Elasticsearch 基本查询(Query查询)

基本查询(Query查询)

数据准备及简单查询
# 首先做一个数据准备,创建一个索引
PUT /lib3
{
    "settings": {
        "number_of_shards": 3,
        "number_of_replicas": 0
    },
    "mappings": {
        "user": {
            "properties": {
                "name": {"type": "text"},
                "address": {"type": "text"},
                "age": {"type": "integer"},
                "interests": {"type": "text"},
                "birthday": {"type": "date"}
            }
        }
    }
}

# 添加一些文档
PUT /lib3/user/1
{
    "name": "zhaoliu",
    "address": "hei long jiang sheng tie ling shi",
    "age": 50,
    "birthday": "1970-12-12",
    "interests": "xi huan hejiu, duanlian,lvyou"
}

PUT /lib3/user/2
{
    "name": "zhaoming",
    "address": "bei jing hai dian qu qing he zhen",
    "age": 20,
    "birthday": "1998-10-12",
    "interests": "xi huan hejiu, duanlian,changge"
}

PUT /lib3/user/3
{
    "name": "lisi",
    "address": "bei jing hai dian qu qing he zhen",
    "age": 23,
    "birthday": "1998-10-12",
    "interests": "xi huan hejiu, duanlian,changge"
}

PUT /lib3/user/4
{
    "name": "wangwu",
    "address": "bei jing hai dian qu qing he zhen",
    "age": 26,
    "birthday": "1995-10-12",
    "interests": "xi huan biancheng, tingyinyue,lvyou"
}

PUT /lib3/user/5
{
    "name": "zhangsan",
    "address": "bei jing chao yang qu",
    "age": 29,
    "birthday": "1988-10-12",
    "interests": "xi huan tingyinyue,changge,tiaowu"
}

# 简单查询
GET /lib3/user/_search?q=name:lisi
# 返回结果
{
    "took": 9,  			# took:当前搜索所用时间
    "time_out": false, 		# time_out:是否超时
    "_shards": {  			# shards:分片信息
        "total": 3,  		# 总分片数
        "successful": 3, 	# 请求**成功**的分片数
        "skipped": 0, 		# 请求**跳过**的分片数
        "failed": 0 		# 请求**失败**的分片数
    },
    "hits": {
        "total": 1,  		# 查询出的文档数
        "max_score": 0.6931472, # 相关度分数(即查出的文档和搜索条件的匹配度,完全匹配为最大值1"hits": [
            {
                "_index": "lib3",
                "_type": "user",
                "_id": "3",
                "_score": 0.6931472,
                "_source": {
                    "name": "lisi",
                    "address": "bei jing hai dian qu qing he zhen",
                    "age": 23,
                    "birthday": "1998-10-12",
                    "interests": "xi huan he jiu, duan lian,chang ge"
                }
            }
        ]
    }
}

# 简单查询
# 查询兴趣是changge的人,并对age进行降序排列
GET /lib3/user/_search?q=interests:changge&sort=age:desc
# 返回结果
{
    "took": 17,
    "time_out": false,
    "_shards": {
        "total": 3,
        "successful": 3,
        "skipped": 0,
        "failed": 0
    },
    "hits": {
        "total": 3,
        "max_score": null,
        "hits": [
            {
                "_index": "lib3",
                "_type": "user",
                "_id": "5",
                "_score": null,
                "_source": {
                    "name": "zhangsan",
                    "address": "bei jing chao yang qu",
                    "age": 29,
                    "birthday": "1988-10-12",
                    "interests": "xi huan tingyinyue,changge,tiaowu"
                },
                "sort": [
                    29
                ]
            },
            {
                "_index": "lib3",
                "_type": "user",
                "_id": "5",
                "_score": null,
                "_source": {
                    "name": "lisi",
                    "address": "bei jing hai dian qu qing he zhen",
                    "age": 23,
                    "birthday": "1998-10-12",
                    "interests": "xi huan hejiu,duanlian,cahngge"
                },
                "sort": [
                    23
                ]
            },
            {
                "_index": "lib3",
                "_type": "user",
                "_id": "5",
                "_score": null,
                "_source": {
                    "name": "zhaoming",
                    "address": "bei jing hai dian qu qing he zhen",
                    "age": 20,
                    "birthday": "1998-10-12",
                    "interests": "xi huan hejiu,duanlian,changge"
                },
                "sort": [
                    20
                ]
            }
        ]
    }
}
term查询和terms查询

