springboot研究十:springboot多数据源整合seata-AT模式

目录

配置seata

搭建工程 

运行结果 

 原理简介

 总结


seata是阿里推出的分布式事务解决方案,今天我来分享一下springboot多数据源怎么整合seata解决分布式事务的问题。它有3中模式:AT模式,TCC模式和Saga模式,本文主要介绍一下AT模式。

首先说一下本文使用的实验环境
springboot:2.1.6.RELEASE
orm框架:mybatis
数据库:mysql
数据库连接池:HikariCP
seata server:1.3.0

配置seata

首先下载seata server安装包,本文使用版本是1.3.0,下载地址如下:

https://github.com/seata/seata/releases

下载完成后,解压后在seata目录下建一个目录logs,在里面建一个文件seata_gc.log,如果不创建这个log文件,启动会报找不到文件的错误。
启动server,我本地使用windows环境的启动命令如下:

seata-server.bat -p 8091 -h 127.0.0.1 -m file

 关于启动命令的说明,我摘自官网(http://seata.io/en-us/docs/user/quickstart.html)

Usage: sh seata-server.sh(for linux and mac) or cmd seata-server.bat(for windows) [options]
  Options:
    --host, -h
      The host to bind.
      Default: 0.0.0.0
    --port, -p
      The port to listen.
      Default: 8091
    --storeMode, -m
      log store mode : file、db
      Default: file
    --help

e.g.

sh seata-server.sh -p 8091 -h 127.0.0.1 -m file

 下面是启动成功后的日志:

00:21:10,892 |-INFO in ch.qos.logback.core.rolling.RollingFileAppender[ERROR] - Active log file name: /root/logs/seata/txc.8091.error.log
00:21:10,892 |-INFO in ch.qos.logback.core.rolling.RollingFileAppender[ERROR] - File property is set to [/root/logs/seata/txc.8091.error.log]
00:21:10,892 |-INFO in ch.qos.logback.classic.joran.action.RootLoggerAction - Setting level of ROOT logger to INFO
00:21:10,892 |-INFO in ch.qos.logback.core.joran.action.AppenderRefAction - Attaching appender named [ALL] to Logger[ROOT]
00:21:10,893 |-INFO in ch.qos.logback.core.joran.action.AppenderRefAction - Attaching appender named [WARN] to Logger[ROOT]
00:21:10,893 |-INFO in ch.qos.logback.core.joran.action.AppenderRefAction - Attaching appender named [ERROR] to Logger[ROOT]
00:21:10,893 |-INFO in ch.qos.logback.core.joran.action.AppenderRefAction - Attaching appender named [CONSOLE] to Logger[ROOT]
00:21:10,893 |-INFO in ch.qos.logback.classic.joran.action.ConfigurationAction - End of configuration.
00:21:10,894 |-INFO in ch.qos.logback.classic.joran.JoranConfigurator@2038ae61 - Registering current configuration as safe fallback point

2020-08-06 00:21:11.194  INFO --- [           main] io.seata.config.FileConfiguration        : The configuration file used is registry.conf
2020-08-06 00:21:11.264  INFO --- [           main] io.seata.config.FileConfiguration        : The configuration file used is file.conf
2020-08-06 00:21:11.959  INFO --- [           main] i.s.core.rpc.netty.NettyServerBootstrap  : Server started, listen port: 8091

搭建工程 

连接seata server的方式有多种,这儿我们采用文件的方式:

registry {
  # file 、nacos 、eureka、redis、zk、consul、etcd3、sofa
  type = "file"
  file {
    name = "file.conf"
  }
}

关于springboot多数据源的配置,如果你还不太熟悉,看一下我写的这篇文章《springboot研究三:springboot多数据源配置+mybatis+mysql》,本文不再介绍。
本文的示例来自seata官方示例,我做了修改,需要3个数据库:seata_pay、seata_order和seata_storage,每个数据库都有一张undo_log表记录回滚日志。sql语句如下:

