android 关于蓝牙开发

转载 2013年12月02日 10:03:18

由于近期正在开发一个通过蓝牙进行数据传递的模块,在参考了有关资料,并详细阅读了Android的官方文档后,总结了Android中蓝牙模块的使用。


1. 使用蓝牙的响应权限

    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.BLUETOOTH" />  
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.BLUETOOTH_ADMIN" />  


2. 配置本机蓝牙模块

在这里首先要了解对蓝牙操作一个核心类BluetoothAdapter

    BluetoothAdapter adapter = BluetoothAdapter.getDefaultAdapter();  
    //直接打开系统的蓝牙设置面板  
    Intent intent = new Intent(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_REQUEST_ENABLE);  
    startActivityForResult(intent, 0x1);  
    //直接打开蓝牙  
    adapter.enable();  
    //关闭蓝牙  
    adapter.disable();  
    //打开本机的蓝牙发现功能(默认打开120秒,可以将时间最多延长至300秒)  
    discoverableIntent.putExtra(BluetoothAdapter.EXTRA_DISCOVERABLE_DURATION, 300);//设置持续时间(最多300秒)Intent discoveryIntent = new Intent(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_REQUEST_DISCOVERABLE);  

3.搜索蓝牙设备

使用BluetoothAdapter的startDiscovery()方法来搜索蓝牙设备

startDiscovery()方法是一个异步方法,调用后会立即返回。该方法会进行对其他蓝牙设备的搜索,该过程会持续12秒。该方法调用后,搜索过程实际上是在一个System Service中进行的,所以可以调用cancelDiscovery()方法来停止搜索(该方法可以在未执行discovery请求时调用)。

请求Discovery后,系统开始搜索蓝牙设备,在这个过程中,系统会发送以下三个广播:

ACTION_DISCOVERY_START:开始搜索

ACTION_DISCOVERY_FINISHED:搜索结束

ACTION_FOUND:找到设备,这个Intent中包含两个extra fields:EXTRA_DEVICE和EXTRA_CLASS,分别包含BluetooDevice和BluetoothClass。

我们可以自己注册相应的BroadcastReceiver来接收响应的广播,以便实现某些功能

    // 创建一个接收ACTION_FOUND广播的BroadcastReceiver  
    private final BroadcastReceiver mReceiver = new BroadcastReceiver() {  
        public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {  
            String action = intent.getAction();  
            // 发现设备  
            if (BluetoothDevice.ACTION_FOUND.equals(action)) {  
                // 从Intent中获取设备对象  
                BluetoothDevice device = intent.getParcelableExtra(BluetoothDevice.EXTRA_DEVICE);  
                // 将设备名称和地址放入array adapter,以便在ListView中显示  
                mArrayAdapter.add(device.getName() + "\n" + device.getAddress());  
            }  
        }  
    };  
    // 注册BroadcastReceiver  
    IntentFilter filter = new IntentFilter(BluetoothDevice.ACTION_FOUND);  
    registerReceiver(mReceiver, filter); // 不要忘了之后解除绑定  

4. 蓝牙Socket通信

如果打算建议两个蓝牙设备之间的连接,则必须实现服务器端与客户端的机制。当两个设备在同一个RFCOMM channel下分别拥有一个连接的BluetoothSocket,这两个设备才可以说是建立了连接。

服务器设备与客户端设备获取BluetoothSocket的途径是不同的。服务器设备是通过accepted一个incoming connection来获取的,而客户端设备则是通过打开一个到服务器的RFCOMM channel来获取的。

 

服务器端的实现

通过调用BluetoothAdapter的listenUsingRfcommWithServiceRecord(String, UUID)方法来获取BluetoothServerSocket(UUID用于客户端与服务器端之间的配对)

调用BluetoothServerSocket的accept()方法监听连接请求,如果收到请求,则返回一个BluetoothSocket实例(此方法为block方法,应置于新线程中)

如果不想在accept其他的连接,则调用BluetoothServerSocket的close()方法释放资源(调用该方法后,之前获得的BluetoothSocket实例并没有close。但由于RFCOMM一个时刻只允许在一条channel中有一个连接,则一般在accept一个连接后,便close掉BluetoothServerSocket

private class AcceptThread extends Thread {
    private final BluetoothServerSocket mmServerSocket;

    public AcceptThread() {
        // Use a temporary object that is later assigned to mmServerSocket,
        // because mmServerSocket is final
        BluetoothServerSocket tmp = null;
        try {
            // MY_UUID is the app's UUID string, also used by the client code
            tmp = mBluetoothAdapter.listenUsingRfcommWithServiceRecord(NAME, MY_UUID);
        } catch (IOException e) { }
        mmServerSocket = tmp;
    }

    public void run() {
        BluetoothSocket socket = null;
        // Keep listening until exception occurs or a socket is returned
        while (true) {
            try {
                socket = mmServerSocket.accept();
            } catch (IOException e) {
                break;
            }
            // If a connection was accepted
            if (socket != null) {
                // Do work to manage the connection (in a separate thread)
                manageConnectedSocket(socket);
                mmServerSocket.close();
                break;
            }
        }
    }

