i<6;i++)
        cout<<str[i];
    cout<<endl;

    //字符串反向输出
    for (i=5;i>=0;i--) 
         cout<<str[i];
    cout<<endl;

    //将字符数组变成大写字母后输出 
    for (i=0;i<=5;i++)
       str[i]-=32;      	//小写字母转换成大写字母
    cout<<str<<endl;    	//显示字符串
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //声明变量和指针变量
    int a,b,c,*ip;

    //指针变量ip指向变量a
    a=100;
    ip=&a;        //使指针变量 ip 指向变量a
    cout<<"a="<<a<<endl;
    cout<<"*ip="<<*ip<<endl;
    cout<<"ip="<<ip<<endl;

    //指针变量ip指向变量b
    ip=&b;        //使指针变量 ip 指向变量b
    b=200;
    cout<<"b="<<b<<endl;
    cout<<"*ip="<<*ip<<endl;
    cout<<"ip="<<ip<<endl;

    //指针变量ip指向变量c
    ip=&c;        //使指针变量 ip 指向变量b
    *ip=a+b;
    cout<<"c="<<c<<endl;
    cout<<"*ip="<<*ip<<endl;
    cout<<"ip="<<ip<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //声明数组、变量和指针变量
    int a[2][3],i,j;
    int* ip;

    //从键盘上为数组a赋值
    for (i=0;i<2;i++)  //为数组a赋值
        for (j=0;j<3;j++) 
        {
           cout<<"a["<<i<<"]["<<j<<"]=";
           cin>>a[i][j];
         }

    //利用下标变量显示数组a
    for (i=0;i<2;i++) { 
        for (j=0;j<3;j++) 
        {
           cout<<a[i][j]<<"  ";
        }
        cout<<endl;
    }

    //利用指针变量显示数组a
    ip=&a[0][0];	 
    for (i=0;i<2;i++) { 
         for (j=0;j<3;j++) 
         {
            cout<<"a["<<i<<"]["<<j<<"]=";
            cout<<ip<<"  ";
            cout<<*ip<<endl;
            ip++;
         }
    }
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //声明数组、变量和指针变量
    int a[]={1,2,3,4,5,6};
    int *ip1,*ip2;

    //测试指针的赋值运算
    ip1=a;
    ip2=ip1;   
    cout<<"*ip1="<<(*ip1)<<endl;
    cout<<"*ip2="<<(*ip2)<<endl;

    //测试指针的自增自减运算和组合运算
    ip1++;  
    ip2+=4; 
    cout<<"*ip1="<<(*ip1)<<endl;
    cout<<"*ip2="<<(*ip2)<<endl;
    
    //测试指针变量之间的关系运算
    int n=ip2>ip1;
    cout<<"ip2>ip1="<<n<<endl;
    cout<<"ip2!=NULL="<<(ip2!=NULL)<<endl;

    //指针变量之间的减法
    n=ip2-ip1;
    cout<<"ip2-ip1="<<n<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //声明字符型数组和指针变量
    char str[10];
    char *strip=str;

    //输入输出
    cout<<"str=";
    cin>>str;      //用字符数组输入字符串
    cout<<"str="<<str<<endl;
    cout<<"strip="<<strip<<endl;
    cout<<"strip=";
    cin>>strip;     //用字符指针变量输入字符串
    cout<<"str="<<str<<endl;
    cout<<"strip="<<strip<<endl;

    //利用指针变量改变其指向字符串的内容
    *(strip+2)='l';
    cout<<"str="<<str<<endl;
    cout<<"strip="<<strip<<endl;

    //动态为字符型指针变量分配内存
    strip=new char(100);
    cout<<"strip=";
    cin>>strip; //用字符指针变量输入字符串
    cout<<"str="<<str<<endl;
    cout<<"strip="<<strip<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    // 声明用于存放运动员号码的数组
    int h[]={1001,1002,1003,1004}; 
    // 声明用于存放运动员成绩的数组
    float x[]={12.3,13.1,11.9,12.1};    
    //声明用于存放运动姓名的字符型指针数组
    char *p[]={"Wang hua","Zhang jian","Li wei","Hua ming"}; 
    //i,j,it是用做循环控制变量和临时变量
    int i,j,it; 
    //ft 用做暂存变量
    float ft;  
    //pt为字符型指针变量用做暂存指针变量
    char *pt; 

    //用选择法对数组x进行排序,并相应调整数组h和p中的数据
    for (i=0;i<=3;i++)  
        for (j=i+1;j<=3;j++)
           if (x[i]>=x[j]) {
              ft=x[i],x[i]=x[j],x[j]=ft;
              it=h[i],h[i]=h[j],h[j]=it;
              pt=p[i],p[i]=p[j],p[j]=pt;
           }

    //以下打印排序结果
    for (i=0;i<=3;i++)
       cout<<h[i]<<" ,"<<p[i]<<" ,"<<x[i]<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //声明指针数组
    char *colors[]={"Red","Blue","Yellow","Green"}; 
    //指向指针的指针变量
    char **pt;             

    //通过指向指针的变量访问其指向的内容
    pt=colors;
    for (int i=0;i<=3;i++) {
        cout<<"pt="<<pt<<endl;
        cout<<"*pt="<<*pt<<endl;
        cout<<"**pt="<<**pt<<endl;
        pt++;
    }
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //定义结构类型
    struct    books
    {
    char   title[20];
    char   author[15];
    int    pages;
    float  price;
    } ;
    
    //声明结构变量
    struct books Zbk={"VC++ ","Zhang",295,35.5}; 
    books Wbk;  

    //对结构变量的输出
    cout<<"Zbk:"<<endl;
    cout<<Zbk.title <<endl;
    cout<<Zbk.author<<endl;
    cout<<Zbk.pages<<endl;
    cout<<Zbk.price<<endl;
    cout<<"--------------------"<<endl;

    //对结构成员的运算
    Zbk.pages+=10;
    Zbk.price+=0.5;
    cout<<"Zbk.pages="<<Zbk.pages<<endl;
    cout<<"Zbk.price="<<Zbk.price<<endl;
    cout<<"--------------------"<<endl;

    //对结构变量的输入输出
    cout<<"Wbk.title =";
    cin>>Wbk.title;
    cout<<"Wbk.author=";
    cin>>Wbk.author;
    cout<<"Wbk.pages=";
    cin>>Wbk.pages;
    cout<<"Wbk.price=";
    cin>>Wbk.price;
    cout<<"Wbk:"<<endl;
    cout<<Wbk.title <<endl;
    cout<<Wbk.author<<endl;
    cout<<Wbk.pages<<endl;
    cout<<Wbk.price<<endl;
    cout<<"--------------------"<<endl;

    //结构变量之间的相互赋值
    books temp;
    temp=Wbk;
    cout<<"temp:"<<endl;
    cout<<temp.title<<endl;
    cout<<temp.author<<endl;
    cout<<temp.pages<<endl;
    cout<<temp.price<<endl;
}

#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    int i;
    //定义结构类型 
    struct student {
           int  num;
           char  name[10];
           float maths;
           float physics;
           float chemistry;
           double  total;
    };

     //声明结构数组st
     student st[3];

     //从键盘上为结构数组输入值 
     cout<<"    num  name     maths physics chemistry "<<endl;
     for (i=0;i<3;i++)
     {
        cout<<i+1<<"   ";
        cin>>st[i].num;
        cin>>st[i].name;
        cin>>st[i].maths;
        cin>>st[i].physics;
        cin>>st[i].chemistry;
     }

    //计算每个学生的总成绩
    for (i=0;i<3;i++)
         st[i].total=st[i].maths+st[i].physics+st[i].chemistry;

    //输出结构数组各元素的值 
    for (i=0;i<3;i++)
    {
        cout<<"st["<<i<<"]:   ";
        cout<<st[i].num<<'\t';
        cout<<st[i].name<<'\t';
        cout<<st[i].maths<<'\t';
        cout<<st[i].physics<<'\t';
        cout<<st[i].chemistry<<'\t';
        cout<<st[i].total<<endl;
     }
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //定义结构类型
    struct human {
       char name[10];
       int sex;
       int age;
    };

    //声明结构变量和结构指针变量,并初始化
    struct human x={"WangPing",1,30},*p=NULL;

    //结构指针变量指向对象
    p=&x;

    //显示结构变量的值
    cout<<"x.name="<<x.name<<endl;
    cout<<"x.sex="<<x.sex<<endl;
    cout<<"x.age="<<x.age<<endl;
  
    //利用结构指针显示结构对象中的数据
    cout<<"(*p).name="<<(*p).name<<endl;
    cout<<"(*p).sex="<<(*p).sex<<endl;
    cout<<"(*p).age="<<(*p).age<<endl;
    cout<<"p->name="<<p->name<<endl;
    cout<<"p->sex="<<p->sex<<endl;
    cout<<"p->age="<<p->age<<endl;

    //通过结构指针为结构对象输入数据
    cout<<"name:";
    cin>>(*p).name;
    cout<<"sex:";
    cin>>(*p).sex;
    cout<<"age:";
    cin>>(*p).age;

    //显示结构变量的值
    cout<<"x.name="<<x.name<<endl;
    cout<<"x.sex="<<x.sex<<endl;
    cout<<"x.age="<<x.age<<endl;
}
include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //定义结构类型
    struct human {
       char name[10];
       int sex;
       int age;
       };

    //声明结构变量和结构指针,并初始化
    struct human x={"WangPing",1,30},*p=&x;
 
    //利用结构指针显示结构中的数据
    cout<<"(*p).name="<<(*p).name<<endl;
    cout<<"(*p).sex="<<(*p).sex<<endl;
    cout<<"(*p).age="<<(*p).age<<endl;
    cout<<"-------------------------"<<endl;

    //利用new运算符为p分配内存
    p=new human;

    //从键盘上为p指向的结构对象赋值
    cout<<"p->name=";
    cin>>p->name;
    cout<<"p->sex=";
    cin>>p->sex;
    cout<<"p->age=";
    cin>>p->age;
    cout<<"-------------------------"<<endl;

    //显示p所指结构对象的值
    cout<<"p->name="<<p->name<<endl;
    cout<<"p->sex="<<p->sex<<endl;
    cout<<"p->age="<<p->age<<endl;
    cout<<"-------------------------"<<endl;

    //显示结构变量的值
    cout<<"x.name="<<x.name<<endl;
    cout<<"x.sex="<<x.sex<<endl;
    cout<<"x.age="<<x.age<<endl;

    //释放p指向的内存
    delete p;  
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //定义结构类型
    struct human {
       char name[10];
       int sex;
       int age;
    };

    //声明结构数组和结构指针变量,并初始化
    human x[]={{"WeiPing",1,30},{"LiHua",1,25},{"LiuMin",0,23}},*p=NULL;

    //用下标变量的输出结构数组的元素
    for (int i=0;i<3;i++)
    {
        cout<<x[i].name<<'\t';
        cout<<x[i].sex<<'\t';
        cout<<x[i].age<<endl;
    }
    cout<<"----------------"<<endl;

    //用结构指针输出结构数组的元素
    for (p=x;p<=&x[2];p++)
    {
        cout<<p->name<<'\t';
        cout<<p->sex<<'\t';
        cout<<p->age<<endl;
    }
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //定义一个包含指针成员的结构类型
    struct test {
       char *str;
       int  *ip;
    } x;

    //使用结构变量x中的整型指针ip
    x.ip=new int;    //分配1个单元
    *(x.ip)=100;
    cout<<"x.ip:"<<x.ip<<'\t'<<*(x.ip)<<endl;
    cout<<"---------------"<<endl;
    delete x.ip;
    x.ip=new int[5];    //分配5个单元
    for(int i=0;i<5;i++)
        *(x.ip+i)=100+i;
    cout<<"x.ip:"<<endl;
    for(i=0;i<5;i++)
        cout<<x.ip+i<<'\t'<<(*(x.ip+i))<<endl;
    delete x.ip;
    cout<<"---------------"<<endl;

    //使用结构变量x中的字符型指针str
    x.str=new char('A');    //分配1个单元
    cout<<"x.str:"<<(*x.str)<<endl;
    cout<<"---------------"<<endl;
    delete x.str;
    x.str=new char[5];    //分配多个单元
    *x.str='G';
    *(x.str+1)='o';
    *(x.str+2)='o';
    *(x.str+3)='d';
    *(x.str+4)='\0';
    cout<<"x.str:"<<x.str<<endl;
    delete x.str;
    cout<<"---------------"<<endl;

    //在声明结构变量时初始化
    test y={"Very Good!",NULL};
    cout<<"y.str:"<<y.str<<endl;
    cout<<"y.ip:"<<y.ip<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //定义date结构
    struct date
    {
       int year;
       int month;
       int day;
    };

    //定义baby结构
    struct baby {
        int    num;
        float   weight;
        date   birthday;   // date为结构类型 
    }; 
	
    //声明baby结构变量并初始化
    baby b1={10001,10,{2002,12,25}};

    //下列是baby结构变量b1的引用。
    cout<<"b1.num="<<b1.num<<endl;
    cout<<"b1.weight="<<b1.weight<<endl;
    cout<<"b1.birthday.year="<<b1.birthday.year<<endl;
    cout<<"b1.birthday.month="<<b1.birthday.month<<endl;
    cout<<"b1.birthday.day="<<b1.birthday.day<<endl;
    cout<<"--------------------------"<<endl;

    //声明baby结构变量temp,并进行赋值运算
    baby temp;
    temp=b1;
    cout<<"temp.num="<<temp.num<<endl;
    cout<<"temp.weight="<<temp.weight<<endl;
    cout<<"temp.birthday.year="<<temp.birthday.year<<endl;
    cout<<"temp.birthday.month="<<temp.birthday.month<<endl;
    cout<<"temp.birthday.day="<<temp.birthday.day<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //定义名为list的递归结构  
    struct list {
          char         name[10];
          int          sex;
          int          age;
          list         *next;   //成员next为指向其自身结构的指针
    };

    //使用递归结构变量
    list L1={"WeiPing",1,35.5,NULL};
    cout<<"L1:"<<endl;
    cout<<"name\t"<<L1.name<<endl;
    cout<<"sex\t"<<L1.sex<<endl;
    cout<<"age\t"<<L1.age<<endl;
    cout<<"next\t"<<L1.next<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    int i;
    //定义名为student的递归结构 
    struct  student {
           char name[10];
           int  math;
           int  computer;
           float sum;
           student *next;    //next成员是指向自身的结构指针 
    };

    //用student声明3个结构指针变量
    struct student *head,*tail,*temp;  	

    //申请第1块数据,并设置各结构指针的初值
    temp=new struct student;    //申请内存 
    head=temp;   // 头指针 
    tail=head;    // 尾指针 

    //循环为链表输入数据
    cout<<"\tname    Math   Computer"<<endl;
    for (i=1;;i++) {
        cout<<i<<"\t";
        cin>>temp->name;
        if (temp->name[0]!='*')
        {
            cin>>temp->math>>temp->computer;
            temp->sum=temp->math+temp->computer;
            temp->next=NULL;
            tail=temp;      //设置链表尾指针 
         }
         else
         {
          // 以下是输入结束处理 
            delete temp;
            tail->next=NULL;
            break;
         }
        //为下一个学生申请内存
        temp->next=new struct student; 
        temp=temp->next;    // 使处理指针temp指向新内存块
    }

    //将链表数据从头到尾打印出来
    cout<<"--------------------"<<endl;
    temp=head;
    while (temp!=NULL) {
           cout<<temp->name<<","<<temp->math<<",";
           cout<<temp->computer<<","<<temp->sum<<endl;
           temp=temp->next;
     }
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    int i;
    //定义名为student的递归结构 
    struct  student {
           char name[10];
           int  math;
           int  computer;
           float sum;
           student *forw;    //forw成员是前指针 
           student *next;    //next成员是后指针
    };

    //用student声明3个结构指针变量
    struct student *head,*tail,*temp; 

    //申请第1块数据,并设置各结构指针的初值
    temp=new struct student;    //申请内存 
    head=temp;      // 头指针 
    tail=head;      // 尾指针 
    head->forw=NULL;

    //循环为链表记录输入数据
    cout<<"\tname    Math   Computer"<<endl;
    for (i=1;;i++) {
        cout<<i<<"\t";
        cin>>temp->name;
        if (temp->name[0]!='*')
        {
            cin>>temp->math>>temp->computer;
            temp->sum=temp->math+temp->computer;
            temp->next=NULL;
            tail=temp;      //设置链表尾指针 
         }
         else
         {
          // 以下是输入结束处理 
            delete temp;
            tail->next=NULL;
            break;
         }
        //为下一个学生申请内存
        temp->next=new struct student; 
        temp->next->forw=temp;   //设置前指针
        temp=temp->next;         //使处理指针temp指向新内存块
    }

    // 将链表数据从头到尾打印出来
    cout<<"head------>tail:"<<endl;
    temp=head;
    while (temp!=NULL) {
           cout<<temp->name<<","<<temp->math<<",";
           cout<<temp->computer<<","<<temp->sum<<endl;
           temp=temp->next;
     }

    // 将链表数据从尾到头打印出来
    cout<<"tail------>head:"<<endl;
    temp=tail;
    while (temp!=NULL) {
           cout<<temp->name<<","<<temp->math<<",";
           cout<<temp->computer<<","<<temp->sum<<endl;
           temp=temp->forw;
     }
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    int i;
    //定义联合类型
    union utag  {
          char    c;
          int     k;
          float   x;
    };

    //声明联合变量
    union utag u; 

    // 使用联合变量中的字符型成员 
    u.c='*';
    cout<<"u.c="<<u.c<<endl;

    // 使用联合变量中的整型成员 
    u.k=1000;
    cout<<"u.k="<<u.k<<endl;

    // 使用联合变量中的浮点型成员 
    u.x=3.1416;
    cout<<"u.x="<<u.x<<endl;

    //声明联合变量时初始化
    utag u1={'A'};

    //同时引用联合变量的各成员
    cout<<"u1.c="<<u1.c<<endl;
    cout<<"u1.k="<<u1.k<<endl;
    cout<<"u1.x="<<u1.x<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()  
{
    //定义结构类型,并为声明的结构变量赋初值
    struct s_tag {
           short    i;
           float x;
    } sx={100,3.1416};

    //定义联合类型,并为声明的联合变量赋初值
    union   u_tag  {
            short    i;
            float x;
    } ux={1000};

    //输出结构类型和结构变量的有关信息
    cout<<"sizeof(struct s_tag)="<<sizeof(struct s_tag)<<endl;
    cout<<"sx.i="<<sx.i<<endl;
    cout<<"sx.x="<<sx.x<<endl;
    cout<<"sizeof(sx)="<<sizeof(sx)<<endl;
    cout<<"------------------------------"<<endl;

    //输出联合类型和联合变量的有关信息
    cout<<"sizeof(union u_tag)="<<sizeof(union u_tag)<<endl;
    ux.i=200;
    cout<<"ux.i="<<ux.i<<endl;  //输出联合变量ux 的i成员
    ux.x=123.456;
    cout<<"ux.x="<<ux.x<<endl;  //输出联合变量ux 的x成员
    cout<<"sizeof(ux)="<<sizeof(ux)<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //自定义类型 
    typedef  int  ARRAY_INT[50];
    int i;
    ARRAY_INT a;    //用自定义类型声明数组变量a 

    //以下为数组a赋值,并打印  
    for (i=0;i<50;i++) {
       if (i%10==0)       //每10个数换一次行 
         cout<<endl;
       a[i]=i;
       cout<<a[i]<<"\t";
     }
    cout<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
//定义结构类型
struct student
{
    int   num;
    char  name[20];
    float grade;
};
void main(void)
{
    //声明数组
    int i,size;
    char str[]="This is a string.";
    int int_values[] = {51, 23, 2, 44, 45,0,11}; 
    float float_values[] = {15.1, 13.3, 22.2, 10.4, 1.5};  
    student st_arr[]={101,"WangLin",92,102,"LiPing",85,103,"ZhaoMin",88};
		
    //显示char类型数组元素及其大小
    size=sizeof(str) / sizeof(char);
    cout<<"Number of elements in str: ";
    cout<<size<<endl;
    for(i=0;i<size;i++) {
        cout<<str[i];
    }
    cout<<endl;

    //显示int类型数组元素及其大小
    size=sizeof(int_values) / sizeof(int);
    cout<<"Number of elements in int_values: ";
    cout<<size<<endl;
    for(i=0;i<size;i++) {
        cout<<int_values[i]<<" ";
    }
    cout<<endl;

    //显示float类型数组元素及其大小
    size=sizeof(float_values) / sizeof(float);
    cout<<"Number of elements in float_values: ";
    cout<<size<<endl;
    for(i=0;i<size;i++) {
        cout<<float_values[i]<<" ";
    }
    cout<<endl;

    //显示student类型数组元素及其大小
    size=sizeof(st_arr) / sizeof(student);
    cout<<"Number of elements in st_arr: ";
    cout<<size<<endl;
    for(i=0;i<size;i++) {
        cout<<st_arr[i].num<<" ";
        cout<<st_arr[i].name<<" ";
        cout<<st_arr[i].grade<<endl;
    }
}
#include<iostream.h>
//add()函数的定义,其有返回值
double add(double x,double y)
{
    double z;
    z=x+y;
    cout<<x<<"+"<<y<<"="<<z<<endl;
    return(z);
}

main()
{
    double a=0.5,b=1.0;
	
    //以不同参数形式调用函数add()
    cout<<"add(1.5,2.5)="<<add(1.5,2.5)<<endl;
    cout<<"add(a,b)="<<add(a,b)<<endl;
    cout<<"add(2*a,a+b)="<<add(2*a,a+b)<<endl;
    cout<<"----------------------"<<endl;

    //以表达式方式调用函数add()
    double c=2*add(a,b);
    cout<<"c="<<c<<endl;
    cout<<"----------------------"<<endl;

    //以语句式方式调用函数add()
    add(2*a,b);
    cout<<"----------------------"<<endl;
 
    //用其他类型参数调用函数add()
    int n=1,m=2;
    cout<<"add("<<n<<","<<m<<")="<<add(n,m)<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
//定义符号函数sgn(),其返回值为int类型
int sgn(double x)
{
    if (x>0) return(1);    //返回出口1
    if (x<0) return(-1);   //返回出口2
    return(0);          //返回出口3
}
//main()函数定义
main()
{
    double x;
    int i;
    for (i=0;i<=2;i++) {
        cout<<"x=";
        cin>>x;
        cout<<"sgn("<<x<<")="<<sgn(x)<<endl;
    }
}
#include<iostream.h>
//函数原型语句可以在这里
//定义main()函数 
main()  
{
    //max()函数原型声明语句
    float max(float,float);
	
    //变量声明语句
    float a,b,Max;