# Order
DROP DATABASE IF EXISTS seata_order;
CREATE DATABASE seata_order;
CREATE TABLE seata_order.orders
(
    id               INT(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
    user_id          INT(11)        DEFAULT NULL,
    product_id       INT(11)        DEFAULT NULL,
    pay_amount       DECIMAL(10, 0) DEFAULT NULL,
    status           VARCHAR(100)   DEFAULT NULL,
    add_time         DATETIME       DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
    last_update_time DATETIME       DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
    PRIMARY KEY (id)
) ENGINE = InnoDB
  AUTO_INCREMENT = 1
  DEFAULT CHARSET = utf8;
CREATE TABLE seata_order.undo_log
(
    id            BIGINT(20)   NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
    branch_id     BIGINT(20)   NOT NULL,
    xid           VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL,
    context       VARCHAR(128) NOT NULL,
    rollback_info LONGBLOB     NOT NULL,
    log_status    INT(11)      NOT NULL,
    log_created   DATETIME     NOT NULL,
    log_modified  DATETIME     NOT NULL,
    PRIMARY KEY (id),
    UNIQUE KEY ux_undo_log (xid, branch_id)
) ENGINE = InnoDB
  AUTO_INCREMENT = 1
  DEFAULT CHARSET = utf8
;
# Storage
DROP DATABASE IF EXISTS seata_storage;
CREATE DATABASE seata_storage;
CREATE TABLE seata_storage.product
(
    id               INT(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
    price            DOUBLE   DEFAULT NULL,
    stock            INT(11)  DEFAULT NULL,
    last_update_time DATETIME DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
    PRIMARY KEY (id)
) ENGINE = InnoDB
  AUTO_INCREMENT = 1
  DEFAULT CHARSET = utf8;
INSERT INTO seata_storage.product (id, price, stock) VALUES (1, 5, 10);
CREATE TABLE seata_storage.undo_log
(
    id            BIGINT(20)   NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
    branch_id     BIGINT(20)   NOT NULL,
    xid           VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL,
    context       VARCHAR(128) NOT NULL,
    rollback_info LONGBLOB     NOT NULL,
    log_status    INT(11)      NOT NULL,
    log_created   DATETIME     NOT NULL,
    log_modified  DATETIME     NOT NULL,
    PRIMARY KEY (id),
    UNIQUE KEY ux_undo_log (xid, branch_id)
) ENGINE = InnoDB
  AUTO_INCREMENT = 1
  DEFAULT CHARSET = utf8;

# Pay
DROP DATABASE IF EXISTS seata_pay;
CREATE DATABASE seata_pay;
CREATE TABLE seata_pay.account
(
    id               INT(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
    balance          DOUBLE   DEFAULT NULL,
    last_update_time DATETIME DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
    PRIMARY KEY (id)
) ENGINE = InnoDB
  AUTO_INCREMENT = 1
  DEFAULT CHARSET = utf8;
CREATE TABLE seata_pay.undo_log
(
    id            BIGINT(20)   NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
    branch_id     BIGINT(20)   NOT NULL,
    xid           VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL,
    context       VARCHAR(128) NOT NULL,
    rollback_info LONGBLOB     NOT NULL,
    log_status    INT(11)      NOT NULL,
    log_created   DATETIME     NOT NULL,
    log_modified  DATETIME     NOT NULL,
    PRIMARY KEY (id),
    UNIQUE KEY ux_undo_log (xid, branch_id)
) ENGINE = InnoDB
  AUTO_INCREMENT = 1
  DEFAULT CHARSET = utf8;
INSERT INTO seata_pay.account (id, balance) VALUES (1, 1);

SELECT auto_increment
FROM information_schema.TABLES
WHERE TABLE_SCHEMA = 'seata_order'
  AND TABLE_NAME = 'undo_log'

整个springboot的目录如下

 这里用的是动态数据源,跟我之前文章讲的mybatis多数据源配置不同,这里我主要讲一下这一块

首先看一下mybatis config文件mybatis.xml,所有数据库的xml映射文件都写入一个xml里面,代码如下:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<!DOCTYPE configuration
        PUBLIC "-//mybatis.org//DTD Config 3.0//EN"
        "http://mybatis.org/dtd/mybatis-3-config.dtd">
<configuration>