term query回去倒排索引中寻找确切的term(即精准查询),它并不知道分词器的存在。这种查询适合keyword,numeric,date。

  • term:查询某个字段里含有某个关键词的文档
    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "query": {
            "term": {
                "interests": "changge"
            }
        }
    }
    
  • terms:查询某个字段里含有多个关键字的文档
    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "query": {
            "terms": {
                "interests": ["hejiu", "changge"] # 这里多个条件是或(即or)的关系
            }
        }
    }
    
控制查询返回的数量
  • from:从哪一个文档开始
  • size:需要的个数
    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
    	"from": 0,
    	"size": 2,
        "query": {
            "terms": {
                "interests": ["hejiu", "changge"]
            }
        }
    }
    
返回版本号
  • version:当设置version为true时,查询的文档中将返回版本信息,默认情况是false(即不设置的version时)
    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
    	"version": true,
        "query": {
            "terms": {
                "interests": ["hejiu", "changge"]
            }
        }
    }
    
match查询
  • match query知道分词器的存在,会对filed进行分词操作,然后在查询

    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "query": {
            "match": {
                "name": "zhaoliu"
            }
        }
    }
    # 分词的体现
    # 匹配的条件越多,相似度的值将会越高
    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "query": {
            "match": {
                "name": "zhaoliu zhaoming"
            }
        }
    }
    
    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "query": {
            "match": {
                "age": 20
            }
        }
    }
    
  • match_all:查询所有文档

    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "query": {
            "match_all": {}
        }
    }
    
  • multi_match:可以指定多个字段

    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "query": {
            "multi_match": {
                "query": "lvyou",
                "fields": [
                    "interests",
                    "name"
                ]
            }
        }
    }
    
  • match_phrase:短语匹配查询
    Elasticsearch引擎首先分析(analyze)查询字符串,从分析后的文本中构建短语查询,这意味着必须匹配短语中的所有分词,并且保证各个分词的相对位置不变;

    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "query": {
            "match_phrase": {
                "interests": "duanlian, shuoxiangsheng"
            }
        }
    }
    
指定返回的字段
  • _source:可在_source中设置想返回的字段
    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "_source": [
            "address",
            "name"
        ],
        "query": {
            "match": {
                "interests": "changge"
            }
        }
    }
    
控制加载的字段
  • includes:包含某些字段,可以使用通配符进行查询
  • excludes:排除某些字段,可以使用通配符进行查询
    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "_source": {
            "includes": ["name", "address"],
            "excludes": ["age", "birthday"]
        },
        "query": {
            "match_all": {}
        }
    }
    
    # 使用通配符查询
    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "_source": {
            "includes": ["addr*"],
            "excludes": ["name", "bir*"]
        },
        "query": {
            "match_all": {}
        }
    }
    
排序

使用sort实现排序:

  • desc降序
  • asc升序
    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "sort": [
            {
                "age": {
                    "order": "asc"
                }
            }
        ],
        "query": {
            "match_all": {}
        }
    }
    
    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "sort": [
            {
                "age": {
                    "order": "desc"
                }
            }
        ],
        "query": {
            "match_all": {}
        }
    }
    
前缀匹配查询
GET /lib3/user/_search
{
    "query": {
        "match_phrase_prefilx": {
            "name": {
                "query": "zhao"
            }
        }
    }
}
范围查询

range:实现范围查询
参数:from、to、include_lower、include_upper、boost

  • include_lower:是否包含范围的左边界,默认是true
  • include_upper:是否包含范围的右边界,默认是true
    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "query": {
            "range": {
                "birthday": {
                    "from": "1990-10-10",
                    "to": "2018-05-01"
                }
            }
        }
    }
    