    //输入参数并计算
    cout<<"a=";
    cin>>a;
    cout<<"b=";
    cin>>b;
    Max=max(a,b);     //调用max()函数 
    cout<<"max("<<a<<","<<b<<")="<<Max<<endl;
}
//定义max()函数
float max(float x,float y)     //max()返回值类型为浮点型
{
    float z;
    z=(x>y)?x:y;
    return(z);
}

#include<iostream.h>
//定义f()函数
f(int x,int y)     //f()的参数以值方式传递
{
    ++x;
    --y;
    cout<<"x="<<x<<",y="<<y<<endl;
}
main()  {
    int a,b;

    //设置实际参数的值
    a=b=10;
    //以变量为参数调用f()函数
    f(a,b);

    //验证实际参数的值
    cout<<"a="<<a<<",b="<<b<<endl;

    //以表达式参数形式调用f()函数
    f(2*a,a+b);
}
#include<iostream.h>

//定义公共结构类型
struct student {
       int  num;
       char  name[10];
       float maths;
       float physics;
       float chemistry;
       double  total;
};
 
//定义结构输入函数
input_Rec(struct student *p)   //参数为student类型的结构指针变量
{
    cin>>p->num;
    cin>>p->name;
    cin>>p->maths;
    cin>>p->physics;
    cin>>p->chemistry;
}

//定义结构数据交换函数
swap_Rec(struct student *p1,struct student *p2)
{
    struct student x;

    //交换两个记录的数据
    x=*p1;
    *p1=*p2;
    *p2=x;
}

//输出结构的值
put_Rec(struct student *p)
{
    cout<<p->num<<'\t';
    cout<<p->name<<'\t';
    cout<<p->maths<<'\t';
    cout<<p->physics<<'\t';
    cout<<p->chemistry<<'\t';
    cout<<p->total<<endl;
}

//定义main()函数
main() 
{
    int i,j;
    // 声明结构指针变量和结构数组 
    struct student *p1,a[3];  

    //输入3个学生的数据并计算总成绩
    cout<<"num\tname\tmaths\tphysics\tchemistry"<<endl;
    for (p1=a;p1<=a+2;p1++)  {
         input_Rec(p1);
         p1->total=p1->maths+p1->physics+p1->chemistry;
    }

    //对3个学生的数据排序
    for (i=0;i<=2;i++)  
         for (j=i+1;j<=2;j++)
             if (a[i].total<a[j].total)
                 swap_Rec(&a[i],&a[j]);   //交换两个结构变量中的数据
     cout<<"-------------------"<<endl;	  //输出一分界线

     //输出排序后的结构数组
    cout<<"num\tname\tmaths\tphysics\tchemistry\ttotal"<<endl;
    for (p1=a;p1<=a+2;p1++)
          put_Rec(p1);
}
#include<iostream.h>
//定义结构
struct student {
    char  name[10];
    float   grade;
};

//交换student类型的数据 
void swap(student &x,student &y)      //swap的参数为引用传递方式
{
    student temp;
    temp=x;
    x=y;
    y=temp;
}

//返回student类型的引用,求优者 
student& max(student &x,student &y)      //swap的参数为引用传递方式
{
    return (x.grade>y.grade?x:y);
}

//显示student类型的数据 
void show(student &x)      //show的参数为引用传递方式
{
   cout<<x.name<<"  "<<x.grade<<endl;
}
void main()  
{
    student a={"ZhangHua",351.5},b={"WangJun",385};

    //显示a和b的数据
    cout<<"a:";
    show(a);
    cout<<"b:";
    show(b);
    cout<<"------------------"<<endl;

    //交换a和b的数据,并显示
    swap(a,b);    
    cout<<"a:";
show(a);
    cout<<"b:";
show(b);
    cout<<"------------------"<<endl;

    //计算和显示成绩高者
    student t=max(a,b);
    cout<<"Max:";
    show(t);
}
#include <iostream.h>
//参数带有默认值的函数
disp(int x=1,int y=1,int z=1)
{
    cout<<"参数1: "<<x<<endl;
    cout<<"参数2: "<<y<<endl;
    cout<<"参数3: "<<z<<endl;
    cout<<"------------------"<<endl;
}

//main()函数中测试参数带有默认值的函数disp()
void main()
{
    disp();
    disp(10);
    disp(10,20);
    disp(10,20,30);
    int a=1,b=2,c=3;
    disp(a,b,c);
}
#include <iostream.h>
//计算字符串长度的函数
int str_len(const char *string)
{
    //char *temp=string; 编译报错!
    //*string='x';       编译报错!
    int i=0;
    while (*(string+i)!=NULL) 
        i++;
    return i;
}

//main()函数中测试str_len()
void main()
{
    char a[]="ABCDE";
    cout<<a<<"\t"<<str_len(a)<<endl;
    char *str="Hello!";
    cout<<str<<"\t"<<str_len(str)<<endl;
    cout<<"This is a test."<<"\t"<<str_len("This is a test.")<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
void  disp(void);  //这个函数声明语句不能少

//定义main()函数的参数和返回值类型是void类型
void  main(void)  
{
    //调用void类型函数
    disp();  
}
//以下定义disp()函数
void disp(void)  {
     cout<<" You are welcome."<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
//函数原型语句
int  abs(int x);
long abs(long x);
float abs(float x);

//main()函数的定义
void main(void) 
{
    //声明变量
    int i1=32767,i2=-32767;
    long l1=456789,l2=-456789;
    float x1=1.1234,x2=-1.1234;
   
    //直接在cout输出中调用函数
    cout<<abs(i1)<<","<<abs(i2)<<endl;
    cout<<abs(l1)<<","<<abs(l2)<<endl;
    cout<<abs(x1)<<","<<abs(x2)<<endl;
}

//定义int型的abs()函数
int abs(int x) {
    if (x<0)
       return(-x);
    else
       return(x);
}

//定义long型的abs()函数 
long abs(long x) {
    if (x<0)
       return(-x);
    else
        return(x);
}

//定义float型 abs函数
float abs(float x) {
    if (x<0.0)
       return(-x);
    else
       return(x);
}
#include<iostream.h>
//max()为内联函数
inline int max(int x,int y)   //注意inline关键字
{
    return x>y?x:y;
}

//定义main()函数 
main()  
{
    int a=3,b=5,c;
    c=max(a,b);    
    cout<<"max("<<a<<","<<b<<")="<<c<<endl;
    cout<<"max("<<15<<","<<11<<")="<<max(15,11)<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()  
{
    //函数原型声明
    int fact(int x);
    int n,sn;

    //依次从键盘上输入3个正整型数据计算它们的阶乘
    for (int i=1;i<=3;i++)
    {
        cout<<i<<"   n=";
        cin>>n;
        sn=fact(n);
        cout<<n<<"!="<<sn<<endl;
    }
}

//以下是采用递归方法定义的fact()函数
int fact(int x)
{
   if (x==0) return(1);
      return(x*fact(x-1));  //此处又调用了它自身
}
#include<iostream.h>
//带参数的main()函数
int main(int argc,char *argv[])
{
    int i;
    for(i=0;i<argc;i++)
       cout<<i<<":"<<argv[i]<<endl;
    return 0;
}
#include<iostream.h>
//用函数原型声明要使用的函数
void show_array1(int*,int);
void show_array2(int a[],int);
void sort(int*,int);
main()
{
    //声明数组并初始化
    int a[]={2,4,6,1,3,5};
    int b[3][3]={{2,4,6},{1,3,5},{0,1,2}};
    
    //显示数组的值
    cout<<"show_array1(int*,int):"<<endl;
    show_array1(a,6);
    show_array1(&b[0][0],3*3);

    //用sort1排序并显示
    cout<<"sort(int*,int) and show_array1(int*,int): "<<endl;
    sort(a,6);
    show_array1(a,6);
    sort(&b[0][0],3*3);
    show_array1(&b[0][0],9);

    //显示数组的值
    cout<<"show_array2(int a[],int):"<<endl;
    show_array2(a,6);
    show_array2(&b[0][0],3*3);
}

//显示数组,用指针当参数
void show_array1(int *p,int size) {
    for(int i=0;i<size;i++)
        cout<<*(p+i)<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
}

//显示数组,用数组当参数
void show_array2(int a[],int size) {
    for(int i=0;i<size;i++)
        cout<<a[i]<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
}   

//对数组按从大到小顺序排序
void sort(int *p,int size) {
    int t;
    for (int i=0;i<size-1;i++)
        for (int j=i+1;j<size;j++)
            if (*(p+i)<=*(p+j))
            {
               t=*(p+i);
               *(p+i)=*(p+j);
               *(p+j)=t;
            }
}
#include<iostream.h>
//定义结构
struct student {
    char  name[10];
    float   grade;
};

//更改student数据的grade成员,参数形式为引用 
void change(student &x,float grade) 
{
    x.grade=grade;
}

//更改student数据的grade成员,参数形式为指针 
void change1(student *p,float grade)      
{
    p->grade=grade;
}

//更改student类型的数据,普通参数形式 
void change2(student x,float grade)      
{
    x.grade=grade;
}

//显示student类型的数据,参数形式为引用
void show(student &x)      
{
    cout<<x.name<<"  "<<x.grade<<endl;
}

//在main()函数中,测试对结构的处理函数
void main()  
{
    student a={"ZhangHua",351.5};

    //显示a的数据
    show(a);

    //用change修改分数,并显示
	cout<<"change(student &x,float grade):"<<endl;
    change(a,360);
    show(a);

    //用change1修改分数,并显示
	cout<<"change1(student *p,float grade):"<<endl;
    change1(&a,375);
    show(a);

    //用change2修改分数,并显示
	cout<<"change2(student x,float grade):"<<endl;
    change2(a,380.5);
    show(a);
}
#include<iostream.h>
//定义函数计算数组的和和平均值
void calculate(int a[],int size,int& sum,float& average)
{
    sum=0;
    for (int i=0;i<size;i++) {
        sum+=a[i];
    }
    average=sum/size;
}
//定义显示数组的函数
void put_arr(int a[],int size)
{
    for(int i=0;i<size;i++)
        cout<<a[i]<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
}
main()
{
    //声明数组并初始化
    int asize,bsize;
    int a[]={2,4,6,1,3,5};
    int b[]={1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15};
    
    //显示数组的值
    asize=sizeof(a)/sizeof(int);
	cout<<"put_arr(a,asize):"<<endl;
    put_arr(a,asize);
    bsize=sizeof(b)/sizeof(int);
	cout<<"put_arr(b,bsize):"<<endl;
    put_arr(b,bsize);

    //计算数组的和和平均值
    float a_ave,b_ave;
    int a_sum,b_sum;
	cout<<"calculate(a,asize,a_sum,a_ave):"<<endl;
    calculate(a,asize,a_sum,a_ave);
    cout<<"a_sum="<<a_sum;
    cout<<" a_ave="<<a_ave<<endl;

	cout<<"calculate(b,bsize,b_sum,b_ave):"<<endl;
    calculate(b,bsize,b_sum,b_ave);
    cout<<"b_sum="<<b_sum;
    cout<<" b_ave="<<b_ave<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>

//参数为函数指针的函数
int get_result(int a, int b, int (*sub)(int,int))
{
    int r;
    r=sub(a,b);
    return r;
}
 
//计算最大值
int max(int a, int b)
{
    cout<<"In max"<<endl;
    return((a > b) ? a: b);
}

//计算最小值
int min(int a, int b)
{
    cout<<"In min"<<endl;
    return((a < b) ? a: b);
}

//求和
int sum(int a, int b)
{
    cout<<"In sum"<<endl;
    return(a+b);
}

//测试指向函数的指针
void main(void)
{
    int a,b,result;

    //测试3次
    for (int i=1;i<=3;i++) {
        cout<<"Input a and b :";
        cin>>a>>b;

		cout<<i<<"\tget_result("<<a<<","<<b<<", &max):"<<endl;
        result =get_result(a, b, &max);
        cout<<"Max of "<<a<<" and "<<b<<" is "<<result<<endl;
   
        result = get_result(a, b, &min);
        cout<<"Min of "<<a<<" and "<<b<<" is "<<result<<endl;

        result = get_result(a, b, &sum);
        cout<<"Sum of "<<a<<" and "<<b<<" is "<<result<<endl; 
    }
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#define size 3
//定义book结构类型
struct book
{
    char   title[20];
    char   author[15];
    int    pages;
    float  price;
};
//book结构的输入函数
input_book(book& bk,char *name)
{
    cout<<name<<":"<<endl;
    cout<<"title:";
    cin>>bk.title;
    cout<<"author:";
    cin>>bk.author;
    cout<<"pages:";
    cin>>bk.pages;
    cout<<"price:";
    cin>>bk.price;
}
//book结构的输出函数
output_book(book& bk,char *name)
{
    cout<<name<<":  ";
    cout<<bk.title<<" ";
    cout<<bk.author<<" ";
    cout<<bk.pages<<" ";
    cout<<bk.price<<endl;
}
void main(void)
{
    //声明变量和结构数组
    int i;
    char str[20];
    book bk[size];

    //输入结构数组
    for(i=0;i<size;i++) {
        sprintf(str,"bk[%d]",i+1);
        input_book(bk[i],str);
    }

    //显示结构数组
    for(i=0;i<size;i++) {
        sprintf(str,"bk[%d]",i+1);
        output_book(bk[i],str);
    }
}
#include<iostream.h>
//声明全局变量并初始化
extern int a[]={1,2,3};
extern float p=3.14;

//在show()函数中使用外部变量
show()  {
    int i;
    cout<<"In show():"<<endl;
	cout<<"p="<<p<<endl;
	cout<<"a[]: ";
    for (i=0;i<=2;i++) 
        cout<<a[i]<<"  ";
    cout<<endl;
    //cout<<"y="<<y<<endl; 编译出错!
}

//声明外部变量并初始化
int y=5678;

//在main()函数中使用外部变量
main()  
{
    //声明局部变量
    int i,p=100;

    //显示重名变量
	cout<<"In main():"<<endl;
    cout<<"p="<<p<<endl;

    //显示全局变量
    cout<<"::p="<<::p<<endl;
	cout<<"a[]: ";
    for (i=0;i<=2;i++)
        cout<<a[i]<<"  ";
    cout<<endl;
    cout<<"y="<<y<<endl;   //编译正确!

    show();  //调用函数
}
#include <iostream.h>
//使用静态变量的计数器函数 
count1() 
{
    //声明静态变量i,并置初值为0。i在count()中局部可见
    static int i=0; 
    return(++i);
}
//使用局部变量的计数器函数  
count2() 
{
    int i=0; 
    return(++i);
}
//在main()函数中调用count()函数
main()  
{
    int i;

    //调用count1()10次
    cout<<"count1():"<<endl;
    for (i=1;i<=12;i++)
         cout<<count1()<<"  ";
    cout<<endl;

    //调用count2()10次
    cout<<"count2():"<<endl;
    for (i=1;i<=12;i++)
         cout<<count2()<<"  ";
    cout<<endl;
}
// p1-851.cpp 为main()函数文件
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    int i,s=0;
    extern int fact(int x);
    for (i=2;i<=6;i=i+2)
        s+=fact(i);
    cout<<"s="<<s<<endl;
}
// p1-852.cpp为计算阶乘函数文件
//定义fact()函数为外部(extern)函数
extern int fact(int x)  
{
    int i,t=1;
    if(x==0) return(1);
    for(i=1;i<=x;i++)
        t*=i;
    return(t);
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<string.h>
#include<process.h>
main()  {
    //声明变量
    FILE *fp1;
    char str[80];

    //从键盘上任意输入一个字符串
    cout<<"Inupt a string:";
    cin.getline(str,80);

    //以写入方式打开d.dat文件
    if ((fp1=fopen("d.dat","w"))==NULL)
    {
       cout<<"\nCould not open the file."<<endl;
       cout<<"Exiting program."<<endl;
       exit(1);   //结束程序执行
    }

    // 写"流"文件 
    fputs(str,fp1);         
    fputs("\n",fp1); 

    fclose(fp1);               	//关闭文件

    // 以读方式打开d.dat文件
    if ((fp1=fopen("d.dat","r"))==NULL) 
    {
       cout<<"\nCould not open the file."<<endl;
       cout<<"Exiting program."<<endl;
       exit(1);   //结束程序执行
    }

    // 循环从"流"文件读取字符,并显示
    char ch;
    while ((ch=fgetc(fp1))!=EOF)  
          cout<<ch;		
    cout<<endl;
    fclose(fp1); //关闭文件

}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <process.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main(void)  {
    //变量声明
    char ch;
    FILE *fp1;

    //以写入方式打开d.dat文件 
    if ((fp1=fopen("d.dat","w"))==NULL)    {
       cout<<"\nCould not open the file."<<endl;
       cout<<"Exiting program."<<endl;
       exit(1);   //结束程序执行
    }

    //循环从键盘上读取字符,写入"流"文件
    cout<<"char:"<<endl;
    cin>>ch; 
    while (ch!='*') {
        fputc(ch,fp1);   //将字符写到fp1指向的"流"文件中
        cin>>ch; 
    }
    fclose(fp1);  //关闭文件

    // 以读方式打开d.dat文件
    if ((fp1=fopen("d.dat","r"))==NULL) 
    {
       cout<<"\nCould not open the file."<<endl;
       cout<<"Exiting program."<<endl;
       exit(1);   //结束程序执行
    }

    // 循环从"流"文件读取字符,并显示
    while ((ch=fgetc(fp1))!=EOF)  
          cout<<ch<<"  ";		
    cout<<endl;
    fclose(fp1); //关闭文件
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<string.h>
#include<process.h>
main()  {
    //声明变量
    int i=0;
    char p[100];   			// 声明输入缓冲区 
    FILE *fp1;     			// 声明文件指针变量

    //以写入方式打开d.dat文件
    if ((fp1=fopen("d.dat","w"))==NULL)
    {
       cout<<"\nCould not open the file."<<endl;
       cout<<"Exiting program."<<endl;
       exit(1);   //结束程序执行
    }

    // 写文件操作 
    for (i=1;;i++)  {            //无条件循环
        cout<<i<<" string:";
        cin>>p;         	      //从键盘上输入数据
        if (stricmp(p,"end")) {	  //如果输入的字符串为end,则结束循环
            fputs(p,fp1);         //写入文件操作
            fputs("\n",fp1); 
        }
        else
            break;                //退出循环
    }
 
    fclose(fp1);               	//关闭文件

    // 以读方式打开d.dat文件
    if ((fp1=fopen("d.dat","r"))==NULL) 
    {
       cout<<"\nCould not open the file."<<endl;
       cout<<"Exiting program."<<endl;
       exit(1);   //结束程序执行
    }

    // 循环从文件读取字符,并显示
    while (fgets(p,100,fp1)!=NULL)  
          cout<<p;		
     fclose(fp1); //关闭文件
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<string.h>
#include<process.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#define MAX    10
main()  {
    //声明变量
    int i,n;
    FILE *fp1;     			// 声明文件指针变量

    //以写入方式打开d.dat文件
    if ((fp1=fopen("d.dat","w"))==NULL)
    {
       cout<<"\nCould not open the file."<<endl;
       cout<<"Exiting program."<<endl;
       exit(1);   //结束程序执行
    }

    // 写文件操作 
    for (i=1;i<=MAX;i++)  {     
        n=rand();        //产生1个整数随机数
        putw(n,fp1);
        cout<<n<<" ";
    }
    cout<<endl<<"--------------------"<<endl;
 
    fclose(fp1);               	//关闭文件

    // 以读方式打开d.dat文件
    if ((fp1=fopen("d.dat","r"))==NULL) 
    {
       cout<<"\nCould not open the file."<<endl;
       cout<<"Exiting program."<<endl;
       exit(1);   //结束程序执行
    }
  
    // 循环从"流"文件读取字符,并显示
    while ((n=getw(fp1))!=EOF)  
          cout<<n<<" ";		

    fclose(fp1); //关闭文件
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<string.h>
#include<process.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#define MAX    3
main()  {
    //定义结构类型
    struct student {
        int num;
        char name[10];
        float grade;
    };

    //声明数组和变量
    student st[3];
    int i;
    FILE *fp1;     			    // 声明文件指针变量

    //以写入方式打开d.dat文件
    if ((fp1=fopen("d.dat","w"))==NULL)
    {
       cout<<"\nCould not open the file."<<endl;
       cout<<"Exiting program."<<endl;
       exit(1);   //结束程序执行
    }

    //从键盘上读数据,写入文件
    cout<<"    num    name    grade"<<endl;
    for (i=0;i<MAX;i++)  {     
        cout<<i+1<<" ";
        cin>>st[i].num;
        cin>>st[i].name;
        cin>>st[i].grade;
        fprintf(fp1,"%d %s %f\n",st[i].num,st[i].name,st[i].grade);
    }
 
    fclose(fp1);               	//关闭文件

    // 以读方式打开d.dat文件
    if ((fp1=fopen("d.dat","r"))==NULL) 
    {
       cout<<"\nCould not open the file."<<endl;
       cout<<"Exiting program."<<endl;
       exit(1);   //结束程序执行
    }
  
    // 循环从"流"文件读取字符,并显示
    student t;
    while ((fscanf(fp1, "%d %s %f",&t.num,t.name,&t.grade))!=EOF)  {
          cout<<t.num<<" ";		
          cout<<t.name<<" ";		
          cout<<t.grade<<endl;		
    }

    fclose(fp1); //关闭文件
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <process.h>
#include <stdlib.h> 
#include <stdio.h> 
int main(void) 
{ 
    FILE *fpd,*fpw;    // 声明FILE结构指针变量 
    unsigned char dw;
    int i=0;

    //以二进制读方式打开Calc.exe文件
    if((fpd=fopen("C:\WINDOWS\Calc.exe", "rb"))==NULL) 
    { 
       cout<<"\nCould not open the file."<<endl;
       cout<<"Exiting program."<<endl;
       exit(1);   //结束程序执行
    } 

    // 以二进制写方式打开test.exe文件 
    if((fpw=fopen("test.exe", "wb+"))==NULL)
    {
       cout<<"\nCould not open the file."<<endl;
       cout<<"Exiting program."<<endl;
       exit(1);   //结束程序执行
    }

    // 二进制文件读写操作,每次指定读写1个字节
    while(!feof(fpd)) {   //使用feof()判断文件尾 
        fread(&dw, 1, 1, fpd);
        fwrite(&dw, 1, 1, fpw);
    }
    // 关闭文件
    fclose(fpd);
    fclose(fpw);

    //执行Calc.exe和Calc.exe文件
    cout<<"1 Run C:\WINDOWS\Calc.exe"<<endl;
    system("C:\WINDOWS\Calc.exe");
    cout<<"-------------------"<<endl;
    cout<<"2 Run test.exe!"<<endl;
    system("test.exe");
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <process.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main(void) {
    //声明变量
    int i;
    char ch;
    FILE *fp1;