	<settings>
		<setting name="cacheEnabled" value="false" />
		<setting name="logImpl" value="SLF4J" />
		<setting name="jdbcTypeForNull" value="NULL"/>
	</settings>

	<typeAliases>
		<typeAlias alias="User" type="boot.domain.order.Order" />
		<typeAlias alias="Employee" type="boot.domain.order.OrderStatus" />
	</typeAliases>

	<mappers>
		<!--order库-->
		<mapper resource="mybatis/ordermapper/OrderMapper.xml" />
		<!--account库-->
		<mapper resource="mybatis/paymapper/AccountMapper.xml" />
		<!--storage库-->
		<mapper resource="mybatis/storagemapper/ProductMapper.xml" />
	</mappers>
</configuration>

再看一下application.properties中数据源的配置,这儿我们创建了3个数据库,所以需要配置3个数据源:

spring.application.name=springboot-seata
######seata_pay#############
datasource.pay.jdbc-url=jdbc:mysql://192.168.59.1:3306/seata_pay?useAffectedRows=true&serverTimezone=UTC&characterEncoding=utf-8
datasource.pay.username=root
datasource.pay.password=123456
datasource.pay.driver-class-name=com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver

######seata_storage#############
datasource.storage.jdbc-url=jdbc:mysql://192.168.59.1:3306/seata_storage?useAffectedRows=true&serverTimezone=UTC&characterEncoding=utf-8
datasource.storage.username=root
datasource.storage.password=123456
datasource.storage.driver-class-name=com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver

######seata_order#############
datasource.order.jdbc-url=jdbc:mysql://192.168.59.1:3306/seata_order?useAffectedRows=true&serverTimezone=UTC&characterEncoding=utf-8
datasource.order.username=root
datasource.order.password=123456
datasource.order.driver-class-name=com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver

spring.cloud.alibaba.seata.tx-service-group=springboot-seata

mybatis动态数据源配置类如下:

@Configuration
@MapperScan(basePackages={"boot.mapper"}, sqlSessionFactoryRef = "sqlSessionFactoryBean")
public class DataSourceProxyConfig {

    @Bean("originOrder")
    @ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "datasource.order")
    public DataSource dataSourceMaster() {
        return DataSourceBuilder.create().build();
    }

    @Bean("originStorage")
    @ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "datasource.storage")
    public DataSource dataSourceStorage() {
        return DataSourceBuilder.create().build();
    }

    @Bean("originPay")
    @ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "datasource.pay")
    public DataSource dataSourcePay() {
        return DataSourceBuilder.create().build();
    }

    @Bean(name = "order")
    public DataSourceProxy masterDataSourceProxy(@Qualifier("originOrder") DataSource dataSource) {
        return new DataSourceProxy(dataSource);
    }

    @Bean(name = "storage")
    public DataSourceProxy storageDataSourceProxy(@Qualifier("originStorage") DataSource dataSource) {
        return new DataSourceProxy(dataSource);
    }

    @Bean(name = "pay")
    public DataSourceProxy payDataSourceProxy(@Qualifier("originPay") DataSource dataSource) {
        return new DataSourceProxy(dataSource);
    }

    @Bean("dynamicDataSource")
    public DataSource dynamicDataSource(@Qualifier("order") DataSource dataSourceOrder,
                                        @Qualifier("storage") DataSource dataSourceStorage,
                                        @Qualifier("pay") DataSource dataSourcePay) {//这儿是动态数据源配置的关键,3个数据源放在了一个map里面

        DynamicRoutingDataSource dynamicRoutingDataSource = new DynamicRoutingDataSource();