    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "query": {
            "range": {
                "age": {
                    "from": 20,
                    "to": 25,
                    "include_lower": true,
                    "include_upper": false
                }
            }
        }
    }
    
wildcard查询

允许使用通配符 * 和 ? 来进行查询

  • *:代表0个或者多个字符
  • ?:代表任意一个字符
    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "query": {
            "wildcard": {
                "name": "zhao*"
            }
        }
    }
    
    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "query": {
            "wildcard": {
                "name": "li?i"
            }
        }
    }
    
fuzzy实现模糊查询
  • value:查询的关键字
  • boost:查询的权值,默认值是1.0
  • min_similarity:设置匹配的最小相似度,默认值为0.5,对于字符串,取值为0-1(包含0和1);对于数值,取值可能大于1;对于日期类型取值为1d,1m等,1d就代表1天
  • prefix_length:指明区分词项的共同前缀长度,默认是0
  • max_expansions:查询中的词项可以扩展的数目,默认可以无限大
    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "query": {
            "fuzzy": {
                "interests": "changge"
            }
        }
    }
    
    GET /lib3/user/_search
    {
        "query": {
            "fuzzy": {
                "interests": {
                    "value": "chagge" # 此处changge写成了chagge,但因为模糊查询依然可以查出结果
                }
            }
        }
    }
    
高亮搜索结果
GET /lib3/user/_search
{
    "query": {
        "match": {
            "interests": "changge"
        }
    },
    "highlight": {
        "fields": {
            "interests": {}
        }
    }
}
查询结果分析
  • took:查询耗费的时间,单位是毫秒
  • _shard:共请求了多少个shard
  • total:查询出的文档总个数
  • max_score:本次查询中,相关度分数的最大值,文档和此次查询的匹配度越高,_score的值越大,排位越考前
  • hits:默认查询前10个文档
  • time_out: 查询超时时间,设置超时时间将返回已经查询出来的数据
    GET  /lib3/user/_search?timeout=10ms
    {
        "_source": [
            "address",
            "name"
        ],
        "query": {
            "match": {
                "interests": "changge"
            }
        }
    }
    
    {
        "took": 419,
        "time_out": false,
        "_shards": {
            "total": 3,
            "successful": 3,
            "skipped": 0,
            "failed": 0
        },
        "hits": {
            "total": 3,
            "max_score": 0.6931472,
            "hits": [
                {
                    "_index": "lib3",
                    "_type": "user",
                    "_id": "3",
                    "_score": 0.6931472,
                    "_source": {
                        "address": "bei jing hai dian qu qing he zhen",
                        "name": "lisi"
                    }
                },
                {
                    "_index": "lib3",
                    "_type": "user",
                    "_id": "2",
                    "_score": 0.47000363,
                    "_source": {
                        "address": "bei jing hai dian qu qing he zhen",
                        "name": "lisi"
                    }
                }
            ]
        }
    }
    
多index、多type查询模式
# 查询所有文档,不管是哪个索引下的
GET _search

# 查询lib索引下所有文档
GET /lib/_search

# 指定lib、lib3索引下的所有文档
GET /lib,lib3/_search

# *号为通配符,查询结尾是34的索引下的所有文档
GET /*3,*4/_search
# 可以指定类型type,(6.0以后一个_index下只能有一个_type,等价于GET /lib/_search)
GET /lib/user/_search

# 指定多个索引,多个类型,(6.0以后一个_index下只能有一个_type,等价于GET /lib,lib3/_search)
GET /lib,lib3/user,items/_search

# _all表示集群下的所有索引
GET /_all/_search

# 查询所有索引下,只查询user、items类型的文档
GET /_all/user,items/_search

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