    //以写入方式打开d.dat文件 
    if ((fp1=fopen("d.dat","w"))==NULL)    {
       cout<<"\nCould not open the file."<<endl;
       cout<<"Exiting program."<<endl;
       exit(1);   //结束程序执行
    }

    //循环从键盘上读取字符,写入文件
    cout<<"char:";
    cin>>ch; 
    while (ch!='*') {
        fputc(ch,fp1);   //将字符写到fp1指向的"流"文件中
        cin>>ch; 
    }
    cout<<"--------------------"<<endl;
    fclose(fp1);  //关闭文件

    //以读方式打开d.dat文件
    if ((fp1=fopen("d.dat","r"))==NULL) 
    {
       cout<<"\nCould not open the file."<<endl;
       cout<<"Exiting program."<<endl;
       exit(1);   //结束程序执行
    }

    //循环从文件读取字符,并显示
    while ((ch=fgetc(fp1))!=EOF)  
          cout<<ch;		
    cout<<endl<<"--------------------"<<endl;

    //以下按倒序方式读取文件中的字符,并显示
    for (i=-1;;i--) {
        fseek(fp1,i,2);   			//设置文件指针,偏移量为i,相对文件尾
        if ((ch=fgetc(fp1))!=EOF)
            cout<<ch;
         else
            break;
    }
    cout<<endl<<"--------------------"<<endl;

    //以下读取"流"文件中偶数位置上的字符,并打印
    long position;
    for (i=0;;i=i+2) {
        fseek(fp1,i,0);        	//设置文件指针,偏移量为i,相对文件头
        position=ftell(fp1);
        if ((ch=fgetc(fp1))==EOF)	 //遇到文件尾,则退出,否则打印读取的字符
            break;     
        else {
           cout<<position<<" :"<<ch<<endl;
        }
    }
    cout<<endl;

    fclose(fp1); //关闭文件
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<process.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#define MAX 5

//显示数组的数据
void show_array(double x[],int size) {
    for(int i=0;i<size;i++)
        cout<<x[i]<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
}

//main函数测试数组数据的文件读写
int main(void) 
{ 
    //声明变量
    FILE *fp;    // 声明FILE结构指针变量 
    int i;
    double a[MAX]={1.0,1.2,1.4,1.6,1.8};

    //显示数组a的数据
    cout<<"a:";
    show_array(a,MAX);

    //打开d.dat文件
    if ((fp=fopen("d.dat","wb+"))==NULL)
    {
       cout<<"\nCould not open the file."<<endl;
       cout<<"Exiting program."<<endl;
       exit(1);   //结束程序执行
    }

    //以单个元素对数组进行文件读操作
    for(i=0;i<MAX;i++) { 
        fwrite(&a[i], sizeof(double), 1, fp);
    }

    rewind(fp);   //恢复读写指针的位置

    //以单个元素对数组进行文件读操作
    double b[MAX];
    for(i=0;i<MAX;i++) { 
       if (!feof(fp))    //使用feof()判断文件尾 
         fread(&b[i], sizeof(double), 1, fp);
       else
            break;
    }
    cout<<"b:";
    show_array(b,MAX);//显示数组b的数据

    fclose(fp); // 关闭文件

    //打开d1.dat文件
    if ((fp=fopen("d1.dat","wb+"))==NULL)
    {
       cout<<"\nCould not open the file."<<endl;
       cout<<"Exiting program."<<endl;
       exit(1);   //结束程序执行
    }

    //将数组当成数据块写入文件
    fwrite(&a, sizeof(double), MAX, fp);

    rewind(fp);   //恢复读写指针的位置

    //将数组当成数据块从文件中读取
    double c[MAX];
    if (!feof(fp))    //使用feof()判断文件尾 
         fread(&c, sizeof(double),MAX,fp);
    cout<<"c:";
    show_array(c,MAX);  //显示数组c的数据
    
    fclose(fp); // 关闭文件
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<process.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#define MAX 5
//定义结构类型
struct student {
       int  num;
       char name[20];
       float grade;
};

//显示student结构数据
void show_str(student a,char *name) {
    cout<<name<<":"<<endl;
    cout<<a.num<<" "<<a.name<<" "<<a.grade;
    cout<<endl;
}

//main函数测试结构数据的文件读写
int main(void) 
{ 
    //声明变量
    FILE *fp;    
    //声明FILE结构指针变量 
    student st={1001,"ZhangBin",85.5};

    //显示st结构数据
    show_str(st,"st");

    //打开d.dat文件
    if ((fp=fopen("d.dat","wb+"))==NULL)
    {
       cout<<"\nCould not open the file."<<endl;
       cout<<"Exiting program."<<endl;
       exit(1);   //结束程序执行
    }

    //用fprintf()函数写结构数据到文件
    fprintf(fp,"%d %s %f",st.num,st.name,st.grade);

    rewind(fp);   //恢复读写指针的位置

    //用fscanf()函数读文件中的数据赋值给结构并显示
    student temp;
    fscanf(fp, "%d %s %f",&temp.num,temp.name,&temp.grade);
    show_str(temp,"temp");
    cout<<"-----------------------"<<endl;

    fclose(fp); // 关闭文件

    //将结构数据当成数据块进行读写
    if ((fp=fopen("d1.dat","wb+"))==NULL)  //打开d1.dat文件
    {
       cout<<"\nCould not open the file."<<endl;
       cout<<"Exiting program."<<endl;
       exit(1);   //结束程序执行
    }

    //声明结构数组并初始化
    int i;
    student starr[3]={{101,"WangPing",92},{102,"Li",85},{103,"LiuMin",97}};

    //显示结构数组
    for(i=0;i<3;i++) 
        show_str(starr[i],"starr");

    //将结构数组当成数据块写入文件
    fwrite(starr, sizeof(student), 3, fp);

    rewind(fp);   //恢复读写指针的位置

    //按数据块从文件中读取数据赋值给结构数组
    student temp_arr[3];
    if (!feof(fp))    //使用feof()判断文件尾 
         fread(temp_arr, sizeof(student),3,fp);
    for(i=0;i<3;i++) 
        show_str(temp_arr[i],"temp_arr");
    
    fclose(fp); // 关闭文件
}
#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<iostream.h>
int main(void) 
{ 
    //声明变量
    char ch;
    char str[20];
    int n;
    float x;

    //用stdin从键盘上输入数据
    fprintf(stdout,"ch str\n");
    fscanf(stdin,"%c %s",&ch,str);
    fprintf(stdout,"n    x \n");
    fscanf(stdin,"%d  %f",&n,&x);
    cout<<"----------------"<<endl;

    //输出显示
    fprintf(stdout,"ch=%c str=%s",ch,str);
    fprintf(stdout,"\nn=%d x=%f",n,x);
    cout<<endl;
}
#include <stdio.h>
void main( void )
{
    int c;
    /* Create an error by writing to standard input. */
    putc( 'A', stdin );
    if( ferror( stdin ) )
    {
      perror( "Write error" );
      clearerr( stdin );
    }

    /* See if read causes an error. */
    printf( "Will input cause an error? " );
    c = getc( stdin );
    if( ferror( stdin ) )
    {
       perror( "Read error" );
       clearerr( stdin );
    }
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include<math.h>   //此预处理指令不可少
const double HD=3.1415926/180;
main() {
    cout<<"x\tsin(x)"<<endl;
    for (int i=0;i<=180;i=i+30) 
        cout<<i<<"\t"<<sin(i*HD)<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
//以下是几个简单宏替换预处理指令
#define  YES        1
#define  PI         3.1415926
#define  RAD        PI/180
#define  MESG       "This is a string."

//以下是主程序 
main()  {
    //以下各语句使用了宏替换 
    cout<<"YES="<<YES<<endl;
    if (YES) 
       cout<<"PI="<<PI<<endl;
    cout<<"RAD="<<RAD<<endl;
    cout<<MESG<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
//以下为带参数宏替换的预处理指令 
#define  PRINT(k)   cout<<(k)<<endl;
#define  MAX(a,b)   ((a)>(b) ? (a):(b))
main()
{
    int i=3,j=2;

    //MAX(a,b)宏替换的使用 
    cout<<"MAX(10,12)="<<MAX(10,12)<<endl;
    cout<<"MAX(i,j)="<<MAX(i,j)<<endl;
    cout<<"MAX(2*i,j+3)="<<MAX(2*i,j+3)<<endl;

    //PRINT(k)宏替换的使用
    PRINT(5);
    PRINT(MAX(7,i*j));   
}
#include<iostream.h>
#define   PI   3.1416
main()  {
    int i=100;
#if 1
    cout<<"i="<<i<<endl;
#endif

#ifdef PI
    cout<<"1  PI="<<PI<<endl;
#endif

#ifndef PI
    cout<<"2  PI="<<PI<<endl;   //此语句不被编译执行
#endif
}

#include<iostream.h>
const int MAX=5;     //假定栈中最多保存5个数据

//定义名为stack的类,其具有栈功能
class  stack {
    //数据成员
    float  num[MAX];  //存放栈数据的数组
    int  top;          //指示栈顶位置的变量
public:
    //成员函数
    void init(void) { top=0; }    //初始化函数
    void push(float x)          //入栈函数
    {
        if (top==MAX){
            cout<<"Stack is full !"<<endl;
            return;
        };
        num[top]=x;
        top++;
    }
    float pop(void)          //出栈函数
    {
        top--;
        if (top<0){
        cout<<"Stack is underflow !"<<endl;
        return 0;
        };
        return num[top];
    }
}

//以下是main()函数,其用stack类创建栈对象,并使用了这些对象
main(void)
{
    //声明变量和对象
    int i;
    float x;
    stack a,b;    //声明(创建)栈对象

    //以下对栈对象初始化
    a.init();
    b.init();

    //以下利用循环和push()成员函数将2,4,6,8,10依次入a栈对象
    for (i=1; i<=MAX; i++)
        a.push(2*i);

    //以下利用循环和pop()成员函数依次弹出a栈中的数据并显示
    for (i=1; i<=MAX; i++)
       cout<<a.pop()<<"  ";
    cout<<endl;

    //以下利用循环和push()成员函数将键盘输入的数据依次入b栈
    cout<<"Please input five numbers."<<endl;
    for (i=1; i<=MAX; i++) {
         cin>>x;
         b.push(x);
    }
 
    //以下利用循环和pop()成员函数依次弹出b栈中的数据并显示
    for (i=1; i<=MAX; i++)
       cout<<b.pop()<<"  ";
}
#include<iostream.h>
const int MAX=5;    //假定栈中最多保存5个数据

//定义名为stack的具有栈功能的类
class  stack {
    //数据成员
    float  num[MAX];   //存放栈数据的数组
    int  top;           //指示栈顶位置的变量
public:
    //成员函数
    stack(void)  //初始化函数
    {
        top=0; 
        cout<<"Stack initialized."<<endl;
    } 	
    void push(float x)     //入栈函数
    {
        if (top==MAX){
            cout<<"Stack is full !"<<endl;
            return;
        };
        num[top]=x;
        top++;
    }
    float pop(void)      //出栈函数
    {
        top--;
        if (top<0){
        cout<<"Stack is underflow !"<<endl;
        return 0;
        };
        return num[top];
    }
}

//以下是main()函数,其用stack类创建栈对象,并使用了这些对象
main(void)
{
    //声明变量和对象
    int i;
    float x;
    stack a,b;    //声明(创建)栈对象并初始化

    //以下利用循环和push()成员函数将2,4,6,8,10依次入a栈
    for (i=1; i<=MAX; i++)
        a.push(2.0*i);

    //以下利用循环和pop()成员函数依次弹出a栈中的数据并显示
    for (i=1; i<=MAX; i++)
       cout<<a.pop()<<"  ";
    cout<<endl;

    //以下利用循环和push()成员函数将键盘输入的数据依次入b栈
    cout<<"Please input five numbers."<<endl;
    for (i=1; i<=MAX; i++) {
         cin>>x;
         b.push(x);
    }
 
    //以下利用循环和pop()成员函数依次弹出b栈中的数据并显示
    for (i=1; i<=MAX; i++)
       cout<<b.pop()<<"  ";
    cout<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
const int MAX=5;   	//假定栈中最多保存5个数据

//定义名为stack的具有栈功能的类
class  stack {
    //数据成员
    float  num[MAX];     //存放栈数据的数组
    int  top;             //指示栈顶位置的变量
public:
    //成员函数
    stack(char c)          //初始化函数
    {
        top=0; 
        cout<<"Stack "<<c<<" initialized."<<endl;
    } 	
    void push(float x)      //入栈函数
    {
        if (top==MAX){
            cout<<"Stack is full !"<<endl;
            return;
        };
        num[top]=x;
        top++;
    }
    float pop(void)           //出栈函数
    {
        top--;
        if (top<0){
        cout<<"Stack is underflow !"<<endl;
        return 0;
        };
        return num[top];
    }
}

//以下是main()函数,其用stack类创建栈对象,并使用了这些对象
main(void)
{
    //声明变量和对象
    int i;
    float x;
    stack a('a'),b('b');    //声明(创建)栈对象并初始化

    //以下利用循环和push()成员函数将2,4,6,8,10依次入a栈
    for (i=1; i<=MAX; i++)
        a.push(2.0*i);

    //以下利用循环和pop()成员函数依次弹出a栈中的数据并显示
    for (i=1; i<=MAX; i++)
       cout<<a.pop()<<"  ";
    cout<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
main()
{
    //定义一个名为student的类
    class student {
          int num;
          char *name;
          float grade;
    public:
         //定义构造函数
        student(int n,char *p,float g): num(n),name(p),grade(g){}
        display(void) {
              cout<<num<<" ,"<<name<<","<<grade<<endl;
          }
    }; 

    student a(1001,"Liming",95),b(1002,"ZhangHua",96.5);   //创建对象,并初始化
    //student c;  错误,没提供参数

    a.display();            //显示对象a中的数据
    b.display();            //显示对象b中的数据
}
#include <iostream.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
//定义timer类
class timer{
    long minutes;
public:
    //无参数构造函数
    timer(void) { 
        minutes =0;
    };
    //字符指针参数的构造函数
    timer(char *m) { 
        minutes = atoi(m);
    };
    //整数类型的构造函数
    timer(int h, int m) { 
        minutes = 60*h+m ;
    };
    //双精度浮点型构造函数
    timer(double h) { 
        minutes = (int) 60*h ;
    };
    long getminutes(void) { return minutes ; };
};
//main()函数的定义
main(void)
{
    //使用double类型的构造函数创建对象
    timer start(8.30),finish(17.30);
	cout<<"finish(17.30)-start(8.30)=";
    cout<<finish.getminutes()-start.getminutes()<<endl;  

    //使用char指针类型的构造函数创建对象
    timer start0("500"),finish0("800");   //创建对象
	cout<<"finish0(\"800\")-start0(\"500\")=";
    cout<<finish0.getminutes()-start0.getminutes()<<endl;  

    //使用无参数构造函数和整型构造函数创建对象
    timer start1;   
    timer finish1(3,30);  
	cout<<"finish1(3,30)-start1=";
    cout<<finish1.getminutes()-start1.getminutes()<<endl;  

    return 0;
}
#include <iostream.h>
//定义rect类
class rect {
    int length;
    int width;
    int area;
public:
    rect(int l=1,int w=1)
    {
        length=l;
        width=w;
        area=length*width;
    }
    void show_rect(char *name)
    { 
		cout<<name<<":"<<endl;
        cout<<"length="<<length<<endl;
        cout<<"width="<<width<<endl;
        cout<<"area="<<area<<endl;
    }
};
//测试使用rect类
void main(void)
{
    //用rect类创建对象
    rect a;
    rect b(2);
    rect c(2,3);

    //调用对象的函数显示对象中的数据
    a.show_rect("a");
    b.show_rect("b(2)");
    c.show_rect("c(2,3)");
}
#include<iostream.h>
const int MAX=5;   	//假定栈中最多保存5个数据

//定义名为stack的具有栈功能的类
class  stack {
    //数据成员
    double  num[MAX];   //存放栈数据的数组
    int  top;             //指示栈顶位置的变量
public:
    //成员函数
    stack(char *name)  //构造函数
    {
        top=0; 
        cout<<"Stack "<<name<<" initialized."<<endl;
    }
    ~stack(void)   //析构函数
    {
        cout << "Stack destroyed." << endl;  //显示信息
    }

    void push(double x)	//入栈函数
    {
        if (top==MAX){
            cout<<"Stack is full !"<<endl;
            return;
        };
        num[top]=x;
        top++;
    }
    double pop(void) 	//出栈函数
    {
        top--;
        if (top<0){
        cout<<"Stack is underflow !"<<endl;
        return 0;
        };
        return num[top];
    }
}

//以下是main()函数,其用stack类创建栈对象,并使用了这些对象
main(void)
{
    double x;
    //声明(创建)栈对象并初始化
    stack a("a"),b("b");    

    //以下利用循环和push()成员函数将2,4,6,8,10依次入a栈
    for (x=1; x<=MAX; x++)
        a.push(2.0*x);

    //以下利用循环和pop()成员函数依次弹出a栈中的数据并显示
	cout<<"a: ";
    for (int i=1; i<=MAX; i++)
       cout<<a.pop()<<"  ";
    cout<<endl;

    //从键盘上为b栈输入数据,并显示
    for(i=1;i<=MAX;i++) {

        cout<<i<<" b:";
        cin>>x;
        b.push(x);
    }
	cout<<"b: ";
    for(i=1;i<=MAX;i++) 
       cout<<b.pop()<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
#define MAX 5
//定义stack类接口
class stack{
    int num[MAX];
    int top;
public:
     stack(char *name);   //构造函数原型
    ~stack(void);         //析构函数原型
    void push(int n);
    int pop(void);
};
//main()函数测试stack类
main(void)
{
    int i,n;
    //声明对象
    stack a("a"),b("b");    

    //以下利用循环和push()成员函数将2,4,6,8,10依次入a栈
    for (i=1; i<=MAX; i++)
        a.push(2*i);

    //以下利用循环和pop()成员函数依次弹出a栈中的数据,并显示
	cout<<"a: ";
    for (i=1; i<=MAX; i++)
       cout<<a.pop()<<"  ";
    cout<<endl;

    //从键盘上为b栈输入数据,并显示
    for(i=1;i<=MAX;i++) {
        cout<<i<<" b:";
        cin>>n;
        b.push(n);
    }
	cout<<"b: ";
    for(i=1;i<=MAX;i++) 
       cout<<b.pop()<<" ";
    cout<<endl;

    return 0;
}
//-------------------------
//   stack成员函数的定义
//-------------------------
//定义构造函数
stack::stack(char *name)
{
    top=0;
    cout << "Stack "<<name<<" initialized." << endl;
}
//定义析构函数
stack::~stack(void)
{
    cout << "stack destroyed." << endl;  //显示信息
}
//入栈成员函数
void stack::push(int n)
{
    if (top==MAX){
        cout<<"Stack is full !"<<endl;
        return;
    };
    num[top]=n;
    top++;
}
//出栈成员函数
int stack::pop(void)
{
    top--;
    if (top<0){
        cout<<"Stack is underflow !"<<endl;
        return 0;
    };
    return num[top];
}
#include<iostream.h>
//定义一个全部为public:模式的类
class ex 
{
public:
     int value;
     void set(int n) { 
         value=n;
     }
     int get(void) {
        return value;
     }
};
//测试使用ex类
main()
{
    ex a;    //创建对象

    //以下通过成员函数访问对象数据
    a.set(100);
	cout<<"a.get()=";
    cout<<a.get()<<endl;

    //以下直接访问对象的数据成员
    a.value=200; 
	cout<<"a.value=";
    cout<<a.value<<endl;
}
#include <iostream.h>
// ex_class类接口定义
class ex_class
{
private:
    int iv;
    double dv;
public:
    ex_class(void);
    ex_class(int n,double x);
    void set_ex_class(int n,double x);
    void show_ex_class(char*);
};

//定义ex_class类的构造函数
ex_class::ex_class(void):iv(1), dv(1.0) { }
ex_class::ex_class(int n,double x):iv(n), dv(x) { }

//定义ex_class类的成员函数
void ex_class::set_ex_class(int n,double x)
{
    iv=n;
    dv=x;
}
void ex_class::show_ex_class(char *name)
{
    cout<<name<<": "<<endl;
    cout <<"iv=" <<iv<< endl;
    cout <<"dv=" <<dv<< endl;
}
//使用ex_class类
void main(void)
{
    ex_class obj1;
    obj1.show_ex_class("obj1");
    obj1.set_ex_class(5,5.5);
    obj1.show_ex_class("obj1");

    ex_class obj2(100,3.14);
    obj2.show_ex_class("obj2");
    obj2.set_ex_class(2000,1.732);
    obj2.show_ex_class("obj2");
}
#include<iostream.h>
//定义一个含有static数据成员的类
class ex
{
    static int num;      //static数据成员
public:
    ex() {num++;}
    ~ex() {num--;}
    disp_count() {
       cout<<"The current instances count:";
       cout<<num<<endl;
    }
};
int ex::num=0;    //设置static数据成员的初值
//main()函数测试ex类
main()
{
    ex a;
    a.disp_count();

    ex *p;
    p=new ex;
    p->disp_count();

    ex x[10];
    x[0].disp_count();

    delete p;
    a.disp_count();
}
#include<iostream.h>
//定义一个含有static数据成员的类
class ex
{
    static int num;      //static数据成员
public:
    ex() {num++;}
    ~ex() {num--;}
    static disp_count(void) //static成员函数
    {
        cout<<"The current instances count:";
        cout<<num<<endl;
    }
};
int ex::num=0;    //设置static数据成员的初值
//main()函数测试ex类
main()
{
    ex a;
    a.disp_count();

    ex *p;
    p=new ex;
    p->disp_count();

    ex x[10];
    ex::disp_count();   //直接用类作用域符引用静态成员函数

    delete p;
    ex::disp_count();  //直接用类作用域符引用静态成员函数
}
#include <iostream.h>
class ex_class {
    int value;
public:
    ex_class(int n) {
        value=n;
        cout << "Stack initialized." << endl;
    }
    ~ex_class() {    
        cout << "The Object destroyed." <<endl;  
    }
    void set_value(int n);
    void show_val(char *name);
} ;

//在类外定义内联成员函数
inline void ex_class::set_value(int n) {
    value=n;
}
//在类外定义非内联成员函数
void ex_class::show_val(char *name) {
	cout<<name<<": ";
    cout<<value<<endl;
}
//在main()函数中测试ex_class类
main(void)
{
    //创建对象x和y
    ex_class x(100),y(200);