        Map<Object, Object> dataSourceMap = new HashMap<>(3);
        dataSourceMap.put(DataSourceKey.ORDER.name(), dataSourceOrder);
        dataSourceMap.put(DataSourceKey.STORAGE.name(), dataSourceStorage);
        dataSourceMap.put(DataSourceKey.PAY.name(), dataSourcePay);

        dynamicRoutingDataSource.setDefaultTargetDataSource(dataSourceOrder);
        dynamicRoutingDataSource.setTargetDataSources(dataSourceMap);

        DynamicDataSourceContextHolder.getDataSourceKeys().addAll(dataSourceMap.keySet());

        return dynamicRoutingDataSource;
    }

    @Bean
    @ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "mybatis")
    public SqlSessionFactoryBean sqlSessionFactoryBean(@Qualifier("dynamicDataSource") DataSource dataSource) {
        SqlSessionFactoryBean sqlSessionFactoryBean = new SqlSessionFactoryBean();
        sqlSessionFactoryBean.setDataSource(dataSource);
        sqlSessionFactoryBean.setConfigLocation(new PathMatchingResourcePatternResolver().getResource("classpath:mybatis/mybatis.xml"));//这儿只能放一个config文件,所以3个数据源的xml文件放到了一个文件里面
        return sqlSessionFactoryBean;
    }
}

在service调用dao时,需要切换数据源,代码如下:

DynamicDataSourceContextHolder.setDataSourceKey(DataSourceKey.ORDER);//切换到seata_order数据库

这里面的切换本质上是将数据库名称放到一个ThreadLocal上

public class DynamicDataSourceContextHolder {

    private static final ThreadLocal<String> CONTEXT_HOLDER = ThreadLocal.withInitial(DataSourceKey.ORDER::name);

    private static List<Object> dataSourceKeys = new ArrayList<>();

    public static void setDataSourceKey(DataSourceKey key) {
        CONTEXT_HOLDER.set(key.name());
    }

    public static String getDataSourceKey() {
        return CONTEXT_HOLDER.get();
    }

    public static void clearDataSourceKey() {
        CONTEXT_HOLDER.remove();
    }

    public static List<Object> getDataSourceKeys() {
        return dataSourceKeys;
    }
}

 而ThreadLocal上面的数据库为动态数据源使用

public class DynamicRoutingDataSource extends AbstractRoutingDataSource {

    @Override
    protected Object determineCurrentLookupKey() {
        log.info("当前数据源 [{}]", DynamicDataSourceContextHolder.getDataSourceKey());
        return DynamicDataSourceContextHolder.getDataSourceKey();
    }
}

这样seata在获取连接的时候,就可以取到当前的数据库连接,因为每个库里面都有一个undo_log表需要写回滚日志,所以必须能够保证seata能够动态获取当前的数据库。

运行结果 

执行Application的main函数启动工程。
在上面的建表语句中,我们建了订单seata_order、支付seata_pay、库存seata_storage3个数据库,支付数据库中的account表插入了一条记录,余额是1,库存数据库的product表插入了1条记录,商品数量(stock)是10。
我们用postman模拟发送一个请求:

url:http://localhost:8083/order/placeOrder,content:
{
 "userId":1,
 "productId":1,
 "price":1
}

 执行成功,这时orders表插入了1条记录,account表余额减为0,product表商品数量减为9。如下3个图,

 

 

 

 

 

这是我们再发一次上面的http请求,会失败,因为账户余额不足。这次我们采用debug方式,看一下undo_log的数据。程序执行到下图中的断点时,会产生undo_log,如下图:

我们看下undo_log中字段rollback_info数据:

{
	"@class":"io.seata.rm.datasource.undo.BranchUndoLog",
	"xid":"192.168.59.132:8091:34937248742391808",
	"branchId":34937257391046656,
	"sqlUndoLogs":[
		"java.util.ArrayList",
		[
			{
				"@class":"io.seata.rm.datasource.undo.SQLUndoLog",
				"sqlType":"INSERT",
				"tableName":"orders",
				"beforeImage":{
					"@class":"io.seata.rm.datasource.sql.struct.TableRecords$EmptyTableRecords",
					"tableName":"orders",
					"rows":[
						"java.util.ArrayList",
						[
							