    /** Will cancel the listening socket, and cause the thread to finish */
    public void cancel() {
        try {
            mmServerSocket.close();
        } catch (IOException e) { }
    }
}


客户端的实现

通过搜索得到服务器端的BluetoothService

调用BluetoothService的listenUsingRfcommWithServiceRecord(String, UUID)方法获取BluetoothSocket(该UUID应该同于服务器端的UUID)

调用BluetoothSocket的connect()方法(该方法为block方法),如果UUID同服务器端的UUID匹配,并且连接被服务器端accept,则connect()方法返回

注意:在调用connect()方法之前,应当确定当前没有搜索设备,否则连接会变得非常慢并且容易失败

    private class ConnectThread extends Thread {  
        private final BluetoothSocket mmSocket;  
        private final BluetoothDevice mmDevice;  
      
        public ConnectThread(BluetoothDevice device) {  
            // Use a temporary object that is later assigned to mmSocket,  
            // because mmSocket is final  
            BluetoothSocket tmp = null;  
            mmDevice = device;  
      
            // Get a BluetoothSocket to connect with the given BluetoothDevice  
            try {  
                // MY_UUID is the app's UUID string, also used by the server code  
                tmp = device.createRfcommSocketToServiceRecord(MY_UUID);  
            } catch (IOException e) { }  
            mmSocket = tmp;  
        }  
      
        public void run() {  
            // Cancel discovery because it will slow down the connection  
            mBluetoothAdapter.cancelDiscovery();  
      
            try {  
                // Connect the device through the socket. This will block  
                // until it succeeds or throws an exception  
                mmSocket.connect();  
            } catch (IOException connectException) {  
                // Unable to connect; close the socket and get out  
                try {  
                    mmSocket.close();  
                } catch (IOException closeException) { }  
                return;  
            }  
      
            // Do work to manage the connection (in a separate thread)  
            manageConnectedSocket(mmSocket);  
        }  
      
        /** Will cancel an in-progress connection, and close the socket */  
        public void cancel() {  
            try {  
                mmSocket.close();  
            } catch (IOException e) { }  
        }  
    } 


连接管理(数据通信)

分别通过BluetoothSocket的getInputStream()和getOutputStream()方法获取InputStream和OutputStream

使用read(bytes[])和write(bytes[])方法分别进行读写操作

注意:read(bytes[])方法会一直block,知道从流中读取到信息,而write(bytes[])方法并不是经常的block(比如在另一设备没有及时read或者中间缓冲区已满的情况下,write方法会block)

 private class ConnectedThread extends Thread {  
        private final BluetoothSocket mmSocket;  
        private final InputStream mmInStream;  
        private final OutputStream mmOutStream;  
      
        public ConnectedThread(BluetoothSocket socket) {  
            mmSocket = socket;  
            InputStream tmpIn = null;  
            OutputStream tmpOut = null;  
      
            // Get the input and output streams, using temp objects because  
            // member streams are final  
            try {  
                tmpIn = socket.getInputStream();  
                tmpOut = socket.getOutputStream();  
            } catch (IOException e) { }  
      
            mmInStream = tmpIn;  
            mmOutStream = tmpOut;  
        }  
      
        public void run() {  
            byte[] buffer = new byte[1024];  // buffer store for the stream  
            int bytes; // bytes returned from read()  
      
            // Keep listening to the InputStream until an exception occurs  
            while (true) {  
                try {  
                    // Read from the InputStream  
                    bytes = mmInStream.read(buffer);  
                    // Send the obtained bytes to the UI Activity  
                    mHandler.obtainMessage(MESSAGE_READ, bytes, -1, buffer)  
                            .sendToTarget();  
                } catch (IOException e) {  
                    break;  
                }  
            }  
        }  
      
        /* Call this from the main Activity to send data to the remote device */  
        public void write(byte[] bytes) {  
            try {  
                mmOutStream.write(bytes);  
            } catch (IOException e) { }  
        }  
      
        /* Call this from the main Activity to shutdown the connection */  
        public void cancel() {  
            try {  
                mmSocket.close();  
            } catch (IOException e) { }  
        }  
    }

参考资料: Android官方SDK、《Android/OPhone完全开发讲义》
               我博客的文章--- 关于蓝牙通信资料的整理
http://blog.csdn.net/geekdonie/article/details/7487761


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