    //显示对象的数据
    x.show_val("x");
    y.show_val("y");

    //设置新值给对象
    x.set_value(1);
    y.set_value(2);

    //显示对象的数据
    x.show_val("x");
    y.show_val("y");

    return 0;
}
#include <iostream.h>
//定义空类empty
class empty
{
};
//在main()函数中用空类创建对象
main()
{
    empty a,*p;  //编译通过
    cout<<"Test a empty class."<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
//用struct关键字定义ex_class类
struct ex_class {
    ex_class(int n=1): value(n) {}
    void set_value(int n) {
         value=n;
    }
    show_obj(char *name) {
		cout<<name<<": "<<value<<endl;
    }
private:
    int value;
}
//测试 ex_class类
main()
{
    //用ex_class创建对象
    ex_class a,b(3);
    
    a.show_obj("a");
    b.show_obj("b");

    a.set_value(100);
    b.set_value(200);

    a.show_obj("a");
    b.show_obj("b");
}
#include <iostream.h>
#include<string.h>
//定义双亲(parent)类
class parent {
    char  f_name[20];
    char  m_name[20];
    char  tel[10];
public:
    // parent类的构造函数,其带有缺省值
    parent(char *p1="",char *p2="",char *p3="") {
        strcpy(f_name,p1);
        strcpy(m_name,p2);
        strcpy(tel,p3);
    }
    //显示parent对象的数据
    show_parent(void) {    
        cout<<"The parent:"<<endl;
        cout<<"    father's name:"<<f_name<<endl;
        cout<<"    mother's name:"<<m_name<<endl;
        cout<<"    tel:"<<tel<<endl;
    }
};
//定义student类
class student {
    int       num;
    char      name[20];
    float     grade;
    parent    pt;      
public:
    // student类的构造函数
    student(int n,char *str,float g,class parent t) {
        num=n;
        strcpy(name,str);
        grade=g;
        pt=t;
    }
    //显示student对象的数据
    show_student(void) {
        cout<<"num:"<<num<<endl;
        cout<<"name:"<<name<<endl;
        cout<<"grade:"<<grade<<endl;
        pt.show_parent();
    }
};
//main()函数测试student类的对象
main(void)
{
    //创建双亲对象
    parent p1("ZhangHua","LiLan","83665215");

	//创建学生对象
    student st(10001,"ZhangHui",91.5,p1); 
	
    //显示学生信息
	cout<<"p1:"<<endl;
	p1.show_parent();

    //显示学生信息
	cout<<"st:"<<endl;
    st.show_student();
}
#include <iostream.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
//定义timer类
class timer{  
    long minutes;
public:
    //定义重载成员函数
    settimer(char *m) { 
        minutes = atoi(m);
    };
    //定义重载成员函数
    settimer(int h, int m) { 
        minutes = 60*h+m ;
    };
    //定义重载成员函数
    settimer(double h) { 
        minutes = (int) 60*h ;
    };
    long getminutes(void) { return minutes; };
};
//main()函数的定义
main(void){
    timer start,finish;   //创建对象

    //使用重载成员函数
    start.settimer(8,30);
    finish.settimer(9,40); 
	cout<<"finish.settimer(9,40)-start.settimer(8,30):";
    cout<<finish.getminutes()-start.getminutes()<<endl;  

    //使用重载成员函数
    start.settimer(2.0);
    finish.settimer("180"); 
	cout<<"finish.settimer(\"180\")-start.settimer(2.0):";
    cout<<finish.getminutes()-start.getminutes()<<endl;  

  return 0;
}
#include <iostream.h>
//定义复数类
class complex{
    float  real;       //实部
    float  image;     //虚部
public:
    //重载的运算符"+"的原型
    complex operator+ (complex right);
    //重载赋值运算符"="的定义
    complex operator= (complex right);
    void set_complex(float re, float im);
    void put_complex(char *name);
};
//重载加法运算符"+"的定义
complex complex::operator+ (complex right) {
    complex temp;
    temp.real = this->real + right.real;
    temp.image = this->image + right.image;
    return temp;
}
//重载加赋值运算符"="的定义
complex complex::operator= (complex right) {   
        this->real = right.real;
        this->image = right.image;
        return *this;
}
//定义set_complex()成员函数
void complex::set_complex(float re, float im) {
        real = re;
        image = im;
}
//定义put_complex()成员函数
void complex::put_complex(char *name) {
        cout<<name<<": ";
        cout << real << ' ';
        if (image >= 0.0 ) cout << '+';
        cout << image << "i\n";
}
//在main()函数中使用complex类的对象
main(void)
{
    complex A, B, C;  //创建复数对象

    //设置复数变量的值
    A.set_complex(1.2, 0.3);
    B.set_complex(-0.5, -0.8);

    //显示复数数据
    A.put_complex("A");
    B.put_complex("B");

    //赋值运算,显示结果
    C = A;
    C.put_complex("C=A");

    //加法及赋值运算,显示结果
    C = A + B;
    C.put_complex("C=A+B");
    return 0;
}
// Example of the friend class
#include <iostream.h>
//定义YourClass类,
class YourClass
{
//指定YourOtherClass是它的友元类
friend class YourOtherClass;  
private:
    int num;
public:
    YourClass(int n){num=n;}
    display(char *YCname){
        cout<<YCname<<".num :";
	    cout<<num<<endl;
    }
};
//定义YourOtherClass,它是YourClass类的友元类
class YourOtherClass
{
public:
    //使用YourClass类的私有成员
    void disp1(YourClass yc,char *YCname){ 
         cout<<YCname<<".num :";
        cout<<yc.num<<endl;   
    }
    //使用YourClass类的公共成员
    void disp2(YourClass yc,char* YCname){
        yc.display(YCname);       
    }
};
//在main()函数中创建和使用YourClass和YourOtherClass类对象
main(void)
{
    //声明YourClass类对象
    YourClass a(10),b(100);

    //显示a和b对象的值
    cout<<"YourClass:"<<endl;
    a.display("a");
    b.display("b");

    //声明YourOtherClass类对象
    YourOtherClass temp;

    //通过temp显示a和b对象的值
    cout<<"YourOtherClass:"<<endl;
    temp.disp1(a,"a");
    temp.disp2(b,"b");
}
#include<iostream.h>
//Y类的不完全定义
class Y;

//X类的定义    
class X {   
public:
    void disp(Y py,char *name);   //成员函数原型
};

//定义Y类
class Y {  
    //声明本类的友元函数
    //X类的disp()为本例的友元函数
    friend void X::disp(Y py,char *name);
     //普通函数putY() 为本例的友元函数
    friend void putY(Y& yc,char *name);         
private: //私有成员
    int num;
    dispY(char *name){    
        cout<<name<<".num="<<num<<endl;
    }
public: //公共成员函数
    Y(int n){  
       num=n;
    }
};

//X类成员函数的实现部分
void X::disp(Y py,char *name){
    cout<<"In X::disp():"<<endl;
    py.dispY(name);   //访问Y类的私有函数
}

//普通函数putY()的定义
void putY(Y& yc,char *name){
    cout<<"In getY:"<<endl;
    yc.dispY(name);
    cout<<name<<".num=";
    cout<<yc.num<<endl;
}

//在main()函数测试X和Y类的功能
main()
{
    //创建Y和X类的对象
    Y y1(100),y2(200);
    X x;

    //不可用Y类对象的私有成员函数显示
    //y1.dispY("y1");
    //y2.dispY("y2");

    //调用X类对象的友元函数显示
    x.disp(y1,"y1");
    x.disp(y2,"y2");

    //用getY函数显示Y类的对象显示
    putY(y1,"y1");
    putY(y2,"y2");
}
#include <iostream.h>
//定义日期类
class Date    
{
    //定义友元重载输入运算符函数
    friend istream& operator >> (istream& input,Date& dt ); 
    //定义友元重载输出运算符函数
    friend ostream& operator<< (ostream& output,Date& dt ); 
    int mo, da, yr;
public:
    Date(void){  //无参数构造函数
        yr = 0;
        mo = 0; 
        da = 0; 
    }
    Date( int y, int m, int d )   //带参数构造函数
    {
        yr = y;
        mo = m; 
        da = d; 
    }
};
//定义">>"运算符重载函数
istream& operator >> ( istream& input, Date& dt )
{
    cout<<"Year:";
    input>>dt.yr;
    cout<<"Month:";
    input>>dt.mo;
    cout<<"Day:";
    input>>dt.da;
    return input;
}

//定义"<<"运算符重载函数
ostream& operator<< ( ostream& output, Date& dt )
{
   output<< dt.yr << '/' << dt.mo << '/' << dt.da<<endl;
   return output;
}

//在main()函数中测试Date类的插入(<<)和提取(>>)运算符
void main()
{
    //声明对象
    Date dt1(2002,5,1),dt2;

    //显示dt1对象
    cout<<dt1;

    //对dt2对象进行输入和输出
    cin>>dt2;
    cout<<dt2;
}
#include<iostream.h>
//定义ex类
class ex_class 
{
    int a;
    double b; 
public:
    ex_class(int n=1,double x=1.0):a(n),b(x) {}
    void show_value(char *name) {
        cout<<name<<" :"<<endl;
        cout<<"a="<<a<<endl;
        cout<<"b="<<b<<endl;
    }
};

//定义main()函数
main()
{
    //创建ex_class的对象并显示
    ex_class obj1,obj2(100,3.5);    
    obj1.show_value("obj1");
    obj2.show_value("obj2"); 

    //创建ex_class的指针变量
    ex_class *p;

    //p指向obj1并显示
    p=&obj1;
    p->show_value("p->obj1");

    //p指向obj2并显示
    p=&obj2;
    (*p).show_value("(*p)obj2");

    //p指向动态创建的对象并显示
    p=new ex_class;
    p->show_value("p->new");

    delete p;   //删除对象

}
#include<iostream.h>
//基类Box
class Box {
    int width,height;
public:
    void SetWidth(int w) {
        width=w;
    }
    void SetHeight(int h) {
        height=h;
    }
    int GetWidth() {return width;}
    int GetHeight() {return height;}
};
//派生类ColoredBox
class ColoredBox:public Box
{
    int color;
public:
    void SetColor(int c){
        color=c;
    }
    int GetColor() {return color;}
};
// 在main()中测试基类和派生类
main(void)
{
    //声明并使用ColoredBox类的对象
    ColoredBox cbox;
    cbox.SetColor(3);       //使用自己的成员函数
    cbox.SetWidth(150);     //使用基类的成员函数
    cbox.SetHeight(100);    //使用基类的成员函数
 
    cout<<"cbox:"<<endl;
    cout<<"Color:"<<cbox.GetColor()<<endl;    //使用自己的成员函数
    cout<<"Width:"<<cbox.GetWidth()<<endl;   //使用基类的成员函数
    cout<<"Height:"<<cbox.GetHeight()<<endl;  //使用基类的成员函数
    //cout<<cbox.width; Error!  
}
#include<iostream.h>
//基类First
class First {
    int val1;
public:
    SetVal1(int v) {
        val1=v;
    }
    void show_First(void) {
        cout<<"val1="<<val1<<endl;
    }
};
//派生类Second
class Second:private First {   //默认为private模式
    int val2;
public:
    void SetVal2(int v1,int v2) {
        SetVal1(v1);     //可见,合法
        val2=v2;
    }
    void show_Second(void) {
    // cout<<"val1="<<val1<<endl; 不能访问First私有成员
        show_First();
        cout<<"val2="<<val2<<endl;
    }
};
main() {
    Second s1;
    //s1.SetVal1(1);    //不可见,非法
    s1.SetVal2(2,3);    //合法
    //s1.show_First();  //不可见,非法
    s1.show_Second();
}
#include<iostream.h>
//基类First
class First {
    int val1;
public:
    SetVal1(int v) {
        val1=v;
    }
    void show_First(void) {
        cout<<"val1="<<val1<<endl;
    }
};
//派生类Second
class Second:public First {   //默认为private模式
    int val2;
public:
    void SetVal2(int v1,int v2) {
        SetVal1(v1);     //可见,合法
        val2=v2;
    }
    void show_Second(void) {
    // cout<<"val1="<<val1<<endl; 不能访问First私有成员
        show_First();
        cout<<"val2="<<val2<<endl;
    }
};
main() {
    Second s1;
    //调用Second类定义的成员函数
    s1.SetVal2(2,3);    
    cout<<"s1.show_Second():"<<endl;
    s1.show_Second();

    //调用First类定义的成员函数
    s1.SetVal1(10);  
    cout<<"s1.show_First():"<<endl;	
    s1.show_First(); 
}
#include<iostream.h>
//定义最低层基类,它作为其他类的基类
class First {
    int val1;
public:
    First(void) {
        cout<<"The First initialized"<<endl;
    }
};
//定义派生类,它作为其他类的基类
class Second :public First {   
    int val2;
public:
    Second(void) {
        cout<<"The Second initialized"<<endl;
    }
};
//定义最上层派生类
class Three :public Second {
    int val3;
public:
    Three() {
        cout<<"The Three initialized"<<endl;
    }
};
//定义各基类的对象,测试构造函数的执行情况
//定义各基类的对象,测试构造函数的执行情况
main() { 
	cout<<"First f1;"<<endl;
    First f1;
    cout<<"Second s1;"<<endl;
    Second s1;
    cout<<"Three t1;"<<endl;
    Three t1;
}
#include<iostream.h>
//定义基类First
class First {
    int  num;
    float grade;
public:
    //构造函数带参数
    First(int n,float v ) : num(n),grade(v)
    {
        cout<<"The First initialized"<<endl;
    }
    DispFirst(void) {
        cout<<"num="<<num<<endl;
        cout<<"grade="<<grade<<endl;
    }
};

//定义派生类Second
class Second :public First {  
    double val;
public:
    //无参数构造函数,要为基类的构造函数设置参数
    Second(void):First(10000,0) {
        val=1.0;
        cout<<"The Second initialized"<<endl;
    }

    //带参数构造函数,为基类的构造函数设置参数
    Second(int n,float x,double dx):First(n,x) {
        val=dx;
        cout<<"The Second initialized"<<endl;
    }
    Disp(char *name){
        cout<<name<<".val="<<val<<endl;
        DispFirst();
    }
};

//main()函数中创建和使用派生类对象
main() {
    //调用派生类的无参数构造函数
	cout<<"Second s1;"<<endl;
    Second s1;
	cout<<"s1.Disp(\"s1\");"<<endl;
	s1.Disp("s1");

    //调用派生类的有参数构造函数
	cout<<"Second s2(10002,95.7,3.1415926); "<<endl;
    Second s2(10002,95.7,3.1415926); 
	cout<<"s2.Disp(\"s2\");"<<endl;	
    s2.Disp("s2");
}
#include<iostream.h>
//定义最低层基类First,它作为其他类的基类
class First {
    int val1;
public:
    First() {
        cout<<"The First initialized"<<endl;
    }
    ~First() {
        cout<<"The First destroyed"<<endl;
    }
};
//定义派生类Second,它作为其他类的基类
class Second :public First {   //默认为private模式
    int val2;
public:
    Second() {
        cout<<"The Second initialized"<<endl;
    }
    ~Second() {
        cout<<"The Second destroyed"<<endl;
    }
};
//定义最上层派生类Three
class Three :public Second {
    int val3;
public:
    Three() {
        cout<<"The Three initialized"<<endl;
    }
    ~Three() {
        cout<<"The Three destroyed"<<endl;
    }
};
//main()函数中测试构造函数和析构函数的执行情况
main() { 
    Three t1;
    cout<<"---- Use the t1----"<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
//基类
class First {
    int val1;
protected:
    void SetVal1(int v) {
        val1=v;
    }
public:
    show_First(void) {
        cout<<"val1="<<val1<<endl;
    }
};
//派生类
class Second:public First {   
    int val2;
protected:
    void SetVal2(int v) {
        SetVal1(v);  //使用First 基类的保护成员
        val2=v;
    }
public:
    show_Second(void) {
        show_First();
        cout<<"val2="<<val2<<endl;
    }
};
//派生类
class Third:public Second {   
    int val3;
public:
    void SetVal3(int n) {
         SetVal1(n);  //使用First 基类的保护成员
         SetVal2(n);  //使用Second基类的保护成员
         val3=n;
    }
    show_Third(void) {
        show_Second();
        cout<<"val3="<<val3<<endl;
    }
};
//main()函数的定义
main(void)
{
    First f1;
    //f1.SetVal1(1);   不可访问

    Second s1;
    //s1.SetVal1(1);   不可访问
    //s1.SetVal2(2);   不可访问

    Third  t1;
    //t1.SetVal1(1);   不可访问
    //t1.SetVal2(2);   不可访问
    t1.SetVal3(10);

	//显示t1对象的数据
	cout<<"t1.show_Third();"<<endl;
    t1.show_Third();
    cout<<"t1.show_Second();"<<endl;
    t1.show_Second();
    cout<<"t1.show_First();"<<endl;
    t1.show_First();
}
#include <iostream.h>
enum Color {Red,Yellow,Green,White};
//圆类Circle的定义
class Circle {  
    float radius;
public:
    Circle(float r) {radius=r;}
    float Area() {
        return 3.1416*radius*radius;
    }
};
//桌子类Table的定义
class Table {  
    float height;
public:
    Table(float h) {height=h;}
    float Height() {
        return height;
    }
};
//圆桌类RoundTable的定义
class RoundTable:public Table,public Circle {
    Color color;
public:
    RoundTable(float h,float r,Color c); //构造函数
    int GetColor() {
       return color;
    }
};
//圆桌构造函数的定义
RoundTable::RoundTable(float h,float r,Color c):Table(h),Circle(r)
{
    color=c;
}
//main()函数的定义
main() {
    RoundTable cir_table(15.0,2.0,Yellow);
    
    cout<<"The table properties are:"<<endl;
    //调用Height类的成员函数
    cout<<"Height="<<cir_table.Height()<<endl;

    //调用circle类的成员函数
    cout<<"Area="<<cir_table.Area()<<endl; 

    //调用RoundTable类的成员函数
    cout<<"Color="<<cir_table.GetColor()<<endl;  
}
#include <iostream.h>
//定义一个枚举类型
enum Color {Red,Yellow,Green,White};
//圆类Circle的定义
class Circle {  
    float radius;
public:
    Circle(float r) {
        radius=r;
        cout<<"Circle initialized!"<<endl;
    }
    ~Circle() {  //析构函数
          cout<<"Circle  destroyed!"<<endl;
    }
    float Area() {
        return 3.1416*radius*radius;
    }
};
//桌子类Table的定义
class Table {  
    float height;
public:
    Table(float h) {
        height=h;
        cout<<"Table initialized!"<<endl;
    }
    ~Table() {  //构造函数
        cout<<"Table destroyed!"<<endl;
    }
    float Height() {
        return height;
    }
};
//圆桌类RoundTable的定义
class RoundTable:public Table,public Circle {
    Color color;
public:
    RoundTable(float h,float r,Color c); //构造函数
    int GetColor() {
       return color;
    }
    ~RoundTable() {  //构造函数
        cout<<"RoundTable destroyed!"<<endl;
    }
};
//圆桌构造函数的定义
RoundTable::RoundTable(float h,float r,Color c):Table(h),Circle(r)
{
    color=c;
    cout<<"RoundTable initialized!"<<endl;
}
//测试多继承中构造函数和析构函数的执行方式
main() {
    RoundTable cir_table(15.0,2.0,Yellow);
    
    cout<<"The table properties are:"<<endl;
    //调用Height类的成员函数
    cout<<"Height="<<cir_table.Height()<<endl;

    //调用circle类的成员函数
    cout<<"Area="<<cir_table.Area()<<endl; 

    //调用RoundTable类的成员函数
    cout<<"Color="<<cir_table.GetColor()<<endl;  
}
#include<iostream.h>
//定义有两个虚函数的基类
class Base {
public:
    //定义两个虚函数
    virtual void aFn1(void){    
        cout<<"aFnl is in Base class."<<endl;
    }
    virtual void aFn2(void) {    
        cout<<"aFn2 is in Base class."<<endl;
    }
    //定义非虚函数
    void aFn3(void) {    
        cout<<"aFn3 is in Base class."<<endl;
    }
};

//派生类Derived_1中重新定义了基类中的虚函数aFn1
class Derived_1:public Base
{
public:
    void aFn1(void) {   //覆盖aFn1()函数
        cout<<"aFnl is in First derived class."<<endl;
    }
    // void aFn3(void) {   语法错误
    //    cout<<"aFn3 is in First derived class."<<endl;
    //}
};

//派生类Derived_2中重新定义了基类中的虚函数aFn2
class Derived_2:public Base{
public:
    void aFn2(void){   //覆盖aFn2()函数
        cout<<"aFn2 is in Second derived class."<<endl;
    }
    // void aFn3(void) {   语法错误
    //    cout<<"aFn3 is in Second derived class."<<endl;
    //}
};
//main()函数的定义
main(void)
{
    //创建和使用基类Base的对象
    Base b;
    cout<<"Base:"<<endl;
    b.aFn1();
    b.aFn2();
    b.aFn3();
    cout<<"----------------------"<<endl;

    //创建和使用派生类Derived_1的对象
    Derived_1 d1;
    cout<<"Derived_1:"<<endl;
    d1.aFn1();
    d1.aFn2();
    d1.aFn3();
    cout<<"----------------------"<<endl;

    //创建和使用派生类Derived_2的对象
    Derived_2 d2;
    cout<<"Derived_2:"<<endl;
    d2.aFn1();
    d2.aFn2();
    d2.aFn3();
}
#include<iostream.h>
//定义抽象类
class Base {
public:
    //定义两个纯虚函数
    virtual void aFn1(void)=0;
    virtual void aFn2(void)=0;
};

//派生类Derived_1中覆盖了基类中的纯虚函数
class Derived_1:public Base
{
public:
    void aFn1(void) {
        cout<<"aFnl is in First derived class."<<endl;
    }
    void aFn2(void) {
        cout<<"aFn2 is in First derived class."<<endl;
    }
};

//派生类Derived_2中覆盖了基类中的纯虚函数
class Derived_2:public Base{
public:
    virtual void aFn1(void){
        cout<<"aFn1 is in Second derived class."<<endl;
    }
    void aFn2(void){
        cout<<"aFn2 is in Second derived class."<<endl;
    }
};

//main()函数中测试抽象类及其派生类的对象
main(void)
{
    //用抽象类不能创建对象
    //    Base b;  语法错误
    //    b.aFn1();
    //    b.aFn2();

    //创建和使用Derived_1类的对象
    Derived_1 d1;
    cout<<"Derived_1 d1:"<<endl;
    d1.aFn1();
    d1.aFn2();
    cout<<"------------------"<<endl;