						]
					]
				},
				"afterImage":{
					"@class":"io.seata.rm.datasource.sql.struct.TableRecords",
					"tableName":"orders",
					"rows":[
						"java.util.ArrayList",
						[
							{
								"@class":"io.seata.rm.datasource.sql.struct.Row",
								"fields":[
									"java.util.ArrayList",
									[
										{
											"@class":"io.seata.rm.datasource.sql.struct.Field",
											"name":"id",
											"keyType":"PRIMARY_KEY",
											"type":4,
											"value":2
										},
										{
											"@class":"io.seata.rm.datasource.sql.struct.Field",
											"name":"user_id",
											"keyType":"NULL",
											"type":4,
											"value":1
										},
										{
											"@class":"io.seata.rm.datasource.sql.struct.Field",
											"name":"product_id",
											"keyType":"NULL",
											"type":4,
											"value":1
										},
										{
											"@class":"io.seata.rm.datasource.sql.struct.Field",
											"name":"pay_amount",
											"keyType":"NULL",
											"type":3,
											"value":[
												"java.math.BigDecimal",
												1
											]
										},
										{
											"@class":"io.seata.rm.datasource.sql.struct.Field",
											"name":"status",
											"keyType":"NULL",
											"type":12,
											"value":"INIT"
										},
										{
											"@class":"io.seata.rm.datasource.sql.struct.Field",
											"name":"add_time",
											"keyType":"NULL",
											"type":93,
											"value":[
												"java.sql.Timestamp",
												[
													1596793692000,
													0
												]
											]
										},
										{
											"@class":"io.seata.rm.datasource.sql.struct.Field",
											"name":"last_update_time",
											"keyType":"NULL",
											"type":93,
											"value":[
												"java.sql.Timestamp",
												[
													1596793692000,
													0
												]
											]
										}
									]
								]
							}
						]
					]
				}
			}
		]
	]
}

可以看到undo_log记录了要回滚的表中的每个字段的值,比如id=2,回滚时使用。
这时我们看seata server的日志,如下:

2020-08-06 21:49:08.740  INFO --- [Thread_1_12_500] io.seata.server.coordinator.DefaultCore  : Rollback global transaction successfully, xid = 192.168.59.132:8091:34937248742391808.

 原理简介

其实分布式事务的原理还是使用了单数据库的事务原理,我们可以把分布式事务中每个数据库看做是单数据库的表。首先每个事务有一个全局的事务id,叫做xid,上面的第二个例子中值是192.168.59.132:8091:34937248742391808。
有了这个xid后,我们就可以记录undo_log了,undo_log中记录了这个xid的,每次提交事务前都要先写undo_log,后提交事务,这时你一定恍然大悟,这不就是mysql中的wal机制吗?
而rollback_info字段记录了要回滚的表的记录中的每个字段和对应值,这样就方便的回滚了。这时你肯定又恍然大悟,与其说是回滚,难道这不就是交易补偿啊?
理解了这个,在理解seata官方的解释就容易多了,如下图:

seata中有3个角色,TC其实就是seata server,RM是单个数据库的事务管理器,TM是定义开启和提交回滚全局事务的组件。官方定义如下:

Transaction Coordinator(TC): Maintain status of global and branch transactions, drive the global commit or rollback.
Transaction Manager(TM): Define the scope of global transaction: begin a global transaction, commit or rollback a global transaction.
Resource Manager(RM): Manage resources that branch transactions working on, talk to TC for registering branch transactions and reporting status of branch transactions, and drive the branch transaction commit or rollback.

 总结

本文主要介绍了springboot多数据源整合seata的使用,也简单介绍了一些原理。seata对分布式事务的管理思想其实还是单个数据库事务的思想。后面有时间再详细介绍seata的原理。 

 

源代码地址:

https://github.com/jinjunzhu/springboot-seata.git

参考:

http://seata.io/en-us/docs/user/quickstart.html
https://github.com/seata/seata
https://github.com/seata/seata-samples

 

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