    //创建和使用Derived_2类的对象
    Derived_2 d2;
    cout<<"Derived_2 d2:"<<endl;
    d2.aFn1();
    d2.aFn2();
}
#include<iostream.h>
int extract_int()
{
    char ch;
    int n=0;
    while(ch=cin.get())
        if (ch>='0' && ch<='9')
        {
            cin.putback(ch);
            cin>>n;
            break;
        }
    return n;
}
//main()函数
main(void)
{
    //提取字符串中的数字
    int a=extract_int();
    int b=extract_int();
    int c=extract_int();
 
    //显示结果
    cout<<a<<"+"<<b<<"="<<c<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
//定义节点(数据对象)的接口
class Node
{
    //声明list类为本类的友元类
    friend class list;
//私有成员 
private:              
    int Data;       //节点数据
    Node *previous; //前趋指针
    Node *next;     //后继指针
};

//定义双向链表list的接口声明
class list
{
//私有成员 
private:     
    Node *Head;    //链表头指针
    Node *Tail;    //链表尾指针
//定义接口函数
public:
    //构造函数
    list();
    //析构函数
    ~list();
    //从链表尾后添加数据
    void Build_HT(int Data);
    //从链表前头添加数据
    void Build_TH(int Data);
    //从头到尾显示数据
    void list::Display_HT();
    //从尾到头显示数据
    void list::Display_TH();
    //清除链表的全部数据
    void Clear();
};

//main()函数测试双向链表
int main(void)
{
    list list1;
    int i;
   
    //从尾添加数据
    cout<<"Add to the back of the list1:"<<endl;
    for (i=1;i<=20;i=i+2) {
        list1.Build_HT(i);
        cout<<i<<" ";
    }
    cout<<endl;

    //从头添加数据
    cout<<"Add to the front of the list1:"<<endl;
    for (i=0;i<=20;i=i+2) {
        list1.Build_TH(i);
        cout<<i<<" ";
    }
    cout<<endl;

    //显示链表
    list1.Display_HT();
    list1.Display_TH();

    return 0;
}
//list类函数的定义
//构造函数的定义
list::list()
{
     //初值
     Head=0;
     Tail=0;
}
//析构函数的定义
list::~list()
{
    Clear(); 
}
//从链表尾后添加数据
void list::Build_HT(int Data)
{
    Node *Buffer;

    Buffer=new Node;
    Buffer->Data=Data;
    if(Head==0)
    {
        Head=Buffer;
        Head->next=0;
        Head->previous=0;
    Tail=Head;
    }
    else
    {
        Tail->next=Buffer;
        Buffer->previous=Tail;
    Buffer->next=0;
        Tail=Buffer;
    }
}
//从链表前头添加数据
void list::Build_TH(int Data)
{
    Node *NewNode;
    NewNode=new Node;
    NewNode->Data=Data;

    if(Tail==0)
    {
        Tail=NewNode;
    Tail->next=0;
        Tail->previous=0;
        Head=Tail;
    }
    else
    {
        NewNode->previous=0;
        NewNode->next=Head;
        Head->previous=NewNode;
        Head=NewNode;
    }
}
//从头到尾显示数据
void list::Display_HT()
{
    Node *TEMP;
    TEMP=Head;
    cout<<"Display the list from Head to Tail:"<<endl;
    while(TEMP!=0)
    {
        cout<<TEMP->Data<<" ";
        TEMP=TEMP->next;
    }
    cout<<endl;
}
//从尾到头显示数据
void list::Display_TH()
{
    Node *TEMP;
    TEMP=Tail;
    cout<<"Display the list from Tail to Head:"<<endl;
    while(TEMP!=0)
    {
        cout<<TEMP->Data<<" ";
        TEMP=TEMP->previous;
    }
    cout<<endl;
}
//清除链表的全部数据
void list::Clear()
{
    Node *Temp_head=Head;

    if (Temp_head==0) return;
    do
    {
        Node *TEMP_NODE=Temp_head;
        Temp_head=Temp_head->next;
        delete TEMP_NODE;
    }
    while (Temp_head!=0);
}
#include <iostream>
#include <string>

using namespace std;

//测试字符串(string)对象
void main()
{
    //创建string对象,并显示
    string s1;
    string s2="ABCDEFGHIJK";
    string s3=s2;
    string s4(20,'A');
    string s5(s2,3,3);
    cout<<"s1="<<s1<<endl;
    cout<<"s2="<<s2<<endl;
    cout<<"s3="<<s3<<endl;
    cout<<"s4="<<s4<<endl;
    cout<<"s5="<<s5<<endl;

    //为string对象输入数据,并显示
    cout<<"s1=";
    cin>>s1;
    cout<<"s2=";
    cin>>s2;
    cout<<"s3=";
    cin>>s3;
    cout<<"s4=";
    cin>>s4;
    cout<<"s5=";
    cin>>s5;

    cout<<"s1="<<s1<<endl;
    cout<<"s2="<<s2<<endl;
    cout<<"s3="<<s3<<endl;
    cout<<"s4="<<s4<<endl;
    cout<<"s5="<<s5<<endl;
}
#include <iostream>
#include <string>

using namespace std;

//测试字符串(string)对象
void main()
{

    //创建string对象
    string s1,s2;

    //string对象的赋值运算
    s1="One";
    s2="Two";
    cout<<"s1="<<s1<<endl;
    cout<<"s2="<<s2<<endl;

    //string对象的连接运算
    string s3;
    s3=s1+" and "+s2;
    cout<<"s3="<<s3<<endl;

    //组合赋值连接运算
    s3+=" and Three";
    cout<<"s3="<<s3<<endl;

    //比较运算及其结果显示
    for (int i=1;i<=3;i++) {
        cout<<"---------------------"<<endl;
        cout<<"s1=";
        cin>>s1;
        cout<<"s2=";
        cin>>s2;
        if (s1<s2)   //小于
            cout<<s1<<" < "<<s2<<endl;
        if (s1<=s2)  //小于等于
        cout<<s1<<" <= "<<s2<<endl;
        if (s1==s2)  //等于
        cout<<s1<<" == "<<s2<<endl;
        if (s1>s2)   //大于
        cout<<s1<<" > "<<s2<<endl;
        if (s1>=s2)  //大于等于
        cout<<s1<<" >= "<<s2<<endl;
        if (s1!=s2)  //不等
            cout<<s1<<" != "<<s2<<endl;
    }
}
#include <iostream>
#include <string>

using namespace std;

//测试字符串(string)对象
void main()
{
    //创建string对象,并显示
    string s1="This";
    string s2="book.";
    cout<<"s1: "<<s1<<endl;
    cout<<"s2: "<<s2<<endl;
    
    //使用length成员函数
    cout<<"s1.length()="<<s1.length()<<endl;
    cout<<"s2.length()="<<s2.length()<<endl;

    //使用append成员函数
    s1.append(s2);
    cout<<"s1: "<<s1<<endl;

    //使用find成员函数和下标运算
    int pos=s1.find('b');
    cout<<"s1["<<pos<<"]="<<s1[pos]<<endl;

    //使用insert成员函数
    s1.insert(pos," is a ");
    cout<<s1<<endl;

    //使用assign成员函数
    s1.assign("Good");
    cout<<s1<<endl;

}
//根据半径计算圆的周长和面积
#include <iostream.h>
const float PI=3.1416;        //声明常量(只读变量)PI为3.1416
float fCir_L(float);           //声明自定义函数fCir_L()的原型 
float fCir_S(float);           //声明自定义函数fCir_S()的原型  

//以下是main()函数 
main() 
{ 
    float r,l,s;             //声明3个变量
    
    cout<<"R=";          //显示字符串
    cin>>r;              	//键盘输入
    l=fCir_L(r);          //计算圆的周长,赋值给变量l 
    s=fCir_S(r);          //计算圆的面积,赋值给变量s 
    cout<<"l="<<l;       //显示计算结果
    cout<<"\ns="<<s;                 
}   

//定义计算圆的周长的函数fCir_L()
float fCir_L(float x)
{ 
    float z=-1.0;         //声明局部变量
    if (x>=0.0)          //如果参数大于0,则计算圆的周长
        z=2*PI*x;
    return(z);          //返回函数值 
} 

//定义计算圆的面积的函数fCir_S()
float fCir_S(float x)
{ 
    float z=-1.0;         //声明局部变量
    if (x>=0.0)          //如果参数大于0,则计算圆的面积
        z=PI*x*x;
    return(z);           //返回函数值 
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#define MAX 30
//main()的定义
int main(void)
{
    char str[MAX],*p;

    //从键盘上输入int数
    cout<<"Please input a int:"<<endl;
    int n;
    cin>>n;

    //将整型数n按十进制转换为字符串并输出
    p=itoa(n,str,10);
    cout<<"str="<<str<<endl;
    cout<<"p="<<p<<endl;

    //将整型数n按十六进制转换为字符串并输出
    p=itoa(n,str,16);
    cout<<"str="<<str<<endl;
    cout<<"p="<<p<<endl;

    //从键盘上输入double类型的数据
    cout<<"Please input a double:"<<endl;
    double x;
    cout<<"x=";
    cin>>x;

    //将浮点数x转换为字符串后输出
    p=gcvt(x,10,str);
    cout<<"str="<<str<<endl;
    cout<<"p="<<p<<endl;
	
    return 0;
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#define MAX 30
//main()的定义
int main(void)
{
    char str[MAX];

    //字符串转换为int和long类型数据
    cout<<"Please input a string:"<<endl;
    cin>>str;
    int n=atoi(str);
    cout<<"n="<<n<<endl;
    long l=atol(str);
    cout<<"l="<<l<<endl;
  
    //字符串转换为double类型
    cout<<"Please input a string:"<<endl;
    cin>>str;
    double x=atof(str);
    cout<<"x="<<x<<endl;
	
    return 0;
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <time.h>

//定义产生[n1,n2]范围int随机数的函数
int rand(int n1,int n2) {
    if (n1>n2) return -1;
    if (n1==n2) return 0;
    int temp=n1+int((n2-n1)*double(rand())/RAND_MAX);
    return temp;
}

//main()函数的定义,加法练习程序
void main( void )
{
     int i;

    //使用当前的系统时间初始化随机数种子
    srand( (unsigned)time( NULL ) );

    //加法练习
    int a,b,c;
    do {
        a=rand(0,20);
        b=rand(0,20);
L1:     cout<<a<<"+"<<b<<"=";
        cin>>c;
        if (c==0) break;
        if (c!=a+b) {
            cout<<"Error! Try again!"<<endl;
            goto L1;
        } 
        cout<<"OK!"<<endl;
    } while (1);

}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <math.h>
#define PI 3.1415926535

//main()函数的定义
void main( void )
{
    int i;
    double x=PI/180;
    cout<<"X\tSIN(X)\t\tCOS(X)"<<endl;
    cout<<"---------------------------------------"<<endl;
    for (i=0;i<=360;i=i+30) {
        cout<<i<<"\t";
        cout.precision(2);
        cout<<sin(i*x)<<"\t\t";
        cout<<cos(i*x)<<endl;
    }
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <math.h>
#define PI 3.1415926535

//main()函数的定义
void main( void )
{
    int i;
    double d=180/PI;

    cout<<"X\tASIN(X)\t\tACOS(X)"<<endl;
    cout<<"---------------------------------------"<<endl;
    for (double x=0;x<=1.0+0.05;x=x+0.1) {
        cout<<x<<"\t";
        cout<<int(asin(x)*d)<<"\t\t";
        cout<<int(acos(x)*d)<<endl;
   }
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <math.h>

//main()函数的定义
void main( void )
{
    _complex a={3,4},b={3,-4};
   
    double d=cabs(a);
    cout<<"cabs("<<a.x<<","<<a.y<<")="<<d<<endl;
    cout<<"cabs("<<b.x<<","<<b.y<<")="<<cabs(b)<<endl;
}
##include<iostream.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <math.h>

//main()函数的定义
void main( void )
{
    double x;

    //循环输入数据计算对数
    do {
        cout<<"x=";
        cin>>x;
        if (x<=0) break;
        cout<<"log("<<x<<")="<<log(x)<<endl;
        cout<<"log10("<<x<<")="<<log10(x)<<endl;
    } while(1);
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <math.h>

//main()函数的定义
void main( void )
{
    double y;
    for(double x=-5;x<=5;x++){
        y=exp(x);
        cout<<"exp("<<x<<")="<<y<<endl;
    }
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <math.h>

//main()函数的定义
void main( void )
{
    double y;
    int N;
    //输入一个大于等于0的数
    do {
        cout<<"N=";
        cin>>N;
        if (N>=0) break;
    } while (1);

    //计算并显示
    for(int i=0;i<=N;i++){
        y=pow(2,i);
        cout<<"pow("<<2<<","<<i<<")="<<y<<endl;
    }
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <math.h>

//main()函数的定义
void main( void )
{
    double y;
    for(int i=0;i<=10;i++){
        y=sqrt(i);
        cout<<"sqrt("<<i<<")="<<y<<endl;
    }
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <time.h>

//时间延迟函数
void Dtime(int dt) {
    time_t current_time;
    time_t start_time;
    // 得到开始时间
    time(&start_time); 
    do 
    {
      time(¤t_time);
    } 
    while ((current_time - start_time) < dt);
}

//main()函数的定义
void main(void)
{
    cout<<"The First information!"<<endl;
    cout<<"About to delay 5 seconds"<<endl;
    Dtime(5);
    cout<<"The Second information!"<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <time.h>

//main()函数的定义
void main(void)
{
    //声明time_t类型的变量,其以秒为单位存放系统时间
    time_t current_time;

    //得到当前的系统时间(秒)
    time(¤t_time); 

    //转换系统时间为tm结构的时间信息
    tm  *ptime=gmtime(¤t_time);

    //显示time_t结构的时间
    cout<<"current_time:"<<current_time<<endl;

    //显示tm结构的时间信息
    cout<<"seconds after the minute:"<<(ptime->tm_sec)<<endl;
    cout<<"minutes after the hour:"<<(ptime->tm_min)<<endl; 
    cout<<"hours since midnight:"<<(ptime->tm_hour)<<endl;  
    cout<<"day of the month:"<<(ptime->tm_mday)<<endl;  
    cout<<"months since January:"<<(ptime->tm_mon)<<endl; 
    cout<<"years since 1900:"<<(ptime->tm_year)<<endl; 
    cout<<"days since Sunday:"<<(ptime->tm_wday)<<endl; 
    cout<<"days since January 1:"<<(ptime->tm_yday)<<endl; 
    cout<<"daylight savings time flag:"<<(ptime->tm_isdst)<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <time.h>

//main()函数的定义
void main(void)
{
    //声明变量
    time_t current_time;

    //得到当前系统时间
    time(¤t_time);
	
    //转换系统时间为tm结构
    tm  *ptime=gmtime(¤t_time);

    //转换time_t类型的时间字符串并显示
    char *timep=ctime(¤t_time);
    cout<<"ctime(¤t_time):"<<endl;
    cout<<timep;

    //转换tm类型的数据转换为时间字符串并显示
    char *tmp=asctime(ptime);
    cout<<"asctime(ptime):"<<endl;
    cout<<timep;
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include <time.h>

//定义时间延迟函数
void Dtime(double dt) {
    time_t current_time;
    time_t start_time;

    //得到开始时间
    time(&start_time);
    //延迟处理
    do 
    {
      time(¤t_time);
    }
    while (difftime(current_time,start_time)<dt);
}

//main()函数的定义
void main(void)
{
    //声明变量
    int i;
    time_t current_time;
    char *timep;
    //循环10次,每隔2秒显示一次时间
    for(i=0;i<10;i++) {
        time(¤t_time);
        timep=ctime(¤t_time);
        cputs(timep);
        Dtime(2);
    }
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include<stdlib.h>  
#include<malloc.h>
int main(void)
{
    //定义结构类型
    struct student {
       int num;
       char name[20];
       float grade;
    };

    //声明结构指针变量
    struct student *sp; 
    //计算申请的内存量
    int size=sizeof(struct student);

   //申请需要的存储空间并强制类型转换
   sp=(struct student*)malloc(size);

    //为结构对象输入数据
    cout<<"nmu:";
    cin>>(sp->num);
    cout<<"name:";
    cin>>(sp->name);
    cout<<"grade:";
    cin>>(sp->grade);

    //输出结构对象的数据
    cout<<"num:"<<(sp->num)<<endl;
    cout<<"name:"<<(sp->name)<<endl;
    cout<<"grade:"<<(sp->grade);
   
    //释放内存
    free(sp);
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include <time.h>

//定义时间延迟函数
void Dtime(double dt) {
    time_t current_time;
    time_t start_time;

    // 得到开始时间
    time(&start_time);
    //延迟处理
    do 
    {
      time(¤t_time);
    } 
    while (difftime(current_time,start_time)<dt);
}

//控制台函数显示
void cputs_show(int n) {
    time_t current_time;
    char *timep;
    cputs("Show time with cputs\n");

    for(int i=0;i<5;i++) {
        time(¤t_time);
        timep=ctime(¤t_time);
        cputs(timep);
        Dtime(n);
    }
}

//cout对象显示
void cout_show(int n) {
    time_t current_time;
    char *timep;
    cout<<"Show time with cout"<<endl;

    for(int i=0;i<5;i++) {
        time(¤t_time);
        timep=ctime(¤t_time);
        cout<<timep;
        Dtime(n);
    }
}

//main()函数的定义
void main(void)
{
    cputs_show(1);
    cout_show(1);
}
#include<stdio.h>
main()
{
    //输出字符串
    printf("He said \"Hello!\""); 

    //输出各进制整数
    int i=64;
    printf("\ni=%d",i);   				//以十进制格式输出
    printf("\ni=%o",i);    				//以八进制格式输出
    printf("\ni=%x",i);   				//以十六进制格式输出
    printf("\ni=%d,%o,%x",i,i,i);  	   //各种格式混合输出

    //输出浮点数
    float x=3141.5926;
    printf("\nx=%f",x);    //指定输出浮点数的格式为十进制形式
    printf("\nx=%e",x);    //指定输出浮点数的格式为指数形式
 
    //控制输出项宽度
    int j=123;
    printf("\nj=%-10d",j);    	//任选项"-"指定左对齐,W 指定宽度为10
    printf("\nj=%10d\n",j);   	//W 指定宽度为10

    //控制输出精度
    float y=3.1415926;
    printf("y=%10.2f\n",y);   //W 指定宽度为10,P指定小数点后保留2位
    printf("y=%10.5f\n",y);   //W 指定宽度为10,P指定小数点后保留5位
}
#include<stdio.h>
main()
{
    //输入字符串
    char str[80];
    printf("str:");  	//显示提示
    scanf("%s",str);
    printf("The string:%s",str); 

    //输入各进制整数
    int a,b,c,sum;
    printf("\na\tb\tc\n");        	//显示提示
    scanf("%d %o %x",&a,&b,&c); 	//以十进制、八进制、十六进制形式输入数据
    sum=a+b+c;
    printf("a=%d  b=%d  c=%d   sum=%d",a,b,c,sum);

    //输入浮点数并计算显示
    float x,y;          	//声明变量
    printf("\nx\ty\n");        	//显示提示
    scanf("%f %f",&x,&y);     	//对非空白字符"x= y="读入,不保存
    printf("sum=%f  product=%f\n",x+y, x*y);   //显示表达式的值
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include<direct.h>
#include<errno.h>
#define MAX_PATH 250
main()
{
    //声明变量
    char *p,str[MAX_PATH];

    //设置新目录
    if (mkdir("d:\\ABC")){
        cout<<"mkdir Error!"<<endl;
    }

    //更该工作目录
    if (chdir("d:\\ABC")){
        cout<<"chdir Error!"<<endl;
    }

    //读取当前目录
    if ((p=getcwd(str,MAX_PATH))==NULL) {
        cout<<"getcwd Error!"<<endl;
    }
    else
    {
        cout<<"p:"<<p<<endl;
        cout<<"str:"<<str<<endl;
    }

    //更该工作目录
    if (chdir("d:\\")){
        cout<<"chdir Error!"<<endl;
    }

    //删除指定目录
    if (rmdir("d:\\ABC")==-1) 
        cout<<"rmdir Error!"<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <stdio.h>

void main( void )
{
    struct stat buf;
    int result;

    //获得c:\Windows\Calc.exe文件的状态信息
    result =stat( "c:\\windows\\Calc.exe", &buf );

    //显示Calc.exe文件的状态信息
   if( result != 0 )
       perror( "Problem getting information" );
    else
    {
        cout<<"Size of the file in bytes:"<<buf.st_size<<endl;
        cout<<"Drive number of the disk containing the file :";
        cout<<char(buf.st_dev + 'A')<<endl;
        cout<<"Time of creation of the file:"<<ctime(&buf.st_ctime);
        cout<<"Time of last access of the file:"<<ctime(&buf.st_atime);
        cout<<"Time of last modification of the file:"<<ctime(&buf.st_mtime);
   }
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <string.h>

void main( void )
{
    //设置字符串
    char string[] = "Fill the string with something";
    cout<<"string:"<<string<<endl;
    char *p=strset(string,'*');
    cout<<"p     :"<<p<<endl;
    cout<<"string:"<<string<<endl;

    //按指定字符和指定数目设置字符数组
    char string1[] = "Fill the string with something";
    cout<<"string1:"<<string1<<endl;
    p=strnset(string1,'*',5);
    cout<<"p    :"<<p<<endl;
    cout<<"string1:"<<string1<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <string.h>

void main( void )
{
    //拷贝字符串常量到字符数组
    char string[80] = "Fill the string with something";
    cout<<"string:"<<string<<endl;
    cout<<"strcpy:"<<endl;
    char *p=strcpy(string,"abc");
    cout<<"p     :"<<p<<endl;
    cout<<"string:"<<string<<endl;
    char str[80];
    cout<<"str:";
    cin>>str;
    p=strcpy(string,str);
    cout<<"p     :"<<p<<endl;
    cout<<"string:"<<string<<endl;

    //拷贝前5个字符到string中
    cout<<"str:";
    cin>>str;
    cout<<"strncpy:"<<endl;
    p=strncpy(string,str,strlen(str));
    cout<<"p     :"<<p<<endl;
    cout<<"string:"<<string<<endl; 
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <string.h>

void main( void )
{
    //声明字符数组和字符型指针变量
    char string[80],*p;

    //拷贝字符串
    strcpy( string, "I'll see you");
    cout<<"string:"<<string<<endl;

    //追加字符串
    p=strcat( string, " in the morning.");
    cout<<"String: "<<string<<endl;
    cout<<"p     : "<<p<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <string.h>

//字符串输入函数
void str_input(char *p1,char *p2)
{
    cout<<"string1:";
    cin>>p1;
    cout<<"string2:";
    cin>>p2;
}

//显示strcmp()函数的比较结果
void strcmp_put(char *p1,char *p2)
{
    cout<<"strcmp():"<<endl;
    int result=strcmp(p1,p2);
    if (result>0)
        cout<<p1<<" greater than "<<p2<<endl;
    if (result<0)
        cout<<p1<<" less than "<<p2<<endl;
    if (result==0)
        cout<<p1<<" identical to "<<p2<<endl;
}

//显示stricmp()函数的比较结果
void stricmp_put(char *p1,char *p2)
{
    cout<<"stricmp():"<<endl;
    int result=stricmp(p1,p2);
    if (result>0)
        cout<<p1<<" greater than "<<p2<<endl;
    if (result<0)
        cout<<p1<<" less than "<<p2<<endl;
    if (result==0)
        cout<<p1<<" identical to "<<p2<<endl;
}

//显示strncmp()函数的比较结果
void strncmp_put(char *p1,char *p2,size_t count )
{
    cout<<"strncmp():"<<endl;
    int result=strncmp(p1,p2,count);
    if (result>0)
        cout<<p1<<" greater than "<<p2<<endl;
    if (result<0)
        cout<<p1<<" less than "<<p2<<endl;
    if (result==0)
        cout<<p1<<" identical to "<<p2<<endl;
}

//main()函数
void main( void )
{
    //声明字符数组
    char str1[80],str2[80],p;
    int i;

    //测试测试各字符串比较函数
    for(i=1;i<=3;i++) {
        str_input(str1,str2);
        strcmp_put(str1,str2);
        stricmp_put(str1,str2);
        strncmp_put(str1,str2,3);
        cout<<"----------------------"<<endl;
    }
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <string.h>

//main()函数
void main( void )
{
    //声明字符数组
    char string[80],*p;
    int i;

    //转换字符串中的小写字母为大写
    cout<<"Convert a string to uppercase:"<<endl;
    cout<<"string:";
    cin>>string;
    p=strupr(string);
    cout<<"p:"<<p<<endl;
    cout<<"string:"<<string<<endl;
    cout<<"----------------------"<<endl;

    //转换字符串中的大写字母为小写
    cout<<"Convert a string to lowercase:"<<endl;
    cout<<"string:";
    cin>>string;
    p=strlwr(string);
    cout<<"p:"<<p<<endl;
    cout<<"string:"<<string<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <string.h>

//main()函数
void main( void )
{
    //声明字符数组
    char string[]="This is a test.";
    int n;

    //获得字符串的长度
    cout<<"string:"<<string<<endl;
    n=strlen(string);
    cout<<"The length of "<<"\""<<string<<"\": "<<n<<endl;

    //输入字符并计算其长度
    cout<<"string:";
    cin>>string;
    n=strlen(string);
    cout<<"The length of "<<"\""<<string<<"\": "<<n<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <string.h>

//main()函数
void main( void )
{
    //声明字符数组
    char ch,string[80],*p;
    int n;

    //输入字符串和要查找的字符
    cout<<"Test strchr():"<<endl;
    cout<<"string:";
    cin>>string;
    cout<<"ch    :";
    cin>>ch;

    //在string中查找ch中的字符并显示
    p=strchr(string,ch);
    cout<<"p    :"<<p<<endl;

    //输入字符串和要查找的字符串并查找
    char substr[80];
    cout<<"Test strstr():"<<endl;
    cout<<"substr:";
    cin>>substr;

    //在string中查找substr中的字符串并显示
    p=strstr(string,substr);
    cout<<"p    :"<<p<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <string.h>

//main()函数
void main( void )
{
    //声明字符数组
    char string[80],*p;

    //输入字符串并将其反转
    cout<<"string:";
    cin>>string;
    p=strrev(string );
    cout<<"p     :"<<p<<endl;
    cout<<"string:"<<string<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include <string.h>

char string[80];
char seps[]   = " ,\t\n";
char *token;

void main( void )
{
    //从键盘上输入两个语句
    for (int i=1;i<3;i++) {
        cout<<"Please input a sentence:"<<endl;
        //整行输入
        cin.getline(string,80);             
        cout<<"Tokens:"<<endl;
        //首次分离字符串
        token = strtok( string, seps );		
        while( token != NULL )              //结束分离判断
        {
            cout<<token<<endl;
            //下次分离字符串
            token = strtok( NULL, seps );   
        }
    }
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

//main()函数
void main( void )
{
    //声明变量和数组
    char  buffer[200], s[] = "computer", c = 'l';
    int   i = 35, j;
    float fp = 1.7320534f;

    //格式化输出到buffer
    j  = sprintf( buffer,     "\tString:    %s\n", s );
    j += sprintf( buffer + j, "\tCharacter: %c\n", c );
    j += sprintf( buffer + j, "\tInteger:   %d\n", i );
    j += sprintf( buffer + j, "\tReal:      %f\n", fp );

    cout<<"Output:"<<endl;
    cout<<buffer;
    cout<<"character count ="<<j<<endl;
}
//根据半径计算圆的周长和面积
#include <iostream.h>
const float PI=3.1416;        //声明常量(只读变量)PI为3.1416
float fCir_L(float);           //声明自定义函数fCir_L()的原型 
float fCir_S(float);           //声明自定义函数fCir_S()的原型  

//以下是main()函数 
main() 
{ 
    float r,l,s;             //声明3个变量
    
    cout<<"R=";          //显示字符串
    cin>>r;              	//键盘输入
    l=fCir_L(r);          //计算圆的周长,赋值给变量l 
    s=fCir_S(r);          //计算圆的面积,赋值给变量s 
    cout<<"l="<<l;       //显示计算结果
    cout<<"\ns="<<s;                 
}   

//定义计算圆的周长的函数fCir_L()
float fCir_L(float x)
{ 
    float z=-1.0;         //声明局部变量
    if (x>=0.0)          //如果参数大于0,则计算圆的周长
        z=2*PI*x;
    return(z);          //返回函数值 
} 

//定义计算圆的面积的函数fCir_S()
float fCir_S(float x)
{ 
    float z=-1.0;         //声明局部变量
    if (x>=0.0)          //如果参数大于0,则计算圆的面积
        z=PI*x*x;
    return(z);           //返回函数值 
}
#include<iostream.h>

//定义名为max_value的函数模板
template <class T> T max_value (T a,T b) 
{
    return ((a> b)? a: b);
}

//在main()函数中测试max_value函数模板
void main(void)
{
    //double类型数据使用max_value模板函数
    double x = 1.2, y = 2.1;
    cout<<"x="<<x<<"\t";
    cout<<"y="<<y<<endl;
    double result=max_value(x,y);
    cout<<"max_value(x,y)="<<result<<endl;
    cout<<"max_value(2*3.0,2+3.0)="<<max_value(2*3.0,2+3.0)<<endl;
    cout<<"------------------"<<endl;

    //int类型数据使用max_value模板函数
    int n= 1, m= 6;
    cout<<"n="<<n<<"\t";
    cout<<"m="<<m<<endl;
    cout<<"max_value(n,m)="<<max_value(n,m)<<endl;
    cout<<"------------------"<<endl;

    //char类型数据使用max_value模板函数
    char ch1='A',ch2='a';
    cout<<"ch1="<<ch1<<"\t";
    cout<<"ch2="<<ch2<<endl;
    cout<<"max_value(ch1,ch2)="<<max_value(ch1,ch2)<<endl;
    cout<<"------------------"<<endl;

    //字符串数据使用max_value模板函数
    char str1[]="abc",str2[]="ABC",*p;
    p=max_value(str1,str2);
    cout<<"max_value("<<str1<<","<<str2<<")="<<p<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>

//函数模板的原型
template <class T1, class T2> void display(T1 x, T2 y);

//在main()函数中测试display函数模板
void main(void)
{
    //声明变量
    char c='A';
    char str[]="This is a test";
    int n=10;
    float x=1.5;
    double z=3.1415926;

    //两个参数类型相同
    display(c, char(c+2));
    display(str, str);
    display(n, 2*n);
    display(x,2*x);
    display(z, 2*z);
    cout<<"------------------"<<endl;

    //两个参数类型不同
    display(c, str);
    display(str, c);
    display(n, str);
    display(str,2*x);
    display(z, n);
}

//定义名为display的函数模板
template <class T1, class T2> void display(T1 x, T2 y)
{
    cout << x << " " << y << endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>

//声明引用参数的函数模板原型
template <class T> void swap(T &x, T &y);

//定义一个结构类型
struct student {
    int n;
    char name[20];
    float grade;
};

//在main()函数中测试swap()函数模板
void main(void)
{
    //交换两个int型变量中的数据
    int m=3,n=5;
    cout<<"m="<<m<<"  n="<<n<<endl;
    swap(m,n);
    cout<<"m="<<m<<"  n="<<n<<endl;
    cout<<"-------------------"<<endl;

    //交换两个double型变量中的数据
    double x=3.5,y=5.7;
    cout<<"x="<<x<<"  y="<<y<<endl;
    swap(x,y);
    cout<<"x="<<x<<"  y="<<y<<endl;
    cout<<"-------------------"<<endl;

    //交换两个char型变量中的数据
    char c1='A',c2='a';
    cout<<"c1="<<c1<<"  c2="<<c2<<endl;
    swap(c1,c2);
    cout<<"c1="<<c1<<"  c2="<<c2<<endl;
    cout<<"-------------------"<<endl;
    
    //交换两个结构变量中的数据
    student s1={1001,"ZhangHua",90};
    student s2={1011,"LiWei",95.5};
    cout<<"s1:  ";
    cout<<s1.n<<"  "<<s1.name<<"  "<<s1.grade<<endl;
    cout<<"s2:  ";
    cout<<s2.n<<"  "<<s2.name<<"  "<<s2.grade<<endl;
    swap(s1,s2);
    cout<<"swap(s1,s2):"<<endl;
    cout<<"s1:  ";
    cout<<s1.n<<"  "<<s1.name<<"  "<<s1.grade<<endl;
    cout<<"s2:  ";
    cout<<s2.n<<"  "<<s2.name<<"  "<<s2.grade<<endl;
}

//定义名为swap的函数模板用于交换两个变量中的数据
template <class T> void swap(T &x, T &y)
{
    T temp;
    temp=x;
    x=y;
    y=temp;
}
#include<iostream.h>

//声明函数模板的原型语句
template <class T> void swap(T *x, T *y);

//定义一个结构类型
struct student {
    int n;
    char name[20];
    float grade;
};

//在main()函数中测试swap()函数模板
void main(void)
{
    //交换两个int型变量中的数据
    int m=3,n=5;
    cout<<"m="<<m<<"  n="<<n<<endl;
    swap(&m,&n);
    cout<<"m="<<m<<"  n="<<n<<endl;
    cout<<"-------------------"<<endl;

    //交换两个double型变量中的数据
    double x=3.5,y=5.7;
    cout<<"x="<<x<<"  y="<<y<<endl;
    swap(&x,&y);
    cout<<"x="<<x<<"  y="<<y<<endl;
    cout<<"-------------------"<<endl;

    //交换两个char型变量中的数据
    char c1='A',c2='a';
    cout<<"c1="<<c1<<"  c2="<<c2<<endl;
    swap(&c1,&c2);
    cout<<"c1="<<c1<<"  c2="<<c2<<endl;
    cout<<"-------------------"<<endl;

    //交换两个结构变量中的数据
    student s1={1001,"ZhangHua",90};
    student s2={1011,"LiWei",95.5};
    cout<<"s1:  ";
    cout<<s1.n<<"  "<<s1.name<<"  "<<s1.grade<<endl;
    cout<<"s2:  ";
    cout<<s2.n<<"  "<<s2.name<<"  "<<s2.grade<<endl;

    swap(&s1,&s2);
    cout<<"swap(s1,s2):"<<endl;
    cout<<"s1:  ";
    cout<<s1.n<<"  "<<s1.name<<"  "<<s1.grade<<endl;
    cout<<"s2:  ";
    cout<<s2.n<<"  "<<s2.name<<"  "<<s2.grade<<endl;
}

//定义名为swap的函数模板用于交换两个变量中的数据
template <class T> void swap(T *x, T *y)
{
    T temp;
    temp=*x;
    *x=*y;
    *y=temp;
}
#include<iostream.h>

//定义输入函数模板
template <class T> void input(char *str,T &x) {
    cout<<str<<"=";
    cin>>x;
}

//定义输出函数模板
template <class T> void output(char *str,T x) {
    cout<<str<<"="<<x<<endl;
}

//在main()函数中测试输入输出函数模板
void main(void)
{
    //输入输出int型数据
    int a,b;
    input("a",a);
    output("a",a);
    b=3*a;
    output("3*a",b);
    output("a+b",a+b);
    cout<<"-------------------"<<endl;

    //输入输出double型数据
    double x,y;
    input("x",x);
    output("x",x);
    y=2*x;
    output("y",y);
    cout<<"-------------------"<<endl;

    //输入输出char型数据
    char c1;
    input("c1",c1);
    output("c1+2",char(c1+2));
    cout<<"-------------------"<<endl;

    //输入输出字符串数据
    char string[80];
    input("string",string);
    output("string",string);
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include<string.h>

//显示数组的函数模板
template <class T> void arr_put(T arr[],int size) {
    for (int i=0 ;i<=size;i++)
       cout<<arr[i]<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
}

//选择排序数组的函数模板
template <class T> void sort(T arr[],int size) {
    T temp;
    int i,j;
    for (i=0;i<size;i++)
        for (j=i+1;j<=size;j++)
            if (arr[i]<=arr[j])
            {
               temp=arr[i];
               arr[i]=arr[j];
               arr[j]=temp;
            }
}

//在main()函数中测试数组排序的函数模板
void main(void)
{
    //用排序函数模板处理int型数组
    cout<<"int:"<<endl;
    int a[]={1,5,2,7,9,0,10,-1};
    arr_put(a,7);
    sort(a,7);
    arr_put(a,7);

    //用排序函数模板处理double型数组
    cout<<"double:"<<endl;
    double x[]={1.2,2.1,1.414,1.732};
    arr_put(x,3);
    sort(x,3);
    arr_put(x,3);

    //用排序函数模板处理char类型数组
    cout<<"char:"<<endl;
    char str[80];
    cout<<"str:";
    cin>>str;
    int size=strlen(str);
    arr_put(str,size);
    sort(str,size);
    arr_put(str,size);
}
#include<iostream.h>
#include<string.h>

//显示数组的函数模板
template <class T> void arr_put(T arr[],int size) {
    for (int i=0 ;i<size;i++)
        cout<<arr[i]<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
}

//选择法对数组排序的函数模板
template <class T> void sort(T arr[],int size) {
    T temp;
    int i,j;
    for (i=0;i<size-1;i++)
        for (j=i+1;j<size;j++)
            if (arr[i]>arr[j])
            {
               temp=arr[i];
               arr[i]=arr[j];
               arr[j]=temp;
            }
}

//二分查找法的函数模板
template <class T> int binary_search(T array[], T value, int size)
{
    int found = 0;
    int high = size, low = 0, mid;

    mid = (high + low) / 2;

    cout<<"Looking for "<<value<<endl;
    while ((! found) && (high >= low))
    {
      if (value == array[mid])
        found = 1;
      else if (value < array[mid])
        high = mid - 1;
      else
        low = mid + 1;
        mid = (high + low) / 2;
    }
    return((found) ? mid: -1);
}

//main()函数中使用处理数组的函数模板
void main(void)
{
    //处理int型数组
    int array[10]={1,3,5,7,9,2,4,6,8,10};
    
    //显示数组初值
    arr_put(array,10);
	
    //对数组排序并显示
    sort(array,10);
    arr_put(array,10);

    //查找数组
    cout<<"Result of search: "<<binary_search(array, 3, 10)<<endl;
    cout<<"Result of search: "<<binary_search(array, 2, 10)<<endl;
    cout<<"Result of search: "<<binary_search(array, 9, 10)<<endl;
    cout<<"Result of search: "<<binary_search(array, 5, 10)<<endl;
    cout<<"------------------------------"<<endl;

    //处理字符串型数组
    char ch1,str[]="happy";
    int size=strlen(str);
    
    //显示数组初值
    arr_put(str,size);
	
    //对数组排序并显示
    sort(str,size);
    arr_put(str,size);

    //查找数组
    cout<<"Input a char:";
    cin>>ch1;
    cout<<"Result of search: "<<binary_search(str, ch1, size)<<endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>

//定义名为ex_class的类模板
template <class T>  class ex_class
{
    T value;
public:
    ex_class(T v) { value=v; }
    void set_value(T v) { value=v; }
    T get_value(void) {return value;}
};

//main()函数中测试ex_class类模板
void main(void)
{
    //测试int类型数据
    ex_class <int> a(5),b(10);
    cout<<"a.value:"<<a.get_value()<<endl;
    cout<<"b.value:"<<b.get_value()<<endl;

    //测试char类型数据
    ex_class <char> ch('A');
    cout<<"ch.value:"<<ch.get_value()<<endl;
    ch.set_value('a');
    cout<<"ch.value:"<<ch.get_value()<<endl;

    //测试double类型数据
    ex_class <double> x(5.5);
    cout<<"x.value:"<<x.get_value()<<endl;
    x.set_value(7.5);
    cout<<"x.value:"<<x.get_value()<<endl;
}
#include <iostream.h>
//定义栈的尺寸
const int SIZE = 100;

//定义处理栈的类模板接口
template <class T> class stack {
    T stck[SIZE];
    int tos;
public:
    stack(void) {
        tos = 0;
        cout << "Stack Initialized." << endl;
    }
    ~stack(void) {
       cout << "Stack Destroyed." << endl;
    }
    void push(T);
    T pop(void);
};

//定义栈的成员函数
template <class T> void stack<T>::push(T i)
{
    if(tos==SIZE)
    {
        cout << "Stack is full." << endl;
        return;
    }
    stck[tos++] = i;
}
template <class T> T stack<T>::pop(void)
{
    if(tos==0)
    {
        cout << "Stack underflow." << endl;
        return 0;
    }
    return stck[--tos];
}

//main()函数中测试stack类模板
void main(void)
{
    //处理int类型数据的栈
    cout<<"stack<int> a :"<<endl;
    stack<int> a;
    a.push(1);
    a.push(2);
    cout << a.pop() << " ";
    cout << a.pop() << endl;

    //处理double类型数据的栈
    cout<<"stack<double> b :"<<endl;
    stack<double> b;
    b.push(99.3);
    b.push(-12.23);
    cout << b.pop() << " ";
    cout << b.pop() <<endl;

    //处理char类型数据的栈
    cout<<"stack<char> c :"<<endl;
    stack<char> c;
    for(int i=0; i<10; i++)
      c.push((char) 'A' + i);
    for(i=0; i<10; i++)
      cout <<c.pop();
    cout << endl;
}
#include<iostream.h>

//定义名为ex_class的类模板
template <class T1,class T2>  class ex_class
{
    T1 value1;
    T2 value2;
public:
    ex_class(T1 v1,T2 v2) {
        value1=v1;
        value2=v2;
    }
    void set_value(T1 v1,T2 v2) {
        value1=v1;
        value2=v2;
    }
    void put_value(void) {
        cout<<"valu1="<<value1<<endl;
        cout<<"valu2="<<value2<<endl;
    }
};

//main()函数中测试ex_class类模板
void main(void)
{
    //测试int和double类型数据
    ex_class <int,double> a(5,1.5);
    cout<<"ex_class <int,double> a:"<<endl;
    a.put_value();
    a.set_value(100,3.14);
    a.put_value();

    //测试double和int类型数据
    ex_class <double,int> b(0.5,5);
    cout<<"ex_class <double,int> b:"<<endl;
    b.put_value();
    b.set_value(1.732,100);
    b.put_value();

    //测试char和int类型数据
    ex_class <char,int> c('a',5);
    cout<<"ex_class <char,int> c:"<<endl;
    c.put_value();
    c.set_value('B',100);
    c.put_value();

    //测试int和int类型数据
    ex_class <int,int> d(5,10);
    cout<<"ex_class <int,int> d:"<<endl;
    d.put_value();
    d.set_value(100,200);
    d.put_value();
}
#include <iostream>
#include <list>
#include <numeric>
#include <algorithm>

using namespace std;

//创建一个list容器的实例LISTINT
typedef list<int> LISTINT;

//创建一个list容器的实例LISTCHAR
typedef list<int> LISTCHAR;

void main(void)
{
    //--------------------------
    //用list容器处理整型数据
    //--------------------------
    //用LISTINT创建一个名为listOne的list对象
    LISTINT listOne;
    //声明i为迭代器
    LISTINT::iterator i;

    //从前面向listOne容器中添加数据
    listOne.push_front (2);
    listOne.push_front (1);

    //从后面向listOne容器中添加数据
    listOne.push_back (3);
    listOne.push_back (4);

    //从前向后显示listOne中的数据
    cout<<"listOne.begin()--- listOne.end():"<<endl;
    for (i = listOne.begin(); i != listOne.end(); ++i)
        cout << *i << " ";
    cout << endl;

    //从后向后显示listOne中的数据
	LISTINT::reverse_iterator ir;
    cout<<"listOne.rbegin()---listOne.rend():"<<endl;
    for (ir =listOne.rbegin(); ir!=listOne.rend();ir++) {
        cout << *ir << " ";
    }
    cout << endl;

    //使用STL的accumulate(累加)算法
    int result = accumulate(listOne.begin(), listOne.end(),0);
    cout<<"Sum="<<result<<endl;
    cout<<"------------------"<<endl;

    //--------------------------
    //用list容器处理字符型数据
    //--------------------------

    //用LISTCHAR创建一个名为listOne的list对象
    LISTCHAR listTwo;
    //声明i为迭代器
    LISTCHAR::iterator j;

    //从前面向listTwo容器中添加数据
    listTwo.push_front ('A');
    listTwo.push_front ('B');

    //从后面向listTwo容器中添加数据
    listTwo.push_back ('x');
    listTwo.push_back ('y');

    //从前向后显示listTwo中的数据
    cout<<"listTwo.begin()---listTwo.end():"<<endl;
    for (j = listTwo.begin(); j != listTwo.end(); ++j)
        cout << char(*j) << " ";
    cout << endl;

    //使用STL的max_element算法求listTwo中的最大元素并显示
    j=max_element(listTwo.begin(),listTwo.end());
    cout << "The maximum element in listTwo is: "<<char(*j)<<endl;
}
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>

using namespace std;
typedef vector<int> INTVECTOR;

//测试vector容器的功能
void main(void)
{
    //vec1对象初始为空
    INTVECTOR vec1;   
    //vec2对象最初有10个值为6的元素  
    INTVECTOR vec2(10,6);  
    //vec3对象最初有3个值为6的元素  
    INTVECTOR vec3(vec2.begin(),vec2.begin()+3);  

    //声明一个名为i的双向迭代器
    INTVECTOR::iterator i;

    //从前向后显示vec1中的数据
    cout<<"vec1.begin()--vec1.end():"<<endl;
    for (i =vec1.begin(); i !=vec1.end(); ++i)
        cout << *i << " ";
    cout << endl;

    //从前向后显示vec2中的数据
    cout<<"vec2.begin()--vec2.end():"<<endl;
    for (i =vec2.begin(); i !=vec2.end(); ++i)
        cout << *i << " ";
    cout << endl;

    //从前向后显示vec3中的数据
    cout<<"vec3.begin()--vec3.end():"<<endl;
    for (i =vec3.begin(); i !=vec3.end(); ++i)
        cout << *i << " ";
    cout << endl;
 
    //测试添加和插入成员函数
    vec1.push_back(2);
    vec1.push_back(4);
    vec1.insert(vec1.begin()+1,5);
    vec1.insert(vec1.begin()+1,vec3.begin(),vec3.end());
    cout<<"push() and insert():" <<endl;
    for (i =vec1.begin(); i !=vec1.end(); ++i)
        cout << *i << " ";
    cout << endl;

    //测试赋值成员函数
    vec2.assign(8,1);
    cout<<"vec2.assign(8,1):" <<endl;
    for (i =vec2.begin(); i !=vec2.end(); ++i)
        cout << *i << " ";
    cout << endl;

    //测试引用类函数
    cout<<"vec1.front()="<<vec1.front()<<endl;
    cout<<"vec1.back()="<<vec1.back()<<endl;
    cout<<"vec1.at(4)="<<vec1.at(4)<<endl;
    cout<<"vec1[4]="<<vec1[4]<<endl;

    //测试移出和删除
    vec1.pop_back();
    vec1.erase(vec1.begin()+1,vec1.end()-2);
    cout<<"vec1.pop_back() and vec1.erase():" <<endl;
    for (i =vec1.begin(); i !=vec1.end(); ++i)
        cout << *i << " ";
    cout << endl;

    //显示序列的状态信息
    cout<<"vec1.capacity(): "<<vec1.capacity()<<endl;
    cout<<"vec1.max_size(): "<<vec1.max_size()<<endl;
    cout<<"vec1.size(): "<<vec1.size()<<endl;
    cout<<"vec1.empty(): "<<vec1.empty()<<endl;

    //vector序列容器的运算
    cout<<"vec1==vec3: "<<(vec1==vec3)<<endl;
    cout<<"vec1<=vec3: "<<(vec1<=vec3)<<endl;
}
#include <iostream>
#include <deque>

using namespace std;
typedef deque<int> INTDEQUE;

//从前向后显示deque队列的全部元素
void put_deque(INTDEQUE deque, char *name)
{
    INTDEQUE::iterator pdeque;

    cout << "The contents of " << name << " : ";
    for(pdeque = deque.begin(); pdeque != deque.end(); pdeque++)
        cout << *pdeque << " ";
    cout<<endl;
}

//测试deqtor容器的功能
void main(void)
{
	//deq1对象初始为空
    INTDEQUE deq1;   
    //deq2对象最初有10个值为6的元素  
    INTDEQUE deq2(10,6);  
    //deq3对象最初有3个值为6的元素  
    INTDEQUE deq3(deq2.begin(),deq2.begin()+3);  

    //声明一个名为i的双向迭代器变量
    INTDEQUE::iterator i;

    //从前向后显示deq1中的数据
    put_deque(deq1,"deq1");

    //从前向后显示deq2中的数据
    put_deque(deq2,"deq2");

    //从前向后显示deq3中的数据
    put_deque(deq3,"deq3");
    
	//从deq1序列后面添加两个元素
	deq1.push_back(2);
	deq1.push_back(4);
	cout<<"deq1.push_back(2) and deq1.push_back(4):"<<endl;
    put_deque(deq1,"deq1");

	//从deq1序列前面添加两个元素
	deq1.push_front(5);
	deq1.push_front(7);
	cout<<"deq1.push_front(5) and deq1.push_front(7):"<<endl;
    put_deque(deq1,"deq1");

	//在deq1序列中间插入数据
	deq1.insert(deq1.begin()+1,3,9);
	cout<<"deq1.insert(deq1.begin()+1,3,9):"<<endl;
    put_deque(deq1,"deq1");

	//测试引用类函数
	cout<<"deq1.front()="<<deq1.front()<<endl;
	cout<<"deq1.back()="<<deq1.back()<<endl;
	cout<<"deq1.at(4)="<<deq1.at(4)<<endl;
	cout<<"deq1[4]="<<deq1[4]<<endl;
	deq1.at(1)=10;
	deq1[2]=12;
	cout<<"deq1.at(1)=10 and deq1[2]=12 :"<<endl;
    put_deque(deq1,"deq1");

	//从deq1序列的前后各移去一个元素
	deq1.pop_front();
	deq1.pop_back();
	cout<<"deq1.pop_front() and deq1.pop_back():"<<endl;
    put_deque(deq1,"deq1");

	//清除deq1中的第2个元素
	deq1.erase(deq1.begin()+1);
	cout<<"deq1.erase(deq1.begin()+1):"<<endl;
    put_deque(deq1,"deq1");

	//对deq2赋值并显示
	deq2.assign(8,1);
	cout<<"deq2.assign(8,1):"<<endl;
    put_deque(deq2,"deq2");

	//显示序列的状态信息
	cout<<"deq1.max_size(): "<<deq1.max_size()<<endl;
	cout<<"deq1.size(): "<<deq1.size()<<endl;
	cout<<"deq1.empty(): "<<deq1.empty()<<endl;

	//deqtor序列容器的运算
	cout<<"deq1==deq3: "<<(deq1==deq3)<<endl;
	cout<<"deq1<=deq3: "<<(deq1<=deq3)<<endl;
}
#include <iostream>
#include <list>

using namespace std;
typedef list<int> INTLIST;

//从前向后显示list队列的全部元素
void put_list(INTLIST list, char *name)
{
    INTLIST::iterator plist;

    cout << "The contents of " << name << " : ";
    for(plist = list.begin(); plist != list.end(); plist++)
        cout << *plist << " ";
    cout<<endl;
}

//测试list容器的功能
void main(void)
{
	//list1对象初始为空
    INTLIST list1;   
    //list2对象最初有10个值为6的元素  
    INTLIST list2(10,6);  
    //list3对象最初有3个值为6的元素  
    INTLIST list3(list2.begin(),--list2.end());  

    //声明一个名为i的双向迭代器
    INTLIST::iterator i;

    //从前向后显示各list对象的元素
    put_list(list1,"list1");
    put_list(list2,"list2");
    put_list(list3,"list3");
    
	//从list1序列后面添加两个元素
	list1.push_back(2);
	list1.push_back(4);
	cout<<"list1.push_back(2) and list1.push_back(4):"<<endl;
    put_list(list1,"list1");

	//从list1序列前面添加两个元素
	list1.push_front(5);
	list1.push_front(7);
	cout<<"list1.push_front(5) and list1.push_front(7):"<<endl;
    put_list(list1,"list1");

	//在list1序列中间插入数据
	list1.insert(++list1.begin(),3,9);
	cout<<"list1.insert(list1.begin()+1,3,9):"<<endl;
    put_list(list1,"list1");

	//测试引用类函数
	cout<<"list1.front()="<<list1.front()<<endl;
	cout<<"list1.back()="<<list1.back()<<endl;

	//从list1序列的前后各移去一个元素
	list1.pop_front();
	list1.pop_back();
	cout<<"list1.pop_front() and list1.pop_back():"<<endl;
    put_list(list1,"list1");

	//清除list1中的第2个元素
	list1.erase(++list1.begin());
	cout<<"list1.erase(++list1.begin()):"<<endl;
    put_list(list1,"list1");

	//对list2赋值并显示
	list2.assign(8,1);
	cout<<"list2.assign(8,1):"<<endl;
    put_list(list2,"list2");

	//显示序列的状态信息
	cout<<"list1.max_size(): "<<list1.max_size()<<endl;
	cout<<"list1.size(): "<<list1.size()<<endl;
	cout<<"list1.empty(): "<<list1.empty()<<endl;

	//list序列容器的运算
    put_list(list1,"list1");
    put_list(list3,"list3");
	cout<<"list1>list3: "<<(list1>list3)<<endl;
	cout<<"list1<list3: "<<(list1<list3)<<endl;

	//对list1容器排序
	list1.sort();
    put_list(list1,"list1");
    
	//结合处理
	list1.splice(++list1.begin(), list3);
    put_list(list1,"list1");
    put_list(list3,"list3"); 
}
#include <iostream.h>
#include <set>

using namespace std;

//创建set模板的实例
typedef set<int> SET_INT;

//put_HTset函数,从头向尾显示set容器的所有元素
void put_HTset(SET_INT set1,char *name)
{
    SET_INT::iterator it;

    cout<<name<<": ";
	cout<<"Head to Tail=";
    for (it=set1.begin();it!=set1.end();++it)
        cout<<(*it)<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
}

//put_THset函数,从尾向头显示set容器的所有元素
void put_THset(SET_INT s1,char *name)
{
    SET_INT::reverse_iterator i;

    cout<<name<<": ";
  	cout<<"Tail to Head=";
    for (i=s1.rbegin(); i!=s1.rend();i++)
        cout <<(*i) <<" ";
    cout<<endl;
}

//测试set模板
void main(void)
{
	int i;
    //声明set的对象和迭代器
    SET_INT s1;      //容器初始尾空
    SET_INT::iterator it;

    //向s1对象中插入值
	for (i=1;i<20;i=i+2) {
        s1.insert(i);
	}

    //正向显示s1中的数据
    put_HTset(s1,"s1");

    //反向显示s1中的数据
    put_THset(s1,"s1");

	//构造含有元素的序列并显示
    SET_INT s2(s1);
    put_HTset(s2,"s2");

	//删除s2的第2个元素并显示
    s2.erase(++s2.begin());
    put_HTset(s2,"s2");

	//向s2插入8和9并显示
    s2.insert(8);
    s2.insert(9);
    put_HTset(s2,"s2");

	//清空s2的序列
    s2.clear();
    put_HTset(s2,"s2");

	//按关键给定的区间显示序列中的元素
	cout<<"[s1.lower_bound(5),s1.upper_bound(15)] :";
	for (it=s1.lower_bound(4);it!=s1.upper_bound(16);it++)
		cout<<(*it)<<" ";
	cout<<endl;

    //显示s1的状态信息
    cout<<"s1.size():"<<s1.size()<<endl;
    cout<<"s1.max_size():"<<s1.max_size()<<endl;
    cout<<"s1.count(15):"<<s1.count(15)<<endl;

	//交换两个set容器的元素并显示
	s1.swap(s2);
    put_HTset(s1,"s1");
    put_HTset(s2,"s2");

	//关系运算
	s1.insert(5);
	cout<<"s1>s2 = "<<(s1>s2)<<endl;
}
#include <iostream.h>
#include <set>

using namespace std;

//创建multiset模板的实例
typedef multiset<int> MULTISET_INT;

//put_HTset函数,从头向尾显示multiset容器的所有元素
void put_HTset(MULTISET_INT set1,char *name)
{
    MULTISET_INT::iterator it;

    cout<<name<<": ";
	cout<<"Head to Tail=";
    for (it=set1.begin();it!=set1.end();++it)
        cout<<(*it)<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
}

//put_THset函数,从尾向头显示multiset容器的所有元素
void put_THset(MULTISET_INT s1,char *name)
{
    MULTISET_INT::reverse_iterator i;

    cout<<name<<": ";
  	cout<<"Tail to Head=";
    for (i=s1.rbegin(); i!=s1.rend();i++)
        cout <<(*i) <<" ";
    cout<<endl;
}

//测试multiset模板
void main(void)
{
	int i;
    //声明multiset的对象和迭代器
    MULTISET_INT s1;      //容器初始尾空
    MULTISET_INT::iterator it;

    //向s1对象中插入值
	for (i=1;i<20;i=i+2) {
        s1.insert(i);
	}

    //正向显示s1中的数据
    put_HTset(s1,"s1");

    //反向显示s1中的数据
    put_THset(s1,"s1");

	//构造含有元素的序列并显示
    MULTISET_INT s2(s1);
    put_HTset(s2,"s2");

	//删除s2的第2个元素并显示
    s2.erase(++s2.begin());
    put_HTset(s2,"s2");

	//向s2插入8和9并显示
    s2.insert(8);
    s2.insert(9);
    put_HTset(s2,"s2");

	//清空s2的序列
    s2.clear();
    put_HTset(s2,"s2");

	//按键给定的区间显示序列中的元素
	cout<<"[s1.lower_bound(5),s1.upper_bound(15)] :";
	for (it=s1.lower_bound(4);it!=s1.upper_bound(16);it++)
		cout<<(*it)<<" ";
	cout<<endl;

    //显示s1的状态信息
    cout<<"s1.size():"<<s1.size()<<endl;
    cout<<"s1.max_size():"<<s1.max_size()<<endl;
    cout<<"s1.count(15):"<<s1.count(15)<<endl;

	//交换两个multiset容器的元素并显示
	s1.swap(s2);
    put_HTset(s1,"s1");
    put_HTset(s2,"s2");

	//关系运算
	s1.insert(2);
    put_HTset(s1,"s1");
    put_HTset(s2,"s2");
	cout<<"s1>s2 = "<<(s1>s2)<<endl;
}
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
#include <map>

using namespace std;

//创建map的实例,整数(int)映射字符串(string)
typedef map<int, string> INT2STRING;

//测试map容器
void main()
{
    //创建map对象theMap
    INT2STRING theMap;
    INT2STRING::iterator theIterator,it;

    //向theMap容器中添入数据,数字和字符串配对
    //每个元素是一个映射对
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(0,"Zero"));
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(2,"Two"));
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(4,"Four"));
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(6,"Six"));
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(8,"Eight"));

    //显示map容器的所有对象
    cout<<"theMap.begin()--theMap.end():"<<endl;
    for (theIterator=theMap.begin();theIterator!=theMap.end();++theIterator){
        cout<<(*theIterator).first;
        cout<<","<<(*theIterator).second<<" ";
    }
    cout<<endl;

	//测试map容器key的惟一性
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(0,"Zero"));
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(1,"One"));
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(2,"Two"));
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(3,"Three"));
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(4,"Four"));
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(5,"Five"));
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(6,"Six"));
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(7,"Seven"));
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(8,"Eight"));
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(9,"Nine"));
    //下列语句将不能插入到map容器中
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(5,"AAA"));

    //显示map容器的所有对象
    cout<<"theMap.begin()--theMap.end():"<<endl;
    for (theIterator=theMap.begin();theIterator!=theMap.end();++theIterator){
        cout<<(*theIterator).first;
        cout<<","<<(*theIterator).second<<" ";
    }
    cout<<endl;

	//按键给定的区间显示序列中的元素
	cout<<"[theMap.lower_bound(3),theMap.upper_bound(8)] :"<<endl;
	for (it=theMap.lower_bound(3);it!=theMap.upper_bound(8);it++) {
	    cout<<(*it).first;
        cout<<","<<(*it).second<<" ";
	}
	cout<<endl;

	//显示theMap的状态信息
    cout<<"theMap.size():"<<theMap.size()<<endl;
    cout<<"theMap.max_size():"<<theMap.max_size()<<endl;
    cout<<"theMap.count(15):"<<theMap.count(15)<<endl;

    // 从键盘上输入数字,显示对应的字符串
    string theString = "";
    int index;
    for( ; ; )
    {
        cout << "Enter \"q\" to quit, or enter a Number: ";
        cin >> theString;
        if(theString == "q")
            break;

        for(index = 0; index < theString.length(); index++){
            theIterator = theMap.find(theString[index] - '0');
            if(theIterator != theMap.end() ) 
                cout << (*theIterator).second << " ";
            else    
                cout << "[err] ";
        }
        cout << endl;
    }
}
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
#include <map>

using namespace std;

//创建multimap的实例,整数(int)映射字符串(string)
typedef multimap<int, string> INT2STRING;

//测试multimap容器
void main()
{
    //创建multimap对象theMap
    INT2STRING theMap;
    INT2STRING::iterator theIterator,it;

    //向theMap容器中添入数据,数字和字符串配对
    //每个元素是一个映射对
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(90,"张卫"));
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(85,"李华"));
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(73,"赵明"));
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(96,"郝名"));

    //显示multimap容器的所有对象
    cout<<"theMap.begin()--theMap.end():"<<endl;
    for (theIterator=theMap.begin();theIterator!=theMap.end();++theIterator){
        cout<<(*theIterator).second;
		cout<<"\t"<<(*theIterator).first<<endl;
    }

	//测试multimap容器key的非惟一性
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(90,"李朋"));
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(85,"钱德"));
    theMap.insert(INT2STRING::value_type(93,"赵刚"));

    //按成绩高低输出multimap容器的所有对象
    INT2STRING::reverse_iterator i;
    cout<<"theMap.rbegin()--theMap.rend():"<<endl;
    for (i=theMap.rbegin();i!=theMap.rend();++i){
        cout<<(*i).second;
		cout<<"\t"<<(*i).first<<endl;
    }

	//按关键给定的区间显示序列中的元素
	cout<<"[theMap.lower_bound(80),theMap.upper_bound(90)] :"<<endl;
	for (it=theMap.lower_bound(80);it!=theMap.upper_bound(90);it++) {
        cout<<(*it).second;
		cout<<"\t"<<(*it).first<<endl;
    }

	//显示theMap的状态信息
    cout<<"theMap.size():"<<theMap.size()<<endl;
    cout<<"theMap.max_size():"<<theMap.max_size()<<endl;
    cout<<"theMap.count(90):"<<theMap.count(90)<<endl;

	//清除90分以下的数据,并显示结果
	theMap.erase(theMap.lower_bound(60),theMap.upper_bound(89));
    cout<<"theMap.rbegin()--theMap.rend():"<<endl;
    for (i=theMap.rbegin();i!=theMap.rend();++i){
        cout<<(*i).second;
		cout<<"\t"<<(*i).first<<endl;
    }
}
#include <iostream>                 
#include <valarray>                 
#include <math.h>                   

using namespace std;

#define ARRAY_SIZE  3               //array size

//测试valarray容器
void main()
{
    //创建具有3个元素的数组val_array 
    valarray<double> val_array(ARRAY_SIZE);

    //设置数组的值为1, 4, 9
    for (int i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE; i++)
        val_array[i] = (i+1) * (i+1);

    //显示val_array数组的大小
    cout << "Size of val_array = " << val_array.size() << endl;

    // 显示val_array数组的值
    cout << "The values in val_array before calling sqrt() and pow():" << endl;
    for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE; i++)
        cout << val_array[i] << "    ";
    cout << endl;

    //声明一个rev_valarray数组,其保存对数组val_array的取反
    valarray<double> rev_valarray(ARRAY_SIZE);
    for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE; i++)
        rev_valarray[i] = val_array[ARRAY_SIZE - i - 1];

    //显示rev_valarray数组的大小和元素
    cout << "Size of rev_valarray = " << rev_valarray.size() << endl;
    cout << "The values in rev_valarray:" << endl;
    for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE; i++)
        cout << rev_valarray[i] << "    ";
    cout <<endl;

    // 声明rvalue_array数组,其存放调用sqrt()和pow()函数的返回值
    valarray<double> rvalue_array;

    //调用sqrt()函数并显示结果
    rvalue_array = sqrt(val_array);
    cout << "The result of rvalue_array after calling sqrt():" << endl;
    for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE; i++)
        cout << rvalue_array[i] << "     ";
    cout <<endl;

    //对val_array数组元素计算幂函数并显示
    rvalue_array = pow(val_array, rev_valarray);
    cout << "The result after calling pow(val_array, rev_valarray):"
         << endl;
    for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE; i++)
        cout << rvalue_array[i] << "     ";
    cout <<endl;

    //对val_array数组元素计算幂函数,指数均为2.0,并显示
    rvalue_array = pow(val_array, 2.0);
    cout << "The result after calling pow(val_array, 2.0):" << endl;
    for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE; i++)
        cout << rvalue_array[i] << "     ";
    cout <<endl;

    //对2.0进行幂函数运算,指数均为数组val_array的各元素值
    rvalue_array = pow(2.0, val_array);
    cout << "The result after calling pow(2.0, val_array):" << endl;
    for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE; i++)
        cout << rvalue_array[i] << "     ";
    cout <<endl;

	//对val_array和rvalue_array求和
	cout<<"val_array.sum()="<<val_array.sum()<<endl;
	cout<<"rvalue_array.sum()="<<rvalue_array.sum()<<endl;

	//求最大值并显示
	cout<<"val_array.max()="<<val_array.max()<<endl;
	cout<<"rvalue_array.max()="<<rvalue_array.max()<<endl;
}
#include <stack>
#include <iostream>

using namespace std ;

typedef stack<int> STACK_INT;

void main()
{
    STACK_INT stack1;
    int i;

    //判断栈是否空
    cout << "stack1.empty() returned " <<
         (stack1.empty()? "true": "false") << endl;  

    //0,2,4,6...入栈
    for (i=0;i<10;i=i+2)
        stack1.push(i);

    //top()函数
    if (!stack1.empty())                         
        cout << "stack1.top() returned " <<stack1.top() << endl;
 
    //计算栈的长度
    cout<<"stack1.size(): "<<stack1.size()<<endl;
   
    //改变栈顶的值 20.
    if (!stack1.empty()) {                        
        cout << "stack1.top()=20;" << endl;
        stack1.top()=20;                         
    }

    //弹出栈中所有的数据并显示
	cout<<"stack1: ";
    while (!stack1.empty()) {                   
        cout<<stack1.top()<<" ";
        stack1.pop();
    }
	cout<<endl;
}
#include <iostream>
#include <list>
#include <numeric>

using namespace std;
//创建一个list容器的实例LISTINT,其存放int型数据
typedef list<int> LISTINT;

void main(void)
{
    //用LISTINT创建一个名为listOne的list对象
    LISTINT listOne;
    //指定i为迭代器变量
    LISTINT::iterator i;
    LISTINT::reverse_iterator ir;

    //从前面向listOne容器中添加数据
    listOne.push_front (2);
    listOne.push_front (1);

    //从后面向listOne容器中添加数据
    listOne.push_back (3);
    listOne.push_back (4);

    //从前向后显示listOne中的数据
    for (i = listOne.begin(); i != listOne.end(); ++i)
        cout << *i << " ";
    cout << endl;

    //从后向后显示listOne中的数据
    for (ir =listOne.rbegin();ir!=listOne.rend(); ++ir) 
        cout << *ir << " ";
    cout << endl;

    //从键盘上输入数据
    for (i = listOne.begin(); i != listOne.end(); ++i) {
        cout<<"listOne  :";
        cin>>(*i);
    }

    //从前向后显示listOne中的数据
    for (i = listOne.begin(); i != listOne.end(); ++i)
        cout << *i << " ";
    cout << endl;
	
    //bidirectional迭代器不允许加减运算
    // i=listOne.begin()+1;
}
#include <iostream>
#include <iostream>
#include <numeric>
#include <vector>
#include <list>
#include <set>

using namespace std;

//利用类模板生成类实例
typedef vector < int > IntArray;
typedef list <int> LISTINT;
typedef set<int> SET_INT;
int add(int a, int b) {
   return a+b;
}
//在main()函数中测试accumulate算法
void main ()
{
//--------------------------------------------
//	accumulate算法对于普通数组的计算
//---------------------------------------------
    int x[]={1,3,5,7,9};

    cout<<"x[]:";
    for (int i=0;i<5;i++) 
        cout<<x[i]<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
    cout<<"accumulate(x,x+5,0)=";
    cout<<accumulate(x,x+5,0)<<endl;
	int val=100;
	cout<<"val="<<val<<endl;
    cout<<"accumulate(x,x+5,val)=";
    cout<<accumulate(x,x+5,val)<<endl;
//--------------------------------------------
//	accumulate算法对于vector容器的计算
//---------------------------------------------
    //声明intvector容器和迭代器ii
    IntArray intvector;
    IntArray::iterator ii;

    //向intvector容器中插入元素
    for (i=1; i<=5; i++) {
        intvector.push_back(i);
    };

    //显示intvector容器中的元素值和累加结果
    cout << "intvector: "<<endl;
    for (ii=intvector.begin();ii !=intvector.end();++ii) 
        cout<<(*ii)<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
    cout<<"accumulate(intvector.begin(),intvector.end(),0)=";
    cout<<accumulate(intvector.begin(),intvector.end(),0)<<endl;
//--------------------------------------------
//	accumulate算法对于list容器的计算
//---------------------------------------------
    //声明list容器对象和迭代器
    LISTINT::iterator iL;	
    LISTINT list1; 

    //向list1容器对象中插入元素并显示
    list1.push_front(1);
    list1.push_front(3);
    list1.push_front(5);
    list1.push_back(2);
    list1.push_back(6);

    //显示list1容器的元素值和累加结果
    cout << "list1: "<<endl;
    for (iL=list1.begin();iL !=list1.end();++iL) 
        cout<<(*iL)<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
    cout<<"accumulate(list1.begin(),list1.end(),0)=";
    cout<<accumulate(list1.begin(),list1.end(),0)<<endl;
//--------------------------------------------
//	accumulate算法对于set容器的计算
//---------------------------------------------
    //声明set容器对象和迭代器
    SET_INT set1;
    SET_INT::iterator si;

    //向set1容器中插入元素
    set1.insert(5);
    set1.insert(20);
    set1.insert(10);
    set1.insert(15);
    set1.insert(25);

    //显示set1容器的元素值和累加结果
    cout <<"set1: "<<endl;
    for (si=set1.begin();si !=set1.end();++si) 
        cout<<(*si)<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
    cout<<"accumulate(set1.begin(),set1.end(),0)=";
    cout<<accumulate(set1.begin(),set1.end(),0)<<endl;
    cout<<"accumulate(set1.begin(),set1.end(),100)=";
    cout<<accumulate(set1.begin(),set1.end(),100)<<endl;
}
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>
#include <list>
#include <set>
#define size 10
using namespace std;

//产生指定范围的整数随机数
int getrand(int min,int max) {
    int m;
    m=(max-min);
    m=min+double(rand())/RAND_MAX*m ;
    return m;
}

//利用类模板生成实例
typedef vector < int > IntArray;
typedef list <int> LISTINT;
typedef set<int> SET_INT;

//在main()函数中测试accumulate算法
void main ()
{
//--------------------------------------------
//	count算法对于普通数组的计算
//---------------------------------------------
    int x[size];

    cout<<"x[]:";
    for (int i=0;i<size;i++) {
		x[i]=getrand(1,3);
        cout<<x[i]<<" ";
	}
    cout<<endl;
    cout<<"count(x,x+size,2)=";
    cout<<count(x,x+size,2)<<endl;
    cout<<"count(x+2,x+8,2)=";
    cout<<count(x+2,x+8,2)<<endl;
//--------------------------------------------
//	count算法对于vector容器的计算
//---------------------------------------------
    //声明intvector容器和迭代器ii
    IntArray intvector;
    IntArray::iterator ii;

    //向intvector容器中插入元素
    for (i=1; i<size; i++) {
        intvector.push_back(getrand(2,6));
    };
    //显示intvector容器中的元素值和统计结果
    cout << "intvector: ";
    for (ii=intvector.begin();ii !=intvector.end();++ii) 
        cout<<(*ii)<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
    cout<<"count(intvector.begin(),intvector.end(),4)=";
    cout<<count(intvector.begin(),intvector.end(),4)<<endl;
//--------------------------------------------
//	count算法对于list容器的计算
//---------------------------------------------
    //声明list容器对象和迭代器
    LISTINT::iterator iL;	
    LISTINT list1; 

    //向list1容器对象中插入元素并显示
    for (i=1; i<size; i++) {
            list1.push_front(getrand(3,5));
    };

    //显示list1容器的元素值和统计结果
    cout << "list1: ";
    for (iL=list1.begin();iL !=list1.end();++iL) 
        cout<<(*iL)<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
    cout<<"count(list1.begin(),list1.end(),3)=";
    cout<<count(list1.begin(),list1.end(),3)<<endl;
//--------------------------------------------
//	count算法对于set容器的计算
//---------------------------------------------
    //声明set容器对象和迭代器
    SET_INT set1;
    SET_INT::iterator si;

    //向set1容器中插入元素
    for (i=1; i<size; i++) {
      set1.insert(getrand(1,10));
    };

    //显示set1容器的元素值和统计结果
    cout <<"set1: ";
    for (si=set1.begin();si !=set1.end();++si) 
        cout<<(*si)<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
    cout<<"count(set1.begin(),set1.end(),5)=";
    cout<<count(set1.begin(),set1.end(),5)<<endl;
}
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
#include <string>
#include <vector>

using namespace std;

//如果字符串以'S'开头,则返回true
int MatchFirstChar( const string& str)
{
    string s("S") ;
    return s == str.substr(0,1) ;
}

//测试count_if算法
void main()
{
    const int VECTOR_SIZE = 8 ;

    //生成成员类型为strings的vector容器类
    typedef vector<string > StringVector ;

    //定义迭代器类型
    typedef StringVector::iterator StringVectorIt ;

    //声明vector容器的对象
    StringVector NamesVect(VECTOR_SIZE) ;   

    //声明迭代器
    StringVectorIt start, end, it ;

    int result = 0 ;   // 存放统计数据

    //初始化vector容器NamesVect
    NamesVect[0] = "She" ;
    NamesVect[1] = "Sells" ;
    NamesVect[2] = "Sea" ;
    NamesVect[3] = "Shells" ;
    NamesVect[4] = "by" ;
    NamesVect[5] = "the" ;
    NamesVect[6] = "Sea" ;
    NamesVect[7] = "Shore" ;

    //设置容器的起始位置和终止位置
    start = NamesVect.begin() ;   
    end = NamesVect.end() ; 

    //显示NamesVect容器的元素
    cout << "NamesVect: " ;
    for(it = start; it != end; it++)
        cout << *it << " " ;
    cout <<endl ;

    //统计并显示NamesVect容器的所有元素中以'S'字符开头的字符串
    result = count_if(start, end, MatchFirstChar) ;
    cout << "Number of elements that start with letter \"S\" = "
        << result << endl  ;

    //显示NamesVect容器[1,6]之间的元素
    cout <<"NamesVect[1]--NamesVect[6]: " ;
    for(it =&NamesVect[1]; it != &NamesVect[7]; it++)
        cout << *it << " " ;
    cout <<endl ;

    //统计并显示NamesVect容器的所有元素中以'S'字符开头的字符串
    result = count_if(&NamesVect[1], &NamesVect[7], MatchFirstChar) ;
    cout << "Number of elements that start with letter \"S\" = "
        << result << endl  ;
}
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>

using namespace std;
//利用类模板生成实例
typedef vector < int > IntArray;

//显示数组
void put_array(int x[],int size) {
     for(int i=0;i<size;i++)
        cout<<x[i]<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
}
//显示vector容器中的元素
void put_vector(IntArray v)
{
    IntArray::iterator theIterator;

    for (theIterator=v.begin();theIterator!=v.end();++theIterator){
        cout<<(*theIterator)<<" ";
    }
    cout<<endl;
}

//在main()函数中测试fill和fill_n算法
void main ()
{
//--------------------------------------------
//	fill和fill_n算法对普通数组的计算
//---------------------------------------------
    int x[]={1,3,5,7,9};
    cout << "x[]: ";
    put_array(x,5);
    //填数处理
    fill(x+1,x+3,2);
    cout << "fill(x+1,x+3,2): "<<endl;
    put_array(x,5);
	fill_n(x,3,8);
    cout << "fill_n(x,3,8): "<<endl;
    put_array(x,5);
//--------------------------------------------
//	fill和fill_n算法对于vector容器的计算
//---------------------------------------------
    //声明intvector容器和迭代器ii
    IntArray intvector;

    //向intvector容器中插入元素
    for (int i=1; i<=10; i++) {
        intvector.push_back(i);
    };
    //显示intvector容器中的元素值和统计结果
    cout << "intvector: "<<endl;
    put_vector(intvector);
    //填数处理
    fill(intvector.begin(),intvector.begin()+3,2);
    cout << "fill(intvector.begin(),intvector.begin()+3,2): "<<endl;
    put_vector(intvector);
    fill_n(&intvector[5],3,8);
    cout << "fill_n(&intvector[5],3,8): "<<endl;
    put_vector(intvector);
}
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>
#define ARRAY_SIZE 10
using namespace std;

//利用类模板生成实例
typedef vector < int > IntArray;

//显示数组
void put_array(int x[],int size) {
    for(int i=0;i<size;i++)
        cout<<x[i]<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
}

//显示vector容器中的元素
void put_vector(IntArray v)
{
    IntArray::iterator theIterator;

    for (theIterator=v.begin();theIterator!=v.end();++theIterator){
        cout<<(*theIterator)<<" ";
    }
    cout<<endl;
}

//在main()函数中测试find()算法
void main ()
{
	int i,value,*p;
//--------------------------------------------
//	find()算法对于普通数组的处理
//---------------------------------------------
    int x[ARRAY_SIZE]={1,3,5,7,9,2,4,6,8,10};
    cout << "x[]: ";
    put_array(x,ARRAY_SIZE);

    //find()算法查找,并显示查找结果
	for(i=0;i<=2;i++) {
       cout<<"value=";
	   cin>>value;
       p=find(x,x+ARRAY_SIZE,value);

       if (p != x + ARRAY_SIZE)  {  //查到
          cout << "First element that matches " << value;
          cout<< " is at location " << p - x<< endl;
	   }
       else  {           //未查到                      
         cout << "The sequence does not contain any elements";
         cout<< " with value " << value << endl ;
	   }

	}
//--------------------------------------------
//	find()算法对于vector容器的处理
//---------------------------------------------
    //声明intvector容器对象
    IntArray intvector;

    //向intvector容器中插入元素
    for (i=1; i<=10; i++) {
        intvector.push_back(i);
    };

    //显示intvector容器中的元素值
    cout << "intvector: ";
    put_vector(intvector);

    //find()算法查找,并显示查找结果
    IntArray::iterator pos;

    for (i=0;i<=2;i++) {
		cout<<"value=";
		cin>>value;
        pos=find(intvector.begin(),intvector.end(),value);
        if (pos != intvector.end())  {  //查到
           cout << "First element that matches " << value;
           cout<< " is at location " <<pos - intvector.begin()<< endl;
		}
        else  {           //未查到                      
           cout << "The sequence does not contain any elements";
           cout<< " with value " << value << endl ;
		}
	}
}
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>
#define ARRAY_SIZE 10
using namespace std;

//利用类模板生成实例
typedef vector < int > IntArray;

//显示数组
void put_array(int x[],int size) {
    for(int i=0;i<size;i++)
        cout<<x[i]<<" ";
}

//显示vector容器中的元素
void put_vector(IntArray v)
{
    IntArray::iterator theIterator;

    for (theIterator=v.begin();theIterator!=v.end();++theIterator){
        cout<<(*theIterator)<<" ";
    }
}

//在main()函数中测试find()_end()算法
void main ()
{
//--------------------------------------------
//	find_end()算法对普通数组的处理
//---------------------------------------------
    int x[ARRAY_SIZE]={1,3,5,7,9,2,4,6,8,10};
    cout << "x[]: ";
    put_array(x,ARRAY_SIZE);
    cout<<endl;
    int y[]={5,7,9};
    cout << "y[]: ";
    put_array(y,3);
    cout<<endl;

    // find_end()算法查找,并显示查找结果
    int *p=find_end(x,x+ARRAY_SIZE,&y[0],&y[2]);
    if (p != x + ARRAY_SIZE)  {  //查到
        cout << "The first element that matches :" ;
        put_array(y,3);
        cout<< " is at location in x" << p - x<< endl;
    }
    else  {           //未查到                      
         cout << "The sequence does not contain any elements";
         cout<< " with value " ;
         put_array(&x[3],3);
    }

//--------------------------------------------
//	find_end()算法对vector容器的处理
//---------------------------------------------
   //声明intvector容器对象
    IntArray intvector;

    //向intvector容器中插入元素
    for (int i=1; i<=10; i++) {
        intvector.push_back(i);
    };

    //显示intvector容器中的元素值
    cout << "intvector: ";
    put_vector(intvector);
    cout<<endl;

    IntArray temp;
    temp.push_back(5);
    temp.push_back(6);
    temp.push_back(7);
    cout << "temp: ";
    put_vector(temp);
    cout<<endl;

    // find_end()算法查找,并显示查找结果
    IntArray::iterator pos;
    pos=find_end(intvector.begin(),intvector.end(),temp.begin(),temp.end());

    if (pos != intvector.end())  {  //查到
        cout << "The first element that matches ";
        put_vector(temp);
        cout<< " is at location in intvector " <<pos - intvector.begin()<< endl;
    }
    else  {           //未查到                      
         cout << "The sequence does not contain any elements";
         cout<< " with value ";
        put_vector(temp);
        cout<< endl ;
    }
}
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
#include <algorithm>

using namespace std;

//返回一个Fibonacci数,其由generate_n()算法调用
int Fibonacci1(void)
{
    static int r;
    static int f1 = 0;
    static int f2 = 1;
    r = f1 + f2 ;
    f1 = f2 ;
    f2 = r ;
    return f1 ;
}
//返回一个Fibonacci数,其由generate()算法调用
int Fibonacci2(void)
{
    static int r;
    static int f1 = 0;
    static int f2 = 1;
    r = f1 + f2 ;
    f1 = f2 ;
    f2 = r ;
    return f1 ;
}
//定义整型数的vector容器类
    typedef vector<int > IntVector ;

//显示vector容器中的元素
void put_vector(IntVector v,char *name)
{
    IntVector::iterator theIterator;
    cout<<name<<":"<<endl;
    for (theIterator=v.begin();theIterator!=v.end();++theIterator){
        cout<<(*theIterator)<<" ";
    }
    cout<<endl;
}

//测试generate()和generate_n()算法
void main()
{
    const int VECTOR_SIZE = 15 ;

    //定义迭代器类
    typedef IntVector::iterator IntVectorIt ;

    //声明vector容器对象
    IntVector Numbers1(VECTOR_SIZE),Numbers2(VECTOR_SIZE);
    int i ;

    //初始化vector容器对象
    for(i = 0; i < VECTOR_SIZE; i++)
        Numbers1[i] = i ;
	
    //显示vector容器对象的元素
    cout << "Before calling generate_n:" << endl ;
    put_vector(Numbers1,"Numbers1");

    //利用generate_n算法用Fibonacci 数填充vector容器
    generate_n(Numbers1.begin(), VECTOR_SIZE, Fibonacci1) ;

    //显示vector容器对象的元素
    cout << "After calling generate_n:" << endl ;
    put_vector(Numbers1,"Numbers1");

    //利用generate算法用Fibonacci 数填充vector容器
    generate(Numbers2.begin(),Numbers2.end(), Fibonacci2) ;

    //显示vector容器对象的元素
    cout << "After calling generate:" << endl ;
    put_vector(Numbers2,"Numbers2");
}
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>

using namespace std;

//利用类模板生成实例
typedef vector < int > IntArray;

//显示数组
void put_array(int x[],int size) {
    for(int i=0;i<size;i++)
        cout<<x[i]<<" ";
	cout<<endl;
}

//显示vector容器中的元素
void put_vector(IntArray v)
{
    IntArray::iterator theIterator;

    for (theIterator=v.begin();theIterator!=v.end();++theIterator){
        cout<<(*theIterator)<<" ";
    }
	cout<<endl;
}

//在main()函数中测试reverse()和reverse_copy()算法
void main ()
{
//--------------------------------------------
//	reverse()和reverse_copy()算法对普通数组处理
//---------------------------------------------
    int x[]={1,3,5,7,9};
    cout<<"x[]:";
    put_array(x,5);

	//reverse()反转x数组并显示
    reverse(x,x+5);
    cout<<"x[]:";
    put_array(x,5);

    int y[]={2,4,6,8,10};
    cout<<"y[]:";
    put_array(y,5);

	//reverse_copy()反转y数组的部分元素并拷贝到x数组第2个元素位置
    reverse_copy(y+1,y+3,x+1);
    cout<<"x[]:";
    put_array(x,5);
    cout<<"y[]:";
    put_array(y,5);
//--------------------------------------------
//	reverse()和reverse_copy()算法对vector容器的处理
//---------------------------------------------
    //声明intvector容器和迭代器ii
    IntArray intvector;

    //向intvector容器中插入元素
    for (int i=1; i<=10; i++) {
        intvector.push_back(i);
    };

    //显示intvector容器中的元素值
    cout << "intvector: "<<endl;
    put_vector(intvector);

	//reverse()对于vector容器的处理
    reverse(intvector.begin(),intvector.end());
    cout << "intvector: "<<endl;
    put_vector(intvector);

    // reverse_copy对于vector容器的处理
    IntArray temp(5);
    reverse_copy(intvector.begin()+2,intvector.begin()+7,temp.begin());
    cout << "temp: "<<endl;
    put_vector(temp);
}
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>
#include <stdlib.h>
#define ARRAY_SIZE 15
using namespace std;

//定义整型数的vector容器类
typedef vector<int > IntVector ;

//显示数组
void put_array(int x[],int size) {
    for(int i=0;i<size;i++)
        cout<<x[i]<<" ";
    cout<<endl;
}

//显示vector容器中的元素
void put_vector(IntVector v,char *name)
{
    IntVector::iterator theIterator;
    cout<<name<<": ";
    for (theIterator=v.begin();theIterator!=v.end();++theIterator){
        cout<<(*theIterator)<<" ";
    }
    cout<<endl;
}

//产生指定范围的整数随机数
int getrand(int min,int max) {
    int m;
    m=(max-min);
    m=min+double(rand())/RAND_MAX*m ;
    return m;
}

//在main()函数中测试sort()和partial_sort()算法
void main ()
{
    int i;
//--------------------------------------------
//	sort()和partial_sort()算法对普通数组处理
//---------------------------------------------
    //sort()算法处理数组,并显示
    int x[ARRAY_SIZE];
    for (i=0;i<ARRAY_SIZE;i++) {
        x[i]=getrand(1,20);
    }
    cout<<"x[]:";
    put_array(x,ARRAY_SIZE);
    sort(x,x+ARRAY_SIZE);
    cout<<"sort(x,x+ARRAY_SIZE):"<<endl;
    put_array(x,ARRAY_SIZE);

    //partial_sort()算法对于数组进行处理
    int y[ARRAY_SIZE];
    for (i=0;i<ARRAY_SIZE;i++) {
		y[i]=getrand(1,30) ;
	}
    cout<<"y[]:";
    put_array(y,ARRAY_SIZE);
    partial_sort(y+2,y+7,y+ARRAY_SIZE);
    cout<<"partial_sort(y+2,y+7,y+ARRAY_SIZE):"<<endl;
    put_array(y,ARRAY_SIZE);
//--------------------------------------------
//	sort()和partial_sort()算法对vector容器的处理
//---------------------------------------------
	IntVector Numbers1,Numbers2;
    for(i=0;i<15;i++) {
        Numbers1.push_back(getrand(1,30));
        Numbers2.push_back(getrand(1,30));
	}
	put_vector(Numbers1,"Numbers1");
	put_vector(Numbers2,"Numbers2");

    //sort()算法处理并显示
    sort(Numbers1.begin(),Numbers1.end());
	cout<<"After call sort():"<<endl;
	put_vector(Numbers1,"Numbers1");

    //partial_sort()算法处理并显示
    partial_sort(Numbers2.begin()+2,Numbers2.begin()+7,Numbers2.end());
 	cout<<"After call partial_sort():"<<endl;
 	put_vector(Numbers2,"Numbers2");  
}
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <time.h>

#define ARRAY_SIZE 15
using namespace std;

//显示数组
void put_array(int x[],int size) {
    for(int i=0;i<size;i++)
        cout<<x[i]<<" ";
	cout<<endl;
}

//产生指定范围的整数随机数
int getrand(int min,int max) {
	int m;
	m=(max-min);
    m=min+double(rand())/RAND_MAX*m ;
	return m;
}
//在main()函数中测试max_element()和 min_element()算法
void main ()
{
    //声明变量和数组
    int i;
    int x[ARRAY_SIZE];

    //用1到100的随机数初始化数组,并显示
    srand( (unsigned)time( NULL ) );
    for (i=0;i<ARRAY_SIZE;i++) {
        x[i]=getrand(1,100);
    }
    cout<<"x[]:";
    put_array(x,ARRAY_SIZE);

    //对数组x使用max_element()算法,并显示
    int *pMax=max_element(x,x+ARRAY_SIZE);
    cout<<"pMax    ="<<pMax<<endl;
    cout<<"Location="<<(pMax-x)<<endl;
    cout<<"*pMax   ="<<(*pMax)<<endl;

    //对数组x使用min_element()算法,并显示
    int *pMin=min_element(x,x+ARRAY_SIZE);
    cout<<"pMin    ="<<pMin<<endl;
    cout<<"Location="<<(pMin-x)<<endl;
    cout<<"*pMin   ="<<(*pMin)<<endl;
}


 

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